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Yuntao Ji, Meixia Cao, Jia Liu, Yanfei Chen, Xiaoli Li, Jing Zhao, Changqing Qu
Aim: Adipogenesis is characterized by a strong interdependence between cell shape, cytoskeletal organization, and the onset of adipogenic gene expression. Here we investigated the role of the RhoA/ROCK pathway in adipogenesis. Result: High RhoA activity in the cell line C3H10T1/2 were generated (Named RhoA14V cells). Treatment of RhoA14V cells with Shield 1 following their differentiation into adipocytes resulted in the appearance of thick cortical actin filaments, and increased mRNA expression levels of RhoA, ROCK, p-MYPT1 and p-MLC, while PPARγ mRNA decreased...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Sheng-Yong Luo, Qing-Hua Xu, Gong Peng, Zhi-Wu Chen
Objectives: Total flavones from Rhododendron simsii Planch. (TFR) are the effective part extracted from the flowers of Rhododendron simsii Planch. and have obvious protective effects against cerebral ischemic or myocardial injuries in rabbits and rats. However, their mechanism of cardioprotection is still unrevealed. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of TFR on myocardial I/R injury and the underlying mechanism. Methods: TFR groups were treated by gavage once a day for 3 days at a dose of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, respectively, and then the model of myocardial I/R injury was established...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Julien Daubriac, Shiwei Han, Jelena Grahovac, Eve Smith, Abdel Hosein, Marguerite Buchanan, Mark Basik, Yves Boucher
Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) can remodel the extracellular matrix to promote cancer cell invasion, but the paracrine signaling between CAFs and cancer cells that regulates tumor cell migration remains to be identified. To determine how the interaction between CAFs and cancer cells modulates the invasiveness of cancer cells, we developed a 3-dimensional co-culture model composed of breast cancer (BC) MDA-MB-231 cell spheroids embedded in a collagen gel with and without CAFs. We found that the crosstalk between CAFs and cancer cells promotes invasion by stimulating the scattering of MDA-MB-231 cells, which was dependent on RhoA/ROCK/phospho MLC signaling in cancer cells but independent of RhoA in CAFs...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Paul J Keall, Emma Colvill, Ricky O'Brien, Vincent Caillet, Thomas Eade, Andrew Kneebone, George Hruby, Per R Poulsen, Benjamin Zwan, Peter B Greer, Jeremy Booth
PURPOSE: To report on the primary and secondary outcomes of a prospective clinical trial of electromagnetic-guided multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking radiation therapy for prostate cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-eight men with prostate cancer were treated with electromagnetic-guided MLC tracking with volumetric modulated arc therapy. A total of 858 fractions were delivered, with the dose per fraction ranging from 2 to 13.75 Gy. The primary outcome was feasibility, with success determined if >95% of fractions were successfully delivered...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Yuji Nakaguchi, Takeshi Oono, Masato Maruyama, Yoshinobu Shimohigashi, Yudai Kai, Yuya Nakamura
In this study, we evaluated the basic performance of the three-dimensional dose verification system COMPASS (IBA Dosimetry). This system is capable of reconstructing 3D dose distributions on the patient anatomy based on the fluence measured using a new transmission detector (Dolphin, IBA Dosimetry) during treatment. The stability of the absolute dose and geometric calibrations of the COMPASS system with the Dolphin detector were investigated for fundamental validation. Furthermore, multileaf collimator (MLC) test patterns and a complicated volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan were used to evaluate the accuracy of the reconstructed dose distributions determined by the COMPASS...
March 12, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
A Arezzo, R Passera, E Forcignanò, L Rapetti, R Cirocchi, M Morino
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC) has gained popularity, although it is not evident if benefits of this procedure overcome the potential increased risk. Aim of the study is to compare the outcome of SLC with conventional multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC) in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials only. METHODS: A systematic Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials literature search of articles on SLC and MLC for any indication was performed in June 2017...
March 9, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Jia Zhang, Jiming Yin, Yangjia Wang, Bin Li, Xiangjun Zeng
The cause of the invalid reaction of smooth muscle cells to mechanical stimulation that results in a dysfunctional myogenic response that mediates the disruption of renal blood flow (RBF) in diabetic patients is debatable. The present study revealed that increased apelin concentration in serum of diabetic mice neutralized the myogenic response mediated by apelin receptor (APJ) and resulted in increased RBF, which promoted the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The results showed that apelin concentration, RBF, and albuminuria:creatinine ratio were all increased in kkAy mice, and increased RBF correlated positively to serum apelin both in C57 and diabetic mice...
