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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158429/b-cell-presentation-of-chlamydia-antigen-selects-out-protective-cd4%C3%AE-13-t-cells-implications-for-genital-tract-tissue-resident-memory-lymphocyte-clusters
#1
Raymond M Johnson, Hong Yu, Norma Olivares Strank, Karuna Karunakaran, Ying Zhu, Robert C Brunham
Surveillance and defense of the enormous mucosal interface with the nonsterile world is critical to protecting the host from a wide range of pathogens. Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that replicates almost exclusively in the epithelium of the reproductive tract. The fallopian tubes and vagina are poorly suited to surveillance and defense with limited immune infrastructure positioned near the epithelium. However, a dynamic process during clearing primary infections leaves behind new lymphoid clusters immediately beneath the epithelium...
November 20, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156098/technical-note-penumbral-width-trimming-in-solid-lung-dose-profiles-for-0-9-t-and-1-5-t-mri-linac-prototypes
#2
Sarah J Alnaghy, Jarrad Begg, Trent Causer, Thahabah Alharthi, Laura Glaubes, Bin Dong, Armia George, Lois Holloway, Peter Metcalfe
PURPOSE: Longitudinal magnetic fields narrow beam penumbra and tighten lateral spread of secondary electrons in air cavities, including lung tissue. Gafchromic(®) EBT3 film was used to investigate differences between penumbra in solid water and solid lung, without a magnetic field (0 T) and with two field strengths (0.9 T and 1.5 T). METHODS: The first prototype of the Australian MRI-linac consisted of a 1.5 T Siemens Sonata MRI and Varian industrial linatron (nominal 4 MV)...
November 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152648/melatonin-inhibits-colon-cancer-rko-cell-migration-by-downregulating-rho%C3%A2-associated-protein-kinase-expression-via-the-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway
#3
Zhen Liu, Duobing Zou, Xiaoping Yang, Xiaolong Xue, Li Zuo, Qing Zhou, Ruolei Hu, Yuan Wang
Melatonin is predominately produced and secreted by the pineal gland, and inhibits cell growth in various cancer cell lines such as colorectal cancer. However, the precise mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the potential molecular mechanism underlying the efficacy of melatonin on migration in RKO colon cancer cells was investigated. The effects of melatonin and H‑1152, a selective inhibitor of Rho‑associated protein kinase (ROCK), on the migration of RKO cells were analyzed by an in vitro wound healing assay...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137808/geometric-and-dosimetric-accuracy-of-dynamic-tumor-tracking-during-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-using-a-gimbal-mounted-linac
#4
Tomohiro Ono, Yuki Miyabe, Kunio Takahashi, Mami Akimoto, Nobutaka Mukumoto, Yoshitomo Ishihara, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Takashi Mizowaki, Masahiro Hiraoka
PURPOSE: The aim was to examine the feasibility of a dynamic tumor-tracking volumetric modulated arc therapy (DTT-VMAT) technique using a gimbal-mounted linac and assess its positional, mechanical and dosimetric accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DTT-VMAT was performed using a surrogated signal-based technique. The positional tracking accuracy was evaluated as the difference between the predicted and detected target positions for various wave patterns. Mechanical accuracy measurements included gantry, multileaf collimator (MLC) and gimbal positions...
November 11, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131409/field-size-correction-factors-of-a-radiophotoluminescent-glass-dosimeter-for-small-field-and-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-beams
#5
Shimpei Hashimoto, Yukio Fujita, Tetsurou Katayose, Hideyuki Mizuno, Hidetoshi Saitoh, Katsuyuki Karasawa
PURPOSE: We evaluated the energy responses of a radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RPLD) to variations in small-field and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) conditions using experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulation. METHODS: Several sizes of the jaw and multileaf collimator fields and various plan-class IMRT-beam measurements were performed using the RPLD and an ionization chamber. The field-size correction factor for the RPLD was determined for 6- and 10-MV X-rays...
