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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923235/association-of-the-cholinergic-muscarinic-m2-receptor-with-autonomic-nervous-system-activity-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-on-high-dose-antipsychotics
#1
Masatoshi Miyauchi, Ikuko Kishida, Akira Suda, Yohko Shiraishi, Saki Hattori, Mami Fujibayashi, Masataka Taguri, Chie Ishii, Norio Ishii, Toshio Moritani, Yoshio Hirayasu
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have abnormal autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity compared with the general population. One reason for this difference is the muscarinic affinity for antipsychotic drugs; therefore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the muscarinic receptor gene influence this ANS dysfunction. This study sought to determine the effect of SNPs of the cholinergic muscarinic receptor (CHRM) gene on ANS activity in patients with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotic drugs...
December 7, 2016: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923160/adolescent-and-adult-mice-display-differential-sensitivity-to-the-effects-of-bupropion-on-the-acquisition-of-a-water-maze-task
#2
Carmen Gómez, Carmen Carrasco, Rosa Redolat
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is characterized by major neurobiological changes, and the effects of some psychoactive drugs seem to differ between adolescents and adults. Bupropion, an antidepressant that is also used to treat nicotine addiction, induces behavioral actions in both adolescent and adult rodents. However, the effects of this drug on spatial ability have not been compared in animals at different stages of their development. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of bupropion on spatial learning and memory in adolescent and adult mice...
October 12, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923159/apoptotic-effect-of-chalcone-derivatives-of-2-acetylthiophene-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#3
Tatiana B Fogaça, Rosiane M Martins, Karine R Begnini, Caroline Carapina, Marina Ritter, Claudio M P de Pereira, Fabiana K Seixas, Tiago Collares
BACKGROUND: A variety of chalcones have demonstrated cytotoxic activity toward several cancer cell lines. This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of four chalcones derivatives of 2-acetylthiophene in human breast cancer cell lines. METHODS: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with synthesized chalcones and the cytotoxicity was evaluated by tetrazolium dye (MTT), live/dead, and DAPI assays. RESULTS: Chalcones significantly decreased MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells viability in vitro in a dose dependent manner...
October 5, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923107/an-alternative-to-topical-dosing-to-deliver-drugs-to-target-tissues
#4
L David Waterbury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923011/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-health-communication-interventions-within-a-combination-intervention-strategy-for-improving-linkage-and-retention-in-hiv-care-in-mozambique
#5
Roberta Sutton, Maria Lahuerta, Fatima Abacassamo, Laurence Ahoua, Maria Tomo, Matthew R Lamb, Batya Elul
BACKGROUND: Challenges to ensuring timely linkage to and retention in HIV care are well documented. Combination intervention strategies can be effective in improving the HIV care continuum. Data on feasibility and acceptability of intervention types within intervention packages are limited. METHODS: The Engage4Health study assessed the effectiveness of a combination intervention strategy to increase linkage and retention among adults newly diagnosed with HIV in Mozambique...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923009/counseling-framework-for-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-on-the-integrated-use-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention
#6
Jennifer F Morton, Connie Celum, John Njoroge, Agnes Nakyanzi, Imeldah Wakhungu, Edna Tindimwebwa, Snaidah Ongachi, Eric Sedah, Emmanuel Okwero, Kenneth Ngure, Josephine Odoyo, Nulu Bulya, Jessica E Haberer, Jared M Baeten, Renee Heffron
BACKGROUND: For HIV-serodiscordant couples, integrated delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive partners and time-limited pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for negative partners virtually eliminates HIV transmission. Standardized messaging, sensitive to the barriers and motivators to HIV treatment and prevention, is needed for widespread scale-up of this approach. METHODS: Within the Partners Demonstration Project, a prospective interventional project among 1013 serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda, we offered ART to eligible HIV-positive partners and PrEP to HIV-negative partners before ART initiation and through the HIV-positive partner's first 6 months of ART use...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922937/repurposing-ospemifene-for-potentiating-an-antigen-specific-immune-response
#7
Chiao-Jung Kao, Gregory T Wurz, Yi-Chen Lin, Daniel P Vang, Brian Phong, Michael W DeGregorio
OBJECTIVE: Ospemifene, an estrogen receptor agonist/antagonist approved for the treatment of dyspareunia and vaginal dryness in postmenopausal women, has potential new indications as an immune modulator. The overall objective of the present series of preclinical studies was to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of ospemifene in combination with a peptide cancer vaccine. METHODS: Immune regulating effects, mechanism of action and structure activity relationships of ospemifene and related compounds were evaluated by examining expression of T-cell activating cytokines in vitro, and antigen-specific immune response and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity in vivo...