March 9, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Simon J Woodings, J J Bluemink, J H Wilfred de Vries, Yury Niatsetski, Bob van Veelen, Joost Schillings, Jan G M Kok, Jochem W H Wolthaus, Sara L Hackett, Bram van Asselen, Helena Maria van Zijp, Stefan Pencea, David A Roberts, Jan J W Lagendijk, Bas W Raaymakers
As a prerequisite for clinical treatments it was necessary to characterize the Elekta 1.5 T MRI-linac 7 MV FFF radiation beam. Following acceptance testing, beam characterization data were acquired with Semiflex 3D (PTW 31021), microDiamond (PTW 60019), and Farmer-type (PTW 30013 and IBA FC65-G) detectors in an Elekta 3D scanning water phantom and a PTW 1D water phantom. EBT3 Gafchromic film and ion chamber measurements in a buildup cap were also used. Special consideration was given to scan offsets, detector effective points of measurement and avoiding air gaps...
March 9, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Jong Min Park, So-Yeon Park, Hong-Gyun Wu, Jung-In Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the changes in quality of the volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans with couch-shift between arcs by half of a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf width. METHODS: A total of 22 patients with head-and-neck cancer were retrospectively selected. Since the smallest MLC leaf width was 5 mm in this study, the couch was shifted by 2.5 mm in the longitudinal-direction between arcs to increase the resolution of fluence map. A total of three types of VMAT plans were generated for each patient; the three types of plans were a two-full-arc plan without couch-shift (NS plan), a two-half-arc-pair plan with couch-shift (HAS plan), and a two-full-arc pair plan with couch-shift (FAS plan)...
February 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Jie Li, Guohai Qi, Yuan Qin, Pei Wang
Objective: The objective of this study is to preliminarily evaluate the feasibility of brass compensator-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (CB-IMRT). Materials and Methods: Ten patients (three cases of nasopharyngeal cancer, four of esophageal cancer, and three of rectal cancer) who underwent an IMRT treatment planning were selected for this study. The transmission coefficient of brass plates with different thicknesses was measured under a 6 MV photon beam used in the treatment planning system, and the equation for thickness computation was fitted out...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Audrey H Zhuang, Arthur J Olch
The dosimetric consequences of errors in patient setup or beam delivery and anatomical changes are not readily known. A new product, PerFRACTION (Sun Nuclear Corporation), is designed to identify these errors by comparing the exit dose image measured on an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) from each field of each fraction to those from baseline fraction images. This work investigates the sensitivity of PerFRACTION to detect the deviation caused by these errors in a variety of realistic scenarios. Integrated EPID images were acquired in clinical mode and saved in ARIA...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Masahide Saito, Naoki Sano, Yuki Shibata, Kengo Kuriyama, Takafumi Komiyama, Kan Marino, Shinichi Aoki, Kazunari Ashizawa, Kazuya Yoshizawa, Hiroshi Onishi
The purpose of this study was to compare the MLC error sensitivity of various measurement devices for VMAT pre-treatment quality assurance (QA). This study used four QA devices (Scandidos Delta4, PTW 2D-array, iRT systems IQM, and PTW Farmer chamber). Nine retrospective VMAT plans were used and nine MLC error plans were generated for all nine original VMAT plans. The IQM and Farmer chamber were evaluated using the cumulative signal difference between the baseline and error-induced measurements. In addition, to investigate the sensitivity of the Delta4 device and the 2D-array, global gamma analysis (1%/1, 2%/2, and 3%/3 mm), dose difference (1%, 2%, and 3%) were used between the baseline and error-induced measurements...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Susann Schröder, Barbara Wenzel, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Rodrigo Teodoro, Mathias Kranz, Matthias Scheunemann, Ute Egerland, Norbert Höfgen, Detlef Briel, Jörg Steinbach, Peter Brust
Specific radioligands for in vivo visualization and quantification of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 2A (PDE2A) by positron emission tomography (PET) are increasingly gaining interest in brain research. Herein we describe the synthesis, the18 F-labelling as well as the biological evaluation of our latest PDE2A (radio-)ligand 9-(5-Butoxy-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(2-([18 F])fluoroethoxy)-7-methylimidazo[5,1- c ]pyrido[2,3- e ][1,2,4]triazine (([18 F]) TA5 ). It is the most potent PDE2A ligand out of our series of imidazopyridotriazine-based derivatives so far (IC50 hPDE2A = 3...
