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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329701/automatic-information-extraction-from-unstructured-mammography-reports-using-distributed-semantics
#1
Anupama Gupta, Imon Banerjee, Daniel L Rubin
To date, the methods developed for automated extraction of information from radiology reports are mainly rule-based or dictionary-based, and, therefore, require substantial manual effort to build these systems. Recent efforts to develop automated systems for entity detection have been undertaken, but little work has been done to automatically extract relations and their associated named entities in narrative radiology reports that have comparable accuracy to rule-based methods. Our goal is to extract relations in a unsupervised way from radiology reports without specifying prior domain knowledge...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329268/anomaly-detection-in-nanofibrous-materials-by-cnn-based-self-similarity
#2
Paolo Napoletano, Flavio Piccoli, Raimondo Schettini
Automatic detection and localization of anomalies in nanofibrous materials help to reduce the cost of the production process and the time of the post-production visual inspection process. Amongst all the monitoring methods, those exploiting Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imaging are the most effective. In this paper, we propose a region-based method for the detection and localization of anomalies in SEM images, based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and self-similarity. The method evaluates the degree of abnormality of each subregion of an image under consideration by computing a CNN-based visual similarity with respect to a dictionary of anomaly-free subregions belonging to a training set...
January 12, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324463/fractures-related-to-tenofovir-a-case-noncase-study-in-the-european-pharmacovigilance-database
#3
Montserrat G García, Unai Larrinaga-Torrontegui, Eduardo Eduardo Martinez, Unax Lertxundi, Itziar Palacios-Zabalza, Carmelo Aguirre
BACKGROUND: There is no clear consensus on the relationship between tenofovir (TDF) and fracture risk because the studies published so far present contradictory findings. STUDY QUESTION: Our objective was to detect, from the European pharmacovigilance database (EudraVigilance), a signal of fracture risk during TDF exposure in patients infected with HIV. METHODS: Herein, we analyze all the cases of fractures suspected to be related to TDF recorded in EudraVigilance between 2001 and November 10, 2016...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311458/-adverse-event-trends-associated-with-over-the-counter-combination-cold-remedy-data-mining-of-the-japanese-adverse-drug-event-report-database
#4
Sayaka Sasaoka, Haruna Hatahira, Shiori Hasegawa, Yumi Motooka, Akiho Fukuda, Misa Naganuma, Ryogo Umetsu, Satoshi Nakao, Akari Shimauchi, Natsumi Ueda, Kouseki Hirade, Kazuhiro Iguchi, Mitsuhiro Nakamura
 OTC combination cold remedies are widely used in Japan. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the adverse event profiles of OTC combination cold remedy based on the components using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database. The JADER database contained 430587 reports between April 2004 and November 2016. 1084 adverse events associated with the use of OTC combination cold remedy were reported. Reporting odds ratio (ROR) was used to detect safety signals. The ROR values for "skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders", "hepatobiliary disorders", and "immune system disorders" stratified by system organ class of the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) were 9...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310533/kagakushi-jiten-encyclopedic-dictionary-of-the-history-of-chemistry
#5
Akinobu Takabayashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282213/guidance-for-sports-injury-surveillance-the-20-year-influence-of-the-australian-sports-injury-data-dictionary
#6
Caroline F Finch, Carolyn Staines
BACKGROUND: Injury prevention requires information about how, why, where and when injuries occur. The Australian Sports Injury Data Dictionary (ASIDD) was developed to guide sports injury data collection and reporting. Sports Medicine Australia (SMA) disseminated associated data collection forms and an online tool to practitioners and the sports community. This paper assesses the long-term value, usefulness and relevance of the ASIDD and SMA tools. METHODS: A systematic search strategy identified both peer-reviewed and grey literature that used the ASIDD and/or the SMA tools, during 1997-2016...
December 27, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278766/phase-unwinding-for-dictionary-compression-with-multiple-channel-transmission-in-magnetic-resonance-fingerprinting
#7
Riccardo Lattanzi, Bei Zhang, Florian Knoll, Jakob Assländer, Martijn A Cloos
PURPOSE: Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting reconstructions can become computationally intractable with multiple transmit channels, if the B1+ phases are included in the dictionary. We describe a general method that allows to omit the transmit phases. We show that this enables straightforward implementation of dictionary compression to further reduce the problem dimensionality. METHODS: We merged the raw data of each RF source into a single k-space dataset, extracted the transceiver phases from the corresponding reconstructed images and used them to unwind the phase in each time frame...