December 5, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922936/the-rejoice-trial-a-phase-3-randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-a-novel-vaginal-estradiol-soft-gel-capsule-for-symptomatic-vulvar-and-vaginal-atrophy
#8
Ginger D Constantine, James A Simon, James H Pickar, David F Archer, Harvey Kushner, Brian Bernick, Gina Gasper, Shelli Graham, Sebastian Mirkin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of TX-004HR vaginal estradiol soft-gel capsules for moderate-to-severe dyspareunia associated with postmenopausal vulvar and vaginal atrophy. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study, postmenopausal women with a self-identified most bothersome symptom of dyspareunia received 4, 10, or 25 μg TX-004HR or placebo for 12 weeks. Four co-primary efficacy endpoints were change from baseline to week 12 in percentages of superficial and parabasal cells, vaginal pH, and severity of dyspareunia...
December 5, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922839/safety-of-perioperative-glucocorticoids-in-elective-noncardiac-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Andrew J Toner, Vyhunthan Ganeshanathan, Matthew T Chan, Kwok M Ho, Tomas B Corcoran
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids are increasingly used perioperatively, principally to prevent nausea and vomiting. Safety concerns focus on the potential for hyperglycemia and increased infection. The authors hypothesized that glucocorticoids predispose to such adverse outcomes in a dose-dependent fashion after elective noncardiac surgery. METHODS: The authors conducted a systematic literature search of the major medical databases from their inception to April 2016...
December 6, 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922832/individual-external-dose-monitoring-of-all-citizens-of-date-city-by-passive-dosimeter-5-to-51-months-after-the-fukushima-npp-accident-series-1-comparison-of-individual-dose-with-ambient-dose-rate-monitored-by-aircraft-surveys
#10
Makoto Miyazaki, Ryugo Hayano
Date (da'te) City in Fukushima Prefecture has conducted a population-wide individual dose monitoring program after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, which provides a unique and comprehensive data set of the individual doses of citizens. The purpose of this paper, the first in the series, is to establish a method for estimating effective doses based on the available ambient dose rate survey data. We thus examined the relationship between the individual external doses and the corresponding ambient doses assessed from airborne surveys...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922831/comprehensive-monte-carlo-study-of-patient-doses-from-cone-beam-ct-imaging-in-radiotherapy
#11
T E Marchant, K D Joshi
Accurate knowledge of ionizing radiation dose from cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy is important to allow concomitant risks to be estimated and for justification of imaging exposures. This study uses a Monte Carlo CBCT model to calculate imaging dose for a wide range of imaging protocols for male and female patients. The Elekta XVI CBCT system was modeled using GATE and simulated doses were validated against measurements in a water tank and thorax phantom. Imaging dose was simulated in the male and female ICRP voxel phantoms for a variety of anatomical sites and imager settings (different collimators, filters, full and partial rotation)...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922829/a-methodology-to-split-the-total-cumulative-hp-10-dose-into-the-hp-10-i-doses-received-during-various-procedures-performed-by-interventional-cardiologist
#12
Joanna Domienik
The methodology describing how to split the cumulative Hp(10) dose of interventional cardiologists into Hp(10) i doses received during procedures of various types based on procedure-specific ELDO coefficients and Hp(3) doses per procedure is presented. The appropriate equations for Hp(10) i (Hp(10) for procedure type i), depending on the number of various procedure types (i  =  1 … 4) performed by a particular physician, are derived. The methodology can be applied to whole-body doses measured on the lead apron and therefore can be used for optimisation of work practices in those catheterisation labs where routine dosimeter is worn above the apron...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922828/a-new-method-of-estimation-of-dose-conversion-coefficients-for-aquatic-biota
#13
Yang Li, Jiangguo Li, Huijuan Wang, Aijun Wang
In order to develop the basis of an approach, through which we can comprehend the relationships of radiation exposures and dose, and dose and radiological effects, large numbers of dosimetric data are required. It is complex to estimate the dosimetry involved due to enormous variability of organism shapes, masses, and their natural habitats. This paper aims to develop an empirical equation, which correlates dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) with organism volume V, density ρ, source energy E and curve fitting coefficients...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922734/population-pharmacokinetics-of-ceritinib-in-adult-patients-with-tumors-characterized-by-genetic-abnormalities-in-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase
#14
Ying Hong, Vanessa Q Passos, Pai-Hsi Huang, Yvonne Y Lau