March 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Wei Zheng, Qing-E Zhang, Dong-Bin Cai, Xin-Hu Yang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Ren-Rong Wu, Yu-Tao Xiang
INTRODUCTION: Weight gain is a common antipsychotic (AP)-related adverse drug reaction (ADR) that can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and premature mortality. This meta-analysis examined the efficacy and tolerability of combining metformin and lifestyle intervention for AP-related weight gain in schizophrenia. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with meta-analyzable data were searched and retrieved by 2 independent investigators. RevMan software (version 5...
February 27, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Min Yu, Qimeng Wang, Yuanhang Ma, Liangzi Li, Kun Yu, Zhicao Zhang, Guoqing Chen, Xiangsheng Li, Weidong Xiao, Pengyuan Xu, Hua Yang
Activation of Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is involved in the control of intestinal mucosal homeostasis. Intestinal barrier dysfunction contributes to the development of many intestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of AhR activation in the maintenance of intestinal barrier function. Adult C57BL/6 mice were treated with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) for 7 days, with or without 6-Formylindolo(3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ), a ligand of AhR. We found that AhR activation by FICZ attenuated the decreased TJ protein expression in the colonic mucosa of the DSS-induced mice...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Cassandra Stambaugh
PURPOSE: To determine clinically relevant pass/question/fail criteria for gamma analysis of intensity modulated radiation therapy quality assurance (IMRT QA) plans, identify which plans should be further analyzed with dose-volume histogram (DVH) metrics, and create a workflow for performing that DVH-based analysis. METHODS: Eleven plans, five prostate and six head/neck, were selected to represent known good plans based on their high passing rate using conventional IMRT QA criteria...
February 26, 2018: Medical Physics
Noriyuki Kadoya, Yoshio Kon, Yoshiki Takayama, Takuya Matsumoto, Naoki Hayashi, Yoshiyuki Katsuta, Kengo Ito, Takahito Chiba, Suguru Dobashi, Ken Takeda, Keiichi Jingu
We clarified the reconstructed 3D dose difference between two different commercial software programs (Mobius3D v2.0 and PerFRACTION v1.6.4). Five prostate cancer patients treated with IMRT (74 Gy/37 Fr) were studied. Log files and cine EPID images were acquired for each fraction. 3D patient dose was reconstructed using log files (Mobius3D) or log files with EPID imaging (PerFRACTION). The treatment planning dose was re-calculated on homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms, and log files and cine EPID images were acquired...
January 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Mohit Dubey, Eelke Brouwers, Eline M C Hamilton, Oliver Stiedl, Marianna Bugiani, Henner Koch, Maarten H P Kole, Ursula Boschert, Robert C Wykes, Huibert D Mansvelder, Marjo S van der Knaap, Rogier Min
OBJECTIVE: Loss of function of the astrocyte-specific protein MLC1 leads to the childhood onset leukodystrophy "megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts" (MLC). Studies on isolated cells show a role for MLC1 in astrocyte volume regulation and suggest that disturbed brain ion and water homeostasis is central to the disease. Excitability of neuronal networks is particularly sensitive to ion and water homeostasis. In line with this, reports of seizures and epilepsy in MLC patients exist...
February 21, 2018: Annals of Neurology
WuiAnn Woon, Paul B Ravindran, Piyasiri Ekayanake, Vikraman S, Yivonne Yf Lim, Jamsari Khalid
The main objectives of this study are to (1) analyze the sensitivity of various gamma index passing rates using different types of detectors having different resolutions and (2) investigate the sensitivity of various gamma criteria in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetrically modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) for the detection of systematic multileaf collimator (MLC) errors using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and planar (MapCheck2) and cylindrical (ArcCheck) diode arrays...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Carolina Araujo Moreno, Nara Sobreira, Elizabeth Pugh, Peng Zhang, Gary Steel, Fábio Rossi Torres, Denise Pontes Cavalcanti
Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a severe disease characterized by functional obstruction in the urinary and gastrointestinal tract. The molecular basis of this condition started to be defined recently, and the genes related to the syndrome (ACTG2-heterozygous variant in sporadic cases; and MYH11 (myosin heavy chain 11), LMOD1 (leiomodin 1) and MYLK (myosin light chain (MLC) kinase)-autosomal recessive inheritance), encode proteins involved in the smooth muscle contraction, supporting a myopathic basis for the disease...
February 16, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
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