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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213028/influence-of-application-sequence-and-timing-of-eugenol-and-lauric-arginate-lae-on-survival-of-spoilage-organisms
#1
Yudith Manrique, Monika Gibis, Herbert Schmidt, Jochen Weiss
The effectiveness of sequential applications of the antimicrobials eugenol and lauric arginate (LAE) was investigated against Staphylococcus carnosus, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli K12, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The antimicrobials were applied simultaneously at half of their minimum lethal concentrations (MLC) or sequentially at t = 0 h and t = 3, 4, 6 or 8 h. Bacterial survival was determined by direct plate counts. Survivals kinetic were fitted to a growth and mortality model to obtain characteristic parameters that described time-dependent changes from growth to mortality or vice versa...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212799/rho-mancing-to-sensitize-calcium-signaling-for-contraction-in-the-vasculature-role-of-rho-kinase
#2
T Szasz, R C Webb
Vascular smooth muscle contraction is an important physiological process contributing to cardiovascular homeostasis. The principal determinant of smooth muscle contraction is the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration, and phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) by activated myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in response to increased Ca(2+) is the main pathway by which vasoconstrictor stimuli induce crossbridge cycling of myosin and actin filaments. A secondary pathway for vascular smooth muscle contraction that is not directly dependent on Ca(2+) concentration, but rather mediating Ca(2+) sensitization, is the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212798/protein-kinase-c-as-regulator-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-function-and-potential-target-in-vascular-disorders
#3
H C Ringvold, R A Khalil
Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) plays an important role in maintaining vascular tone. In addition to Ca(2+)-dependent myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, protein kinase C (PKC) is a major regulator of VSM function. PKC is a family of conventional Ca(2+)-dependent α, β, and γ, novel Ca(2+)-independent δ, ɛ, θ, and η, and atypical ξ, and ι/λ isoforms. Inactive PKC is mainly cytosolic, and upon activation it undergoes phosphorylation, maturation, and translocation to the surface membrane, the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and other cell organelles; a process facilitated by scaffold proteins such as RACKs...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191820/vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-glycocalyx-mediates-shear-stress-induced-contractile-responses-via-a-rho-kinase-rock-myosin-light-chain-phosphatase-mlcp-pathway
#4
Hongyan Kang, Jiajia Liu, Anqiang Sun, Xiao Liu, Yubo Fan, Xiaoyan Deng
The vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are exposed to interstitial flow induced shear stress that may be sensed by the surface glycocalyx, a surface layer composed primarily of proteoglycans and glycoproteins, to mediate cell contraction during the myogenic response. We, therefore, attempted to elucidate the signal pathway of the glycocalyx mechanotransduction in shear stress regulated SMC contraction. Human umbilical vein SMCs (HUVSMCs) deprived of serum for 3-4 days were exposed to a step increase (0 to 20 dyn/cm(2)) in shear stress in a parallel plate flow chamber, and reduction in the cell area was quantified as contraction...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174772/collagen-peptides-ameliorate-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-immunostimulatory-caco-2-cell-monolayers-via-enhancing-tight-junctions
#5
Qianru Chen, Oliver Chen, Isabela M Martins, Hu Hou, Xue Zhao, Jeffrey B Blumberg, Bafang Li
Dysfunction of the intestinal barrier plays a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and multiple organ failure. The effect of Alaska pollock skin-derived collagen and its 3 tryptic hydrolytic fractions, HCP (6 kDa retentate), MCP (3 kDa retentate) and LCP (3 kDa permeate) on TNF-α induced barrier dysfunction was investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers. TNF-α induced barrier dysfunction was significantly attenuated by the collagen and its peptide fractions, especially LCP, compared to TNF-α treated controls (P < 0...
February 8, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169288/omega-3-and-omega-6-dpa-equally-inhibit-the-sphingosylphosphorylcholine-induced-ca-2-sensitization-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-contraction-via-inhibiting-rho-kinase-activation-and-translocation
#6
Ying Zhang, Min Zhang, Bochao Lyu, Hiroko Kishi, Sei Kobayashi
We previously reported that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA), effectively inhibits sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC)-induced Ca(2+)-sensitization of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contraction which is a major cause of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular vasospasm, and EPA is utilized clinically to prevent cerebrovascular vasospasm. In this study, we clearly demonstrate that docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), which exists in two forms as omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) PUFA, strongly inhibits SPC-induced contraction in VSM tissue and human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs), with little effect on Ca(2+)-dependent contraction...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152674/understanding-disease-progression-and-treatment-patterns-in-metastatic-breast-colorectal-and-lung-cancer-implications-for-evaluating-value-and-quality-of-care
#7
Stacey DaCosta Byfield, Timothy Bancroft, Amy J Anderson, Carolina M Reyes, Arliene Ravelo, Sarika Ogale, Matthew J Matasar, May C Chen
: 24 Background: Impact of strategies for evaluating value and quality of cancer care may vary for patients with metastatic tumors, particularly for strategies considering lines of treatment therapy as distinct events. To aid in evaluating the value and quality of care in patients' overall trajectory of disease, this study examined disease progression, mortality, hospice, and treatment patterns in patients (pts) with metastatic breast (mBC), lung (mLC), and colorectal cancers (mCRC). METHODS: Included were commercially insured and Medicare Advantage adults from a large US health plan administrative claims database (2007-2014); pts had ≥ 2 claims for BC, CRC, or LC, and ≥ 2 claims for metastases...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133742/technical-note-a-method-to-evaluate-dosimetric-effects-on-organs-at-risk-for-treatment-delivery-systematic-uncertainties
#8
Shi Liu, Thomas R Mazur, Yabo Fu, H Harold Li, Sasa Mutic, Deshan Yang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to provide a practical method to quantify the dosimetric effects on organs-at-risk (OARs) due to systematic uncertainties in linear accelerator treatment delivery in order to aid external beam treatment planning and raise warnings about additional risks to critical OARs. METHODS: A dose approximation method, based on geometrical transformations, was developed to automatically estimate perturbations to dose volumes arising from five important potential uncertainties at the time of treatment delivery, including 1) systematic isocenter misalignment between image guidance and beam delivery systems, and systematic errors in 2) collimator, 3) gantry, 4) couch table, and 5) multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf bank positions...