November 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127810/antimicrobial-activities-of-gaseous-essential-oils-against-listeria-monocytogenes-on-a-laboratory-medium-and-radish-sprouts
#6
Gyeongmin Lee, Yoonbin Kim, Hoikyung Kim, Larry R Beuchat, Jee-Hoon Ryu
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of gaseous essential oils (EO gases) against Listeria monocytogenes on the surfaces of a laboratory medium and radish sprouts. We determined the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) values of EO gases from eight EOs extracted from basil leaves, carrot seed, cinnamon bark, cinnamon leaves, clove flower buds, oregano leaves, thyme flowers (linalool), and thyme leaves (thymol) against L. monocytogenes on a nutrient agar supplemented with 1% glucose and 0...
November 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125234/evaluation-of-clinically-applied-treatment-beams-with-respect-to-bunker-shielding-parameters-for-a-cyberknife-m6
#7
Dominik Henzen, Daniel Schmidhalter, Claudia Christina Zanella, Werner Volken, Paul-Henry Mackeprang, Marco Malthaner, Michael Karl Fix, Peter Manser
Compared to a conventional linear accelerator, the Cyberknife (CK) is a unique system with respect to radiation protection shielding and the variety and number of non-coplanar beams are two key components regarding this aspect. In this work, a framework to assess the direction distribution and modulation factor (MF) of clinically applied treatment beams of a CyberKnife M6 is developed. Database filtering options allow studying the influence of different parameters such as collimator types, treatment sites or different bunker sizes...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115372/inhibition-of-rho-kinase-protects-against-colitis-in-mice-by-attenuating-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-via-mlc-and-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#8
Yanting Zou, Lili Ma, Yuan Zhao, Shuncai Zhang, Chaohui Zhou, Yu Cai
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Rho kinase (also known as ROCK) inhibitor in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid induced mouse colitis; and to elucidate the underlying mechanism of ROCK1/ROCK2 inhibition in enhancing intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) function. A specific inhibitor of ROCK, Y-27632, was used to examine the role of ROCK in mouse colitis models. ROCK1 and ROCK2 were silenced respectively using RNA interference in Caco-2 cells. The expression of tight junction proteins and the downstream molecules of ROCK were assessed...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110925/a-novel-imrt-planning-study-by-using-the-fixed-jaw-method-in-the-treatment-of-peripheral-lung-cancer-with-mediastinal-lymph-node-metastasis
#9
Hao Wang, Hua Chen, Hengle Gu, Yan Shao, Xuwei Cai, Xiaolong Fu, Zhiyong Xu
Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is an important technology in cancer radiotherapy. In the current planning system, such as in the Pinnacle(3) system, jaw positions are automatically set to cover all target volumes, and many medical centers in developing countries are not equipped with linear accelerators with a jaw tracing function. As solitary lesions are often located in patients, the resulting radiation leakage and transmission increase the dose exposure in surrounding critical organs, although blocked by multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves...
October 27, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109775/the-bidirectional-regulation-between-myl5-and-hif-1%C3%AE-promotes-cervical-carcinoma-metastasis
#10
Lan Zhang, Shu-Ting Huang, Yan-Ling Feng, Ting Wan, Hai-Feng Gu, Jing Xu, Lin-Jing Yuan, Yun Zhou, Xing-Juan Yu, Long Huang, Rong-Zhen Luo, Wei-Hua Jia, Min Zheng
Myosin light chains (MLC) serve important regulatory functions in a wide range of cellular and physiological processes. Recent research found that MLC are also chromatin-associated nuclear proteins which regulate gene transcription. In this study, the MLC member myosin regulatory light chain 5 (MYL5) expression was upregulated in late stage cervical cancer patients, positively correlated with pelvic lymph node metastasis, and identified as a poor survival indicator. MYL5 overexpression promoted metastasis in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo models, whereas MYL5 silencing had the converse effect...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106739/evaluation-of-tomotherapy-dose-calculations-with-intra-fractional-motion-and-motion-compensation
#11
Edward H Chao, Daniel Lucas, Eric Schnarr
PURPOSE: Anatomical motion, both cyclical and aperiodic, can impact the dose delivered during external beam radiation. In this work, we evaluate the use of a research version of the clinical TomoTherapy(®) dose calculator to calculate dose with intra-fraction rigid motion. We also evaluate the feasibility of a method of motion compensation for helical tomotherapy using the jaws and MLC. METHODS: Treatment plans were created using the TomoTherapy treatment planning system...