Ceritinib is a second-generation selective and potent oral anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor approved for ALK-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer previously treated with crizotinib. Population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis was performed to describe the PK of ceritinib and was used to evaluate the covariate effects on systemic exposure at its label dose (750 mg orally once daily). Ceritinib concentration-time data from 4 clinical studies were described by a 1-compartment model with delayed first-order absorption and time-dependent elimination...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922719/markov-mixed-effects-modeling-using-electronic-adherence-monitoring-records-identifies-influential-covariates-to-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#15
Kumpal Madrasi, Ayyappa Chaturvedula, Jessica E Haberer, Mark Sale, Michael J Fossler, David Bangsberg, Jared M Baeten, Connie Celum, Craig W Hendrix
Adherence is a major factor in the effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Modeling patterns of adherence helps to identify influential covariates of different types of adherence as well as to enable clinical trial simulation so that appropriate interventions can be developed. We developed a Markov mixed-effects model to understand the covariates influencing adherence patterns to daily oral PrEP. Electronic adherence records (date and time of medication bottle cap opening) from the Partners PrEP ancillary adherence study with a total of 1147 subjects were used...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922674/2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde-induces-apoptosis-through-hsf1-mediated-bag3-expression
#16
Hai-Anh Nguyen, Soo-A Kim
BAG3, a member of BAG co-chaperone family, is induced by stressful stimuli such as heat shock and heavy metals. Through interaction with various binding partners, BAG3 is thought to play a role in cellular adaptive responses against stressful conditions in normal and neoplastic cells. 2'-Hydroxycinnamaldehyde (HCA) is a natural derivative of cinnamaldehyde and has antitumor activity in various cancer cells. In the present study, for the first time, we identified that HCA induced BAG3 expression and BAG3-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922589/does-adding-a-second-antipsychotic-to-clozapine-improve-clinical-response-in-resistant-schizophrenia
#17
Magdalena Jiménez-Cornejo, Gonzalo Munizaga, David Aceituno
Clozapine constitutes the treatment of choice in patients with schizophrenia with persisting symptoms despite antipsychotics at adequate dose and treatment duration. However, an important proportion does not respond to optimal doses of clozapine, so the addition of a second antipsychotic might increase clinical response. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases, we identified 17 systematic reviews comprising 62 studies addressing the question of this article, including 26 randomized trials...
December 2, 2016: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922548/methylcobalamin-prevents-mutant-superoxide-dismutase-1-induced-motor-neuron-death-in-vitro
#18
Shunsuke Ito, Yukina Izumi, Tetsuhiro Niidome, Yuichi Ono
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor dysfunction. Treatments and drugs that slow progression of ALS have garnered great interest. In the present study, we show that the vitamin B12 analog methylcobalamin (MBL) effectively and dose dependently prevented embryonic stem cell-derived motor neuron death induced by cocultivation with astrocytes expressing mutant human superoxide dismutase-1 (G93A). Moreover, cotreatment of MBL with a conventional ALS drug, riluzole, further enhanced survival of motor neurons in this in-vitro ALS model...
December 2, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922542/generalization-of-serotonin-and-dopamine-ligands-to-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-different-doses-of-%C3%A2-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine
#19
Jeremy I Webster, David N Harper, Susan Schenk
Studies that have attributed the discriminative stimulus effects of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) to serotonergic mechanisms typically use a relatively low training dose of 1.5 mg/kg. The role of serotonin in the discriminative stimulus effects of higher doses of MDMA is, however, unknown. Separate groups of rats were trained to discriminate MDMA (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg) from saline using a two-lever, food-reinforced drug-discrimination procedure. Generalization tests were carried out with a range of serotonin and dopamine ligands...
December 2, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922541/effects-of-the-5-ht1a-receptor-agonists-buspirone-and-8-oh-dpat-on-pupil-size-in-common-marmosets
#20
Manato Kotani, Naoko Urushino, Itaru Natsutani, Yuji Ogi, Kazuhito Ikeda
As pupil size is affected by psychotropic drugs in all mammals, it has been used as a well-established clinical indicator for the preclinical and clinical development of novel drugs. It has been reported that activation of the serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor differently affects pupil response in rodents (mydriasis) and humans (miosis). Thus, it is important to establish a quantitative system for measuring pupil size using other species, such as nonhuman primates. Common marmosets have recently attracted a great deal of attention as suitable experimental animals in the psychoneurological field because of handling ease compared with other nonhuman primates and the requirement for small amounts of test drugs...
December 2, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
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