January 30, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131737/in%C3%A2-vitro-activity-of-nitazoxanide-against-some-metronidazole-resistant-and-susceptible-trichomonas-vaginalis-isolates
#9
Aida A Abdel-Magied, Marwa M Hammouda, Alaa Mosbah, Abeer A El-Henawy
Trichomonas vaginalis cases refractory to metronidazole (MTZ) treatment had been reported. This study aimed to the assessment of in vitro metronidazole resistance among Trichomonas positive cases with treatment failure by determination of metronidazole minimal lethal concentration (MLC), and to the evaluation of the in vitro efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ) as compared to metronidazole (MTZ) in both resistant and susceptible isolates. Drug testing was carried out by an aerobic tube assay where suspension of Trichomonas trophozoites was exposed for 24 and 48 h to serial dilution of metronidazole and nitazoxanide...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126474/can-cost-make-a-difference-dosimetrically-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-study-for-multileaf-collimators-of-various-widths-for-head-and-neck-and-prostate-cancers
#10
Jong-Han Ho, Shane Hagler, Carrie Lujano, Sopaul Seng, Christine Starks, Kelly Perrin, Lehendrick Turner, Laurence Court
Cancer is a global health issue that disproportionately kills based on stage of disease, cellular pathology, and genetics, to name a few. Another variable to consider in this ongoing fight is treatment machine complexity that leads to elevated development and purchasing cost, leading to a reduced use. Reducing the complexity (in hopes of lowering costs) would benefit underdeveloped, low- and middle-income countries by introducing newer treatment technology, as their currently accepted standards do not meet standards of more advanced, developed countries...
January 23, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124960/-investigation-of-in-vitro-metronidazole-resistance-in-the-clinical-isolates-of-trichomonas-vaginalis
#11
Hatice Ertabaklar, Senem Yaman Karadam, Erdoğan Malatyalı, Sema Ertuğ
Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated, urogenital anaerobic protozoon is reported as an important cause of vaginitis with a global distribution. Although metronidazole is the primary choice of drug for the treatment of trichomoniasis, the presence of resistant isolates from many different countries highlights the need of novel drugs for the treatment. Many studies from Turkey mostly dealing with the in vitro effects of compounds and natural products against T.vaginalis have been reported, however, only one study has been encountered searching the metronidazole resistance in a single T...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124771/development-and-verification-of-a-time-delivery-model-for-prostate-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-using-a-siemens-%C3%A2-artiste%C3%A2-160-multi-leaf-collimator-linac
#12
Nicola Fourie, Omer A Ali, William I D Rae
Time delivery models thus far proposed for prediction of radiotherapy delivery times are not applicable to all makes of Linac. Our purpose was to develop a time delivery model, which would also be applicable for a Siemens(®) ARTISTE™ 160 Multi-leaf Collimator (MLC) linear accelerator (Linac) and validate the model using prostate Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. To our knowledge, a time delivery model has not yet been proposed for a Siemens(®) ARTISTE™ 160 MLC Linac. We used the principles of the time delivery model created for a Varian(®) Linac and added the radio frequency (RF) wave component, and the MLC delay time to the MLC travel time component...
January 26, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123351/involvement-of-rictor-mtorc2-in-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-in-vitro
#13
Bei Zheng, Jiadan Wang, Leilei Tang, Chao Tan, Zhe Zhao, Yi Xiao, Renshan Ge, Danyan Zhu
Rictor is a key regulatory/structural subunit of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) and is required for phosphorylation of Akt at serine 473. It plays an important role in cell survival, actin cytoskeleton organization and other processes in embryogenesis. However, the role of Rictor/mTORC2 in the embryonic cardiac differentiation has been uncovered. In the present study, we examined a possible link between Rictor expression and cardiomyocyte differentiation of the mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117078/treating-patients-with-dynamic-wave-arc-first-clinical-experience
#14
Manuela Burghelea, Dirk Verellen, Jennifer Dhont, Cecilia Hung, Thierry Gevaert, Robbe Van den Begin, Christine Collen, Kenneth Poels, Koen Tournel, Marlies Boussaer, Cyril Jaudet, Truus Reynders, Viorica Simon, Mark de Ridder
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dynamic Wave Arc (DWA) is a system-specific noncoplanar arc technique that combines synchronized gantry-ring rotation with D-MLC optimization. This paper presents the clinical workflow, quality assurance program, and reports the geometric and dosimetric results of the first patient cohort treated with DWA. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The RayStation TPS was clinically integrated on the Vero SBRT platform for DWA treatments. The first 15 patients treated with DWA represent a broad range of treatment sites: breast boost, prostate, lung SBRT and bone metastases, which allowed us to explore the potentials and assess the limitations of the current DWA site-specific template solution...