November 6, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106378/two-argument-total-scatter-factor-for-small-fields-simultaneously-collimated-by-mlc-and-jaws-application-to-stereotactic-radiosurgery-and-radiotherapy
#12
Zhaohui Han, Scott Friesen, Fred L Hacker, Piotr Zygmanski
Direct use of the total scatter factor (S<sub>tot</sub>) for independent monitor unit (MU) calculations can be a good alternative approach to the traditional separate treatment of head/collimator scatter (S<sub>c</sub>) and phantom scatter (S<sub>p</sub>), especially for stereotactic small fields under the simultaneous collimation of secondary jaws and tertiary multileaf collimators (MLC). We have carried out the measurement of S<sub>tot</sub> in water for field sizes down to 0...
November 6, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103057/a-dosimetric-comparison-of-double-arc-volumetric-arc-therapy-step-shoot-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-and-3d-crt-for-left-sided-breast-cancer-radiotherapy-after-breast-conserving-surgery
#13
Jun-Cong Mo, Jin Huang, Wen-Dong Gu, Min Gao, Zhong-Hua Ning, Jin-Ming Mu, Qi-Lin Li, Hong-Lei Pei
OBJECTIVE: To compare the dosimetric and efficiency differences for left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery among three different planning techniques: double-arc volumetric-modulate arc therapy (VMAT), step-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (sIMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 17 female patients with left-sided breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery were selected; the prescription doses were 50 Gy in 25 fractions...
October 23, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100698/a-virtual-dosimetry-audit-towards-transferability-of-gamma-index-analysis-between-clinical-trial-qa-groups
#14
Mohammad Hussein, Enrico Clementel, David J Eaton, Peter B Greer, Annette Haworth, Satoshi Ishikura, Stephen F Kry, Joerg Lehmann, Jessica Lye, Angelo F Monti, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Coen Hurkmans, Catharine H Clark
PURPOSE: Quality assurance (QA) for clinical trials is important. Lack of compliance can affect trial outcome. Clinical trial QA groups have different methods of dose distribution verification and analysis, all with the ultimate aim of ensuring trial compliance. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of different processes to inform future dosimetry audit reciprocity. MATERIALS: Six clinical trial QA groups participated. Intensity modulated treatment plans were generated for three different cases...
October 31, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098436/low-impact-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-is-associated-with-decreased-postoperative-morbidity-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#15
Nicola de'Angelis, Solafah Abdalla, Maria Clotilde Carra, Vincenzo Lizzi, Aleix Martínez-Pérez, Anoosha Habibi, Pablo Bartolucci, Frédéric Galactéros, Alexis Laurent, Francesco Brunetti
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is one of the most frequent surgeries performed in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). LC in SCD patients is associated with a particularly high postoperative morbidity. The aim of the present study is to assess the safety and feasibility of cholecystectomy performed by mini-laparoscopy with low- and stable-pressure pneumoperitoneum (MLC + LSPP) and to compare the rate of postoperative SCD-related morbidity with standard LC. METHODS: Thirty-five consecutive SCD patients admitted between November 2015 and March 2017 for cholelithiasis requiring surgery were compared with an historical cohort of 126 SCD patients who underwent LC for the same indication...