January 20, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110824/clinical-significance-of-treatment-delivery-errors-for-helical-tomotherapy-nasopharyngeal-plans-a-dosimetric-simulation-study
#15
Shrikant Deshpande, Mark Geurts, Philip Vial, Peter Metcalfe, Mark Lee, Lois Holloway
PURPOSE: Develop a framework to characterize helical TomoTherapy (HT) machine delivery errors and their clinical significance. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Ten nasopharynx HT plans were edited to introduce errors in Jaw width (JW), couch speed (CS), gantry period (GP), gantry start position (GSP), multi leaf collimator leaf open times (MLC LOT). In case of MLC LOT only, both systematic and random delivery errors were investigated. Each error type was simulated independently for a range of magnitudes...
January 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102944/a-simple-and-robust-trajectory-based-stereotactic-radiosurgery-treatment
#16
Byron Wilson, Karl Otto, Ermias Gete
INTRODUCTION: We present a Trajectory-based Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (TVMAT) technique for Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) that takes advantage of a modern linacs ability to modulate dose rate and move the couch dynamically. In addition, we investigate the quality of the developed TVMAT method and the dosimetric accuracy of the technique. METHODS: The main feature of the TVMAT technique is a standard beam trajectory formed by dynamic motion of the treatment couch and the linac gantry...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079525/a-model-based-3d-patient-specific-pre-treatment-qa-method-for-vmat-using-the-epid
#17
P M McCowan, G Asuni, T van Beek, E van Uytven, K Kujanpaa, B M C McCurdy
This study reports the development and validation of a model-based, 3D patient dose reconstruction method for pre-treatment quality assurance using EPID images. The method is also investigated for sensitivity to potential MLC delivery errors. Each cine-mode EPID image acquired during plan delivery was processed using a previously developed back-projection dose reconstruction model providing a 3D dose estimate on the CT simulation data. Validation was carried out using 24 SBRT-VMAT patient plans by comparing: (1) ion chamber point dose measurements in a solid water phantom, (2) the treatment planning system (TPS) predicted 3D dose to the EPID reconstructed 3D dose in a solid water phantom, and (3) the TPS predicted 3D dose to the EPID and our forward predicted reconstructed 3D dose in the patient (CT data)...
February 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079260/an-experimentally-validated-couch-and-mlc-tracking-simulator-used-to-investigate-hybrid-couch-mlc-tracking
#18
Jakob Toftegaard, Rune Hansen, Thomas Ravkilde, Kristijan Macek, Per Rugaard Poulsen
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Couch and MLC tracking are two novel techniques to mitigate intrafractional tumor motion on a conventional linear accelerator, but both techniques still have residual dosimetric errors. Here, we first propose and experimentally validate a software tool to simulate couch and MLC tracking, and then use the simulator to study hybrid couch-MLC tracking for improved tracking performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The tracking simulator requires a treatment plan and a motion trajectory as input and simulates the delivered monitor units and motion of all accelerator parts as function of time...
January 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066146/high-fat-diet-confers-vascular-hyper-contractility-against-angiotensin-ii-through-upregulation-of-mlck-and-cpi-17
#19
Jee In Kim
Obesity is a critical risk factor for the hypertension. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) in obese individuals is known to be upregulated in obesity-induced hypertension, direct evidence that explains the underlying mechanism for increased vascular tone and consequent increase in blood pressure (BP) is largely unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the novel mechanism underlying Ang II-induced hyper-contractility and hypertension in obese rats. Eight-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with 60% fat diet or normal diet for 4 months...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065699/evaluation-of-mlc-performance-in-vmat-and-dynamic-imrt-by-log-file-analysis
#20
José Olasolo-Alonso, Alejandro Vázquez-Galiñanes, Santiago Pellejero-Pellejero, José Fernando Pérez-Azorín
PURPOSE: This multi-institution study assessed the positioning accuracy of multileaf collimators (MLC) by analyzing log files. It determined the main machine parameters that affect MLC positioning errors for pre-TrueBeam (Clinac) and TrueBeam linacs. METHODS: Around 30,000 dIMRT and VMAT log files belonging to 6 linacs from 4 different centers were analyzed. An in-house software was used to calculate 95th percentile and RMS error values and their correlation with certain parameters such as maximum leaf speed, mean leaf speed and gantry angle...
January 2017: Physica Medica: PM
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