November 2, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096761/profilin-1-plays-feedback-role-in-actin-mediated-polar-body-extrusion-in-mouse-oocytes
#16
Jun Liu, Qiao-Chu Wang, Xing Duan, Xiang-Shun Cui, Nam-Hyung Kim, Yu Zhang, Shao-Chen Sun
Mammalian oocytes undergo several crucial processes during meiosis maturation, including spindle formation and migration and polar body extrusion, which rely on the regulation of actin. As a small actin-binding protein, profilin 1 plays a central role in the regulation of actin assembly. However, the functions of profilin 1 in mammalian oocytes are uncertain. To investigate the function of profilin 1 in oocytes, immunofluorescent staining was first used to examine profilin 1 localisation. The results showed that profilin 1 was localised around the meiotic spindles and was colocalised with cytoplasmic actin...
November 3, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094419/dynamic-collimator-trajectory-algorithm-for-multiple-metastases-dynamic-conformal-arc-treatment-planning
#17
R Lee MacDonald, Christopher G Thomas, Alasdair Syme
PURPOSE: To develop an algorithm for dynamic collimator positioning to optimize beam's-eye-view (BEV) fitting of targets in dynamic conformal arc (DCA) based radiotherapy procedures, of particular use in multiple metastases stereotactic radiosurgery procedures. METHODS: A trajectory algorithm was developed to dynamically modify the angle of the collimator as a function of arc-based control point to provide optimized collimation of target volume(s). Central to this algorithm is a concept denoted herein as "whitespace" defined as any non-target area in the BEV that is not covered by any collimation system and is open to exposure from the radiation beam...
November 1, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079544/megalencephalic-leukoencephalopathy-with-subcortical-cysts-a-personal-biochemical-retrospective
#18
REVIEW
Raúl Estévez, Xabier Elorza-Vidal, Héctor Gaitán-Peñas, Carla Pérez-Rius, Mercedes Armand-Ugón, Marta Alonso-Gardón, Efren Xicoy-Espaulella, Sònia Sirisi, Tanit Arnedo, Xavier Capdevila-Nortes, Tania López-Hernández, Marisol Montolio, Anna Duarri, Oscar Teijido, Alejandro Barrallo-Gimeno, Manuel Palacín, Virginia Nunes
Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare type of leukodystrophy characterized by dysfunction of the role of glial cells in controlling brain fluid and ion homeostasis. Patients affected by MLC present macrocephaly, cysts and white matter vacuolation, which lead to motor and cognitive impairments. To date, there is no treatment for MLC, only supportive care. MLC is caused by mutations in the MLC1 and GLIALCAM genes. MLC1 is a membrane protein with low identity to the Kv1.1 potassium channel and GlialCAM belongs to an adhesion molecule family...
October 25, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079336/photon-optimizer-po-vs-progressive-resolution-optimizer-pro-a-conformality-and-complexity-based-comparison-for-intensity-modulated-arc-therapy-plans
#19
Diana Binny, Tanya Kairn, Craig M Lancaster, Jamie V Trapp, Scott B Crowe
This study aimed to provide guidance on the advantages and limitations of a new optimizer, "photon optimizer" (PO), when compared with its predecessor, "progressive resolution optimizer" (PRO), for intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) plans. Eleven study plans that included a cohort of prostate, head and neck, and brain treatment sites were optimized using both PRO and PO algorithms. A plan template using the same objectives for the same number of iterations was used for each optimized plan to obtain hypothetical treatment plans that would be comparable with a clinical plan...
October 24, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070960/validation-of-dosimetric-leaf-gap-dlg-prior-to-its-implementation-in-treatment-planning-system-tps-truebeam%C3%A2-millennium-120-leaf-mlc
#20
Ravindra Shende, Ganesh Patel
AIM: Objective of present study is to determine optimum value of DLG and its validation prior to being incorporated in TPS for Varian TrueBeam™ millennium 120 leaves MLC. BACKGROUND: Partial transmission through the rounded leaf ends of the Multi Leaf Collimator (MLC) causes a conflict between the edges of the light field and radiation field. Parameter account for this partial transmission is called Dosimetric Leaf Gap (DLG). The complex high precession technique, such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), entails the modeling of optimum value of DLG inside Eclipse Treatment Planning System (TPS) for precise dose calculation...
November 2017: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
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