December 23, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250549/identifying-human-phenotype-terms-by-combining-machine-learning-and-validation-rules
#8
Manuel Lobo, Andre Lamurias, Francisco M Couto
Named-Entity Recognition is commonly used to identify biological entities such as proteins, genes, and chemical compounds found in scientific articles. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is an ontology that provides a standardized vocabulary for phenotypic abnormalities found in human diseases. This article presents the Identifying Human Phenotypes (IHP) system, tuned to recognize HPO entities in unstructured text. IHP uses Stanford CoreNLP for text processing and applies Conditional Random Fields trained with a rich feature set, which includes linguistic, orthographic, morphologic, lexical, and context features created for the machine learning-based classifier...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248818/barriers-facilitators-and-potential-strategies-for-increasing-hpv-vaccination-a-statewide-assessment-to-inform-action
#9
Kathleen B Cartmell, Jennifer Young-Pierce, Shannon McGue, Anthony J Alberg, John S Luque, Maria Zubizarreta, Heather M Brandt
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate how state level strategies in South Carolina could maximize HPV vaccine uptake. DESIGN: An environmental scan identified barriers, facilitators, and strategies for improving HPV vaccination in South Carolina. Interviews were conducted with state leaders from relevant organizations such as public health agencies, medical associations, K-12 schools, universities, insurers, and cancer advocacy organizations. A thematic content analysis design was used...
December 7, 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244777/sparse-adaptive-iteratively-weighted-thresholding-algorithm-saita-for-lp-regularization-using-the-multiple-sub-dictionary-representation
#10
Yunyi Li, Jie Zhang, Shangang Fan, Jie Yang, Jian Xiong, Xiefeng Cheng, Hikmet Sari, Fumiyuki Adachi, Guan Gui
Both L1/2 and L2/3 are two typical non-convex regularizations of Lp (0<p<1), which can be employed to obtain a sparser solution than the L₁ regularization. Recently, the multiple-state sparse transformation strategy has been developed to exploit the sparsity in L₁ regularization for sparse signal recovery, which combines the iterative reweighted algorithms. To further exploit the sparse structure of signal and image, this paper adopts multiple dictionary sparse transform strategies for the two typical cases p∈{1/2, 2/3} based on an iterative Lp thresholding algorithm and then proposes a sparse adaptive iterative-weighted Lp thresholding algorithm (SAITA)...
December 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244058/antidepressant-use-and-cognitive-outcomes-in-very-old-women
#11
Yue Leng, Susan J Diem, Katie L Stone, Kristine Yaffe
Background: Antidepressant use is very common in the elderly, but the effects of antidepressants on cognition in the elderly are controversial with some studies suggesting harm and others protection. We aimed to investigate the association between different antidepressant use and change in cognition and risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia in very old women. Methods: We examined 1,234 community-dwelling women (mean age 83.2 years) from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures...
December 12, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236209/adverse-events-under-tacrolimus-and-cyclosporine-in-the-first-3-years-post-renal-transplantation-in-children
#12
Pauline Lancia, Beate Aurich, Phuong Ha, Anne Maisin, Véronique Baudouin, Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain
BACKGROUND: Progress in immunosuppression has reduced acute rejection, graft loss and mortality after renal transplantation. Adverse drug reactions are well described in adults but few data are available in children. Our objectives were to analyse the adverse events reported in the first 3 years post-transplantation in children receiving tacrolimus or cyclosporine-based immunosuppression and compare them with the information of the Summary of Product Characteristics. METHODS: This retrospective study included all children who underwent a renal transplant at Hospital Robert Debré between 2002 and 2015...
December 13, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231329/-definition-of-ashi-point-from-the-view-of-linguistics
#13
Shan Jiang, Jingsheng Zhao
The definition of ashi point has not been unified yet till now. Likewise, the precise explanation on its connotation has always been an elusive question in acupuncture theory. By collecting diverse definitions on ashi point in the textbooks of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, dictionaries and term standards, several rational elements in definitions with consensus were screened. With the assistance of two important theories of cognitive linguistics, such as figure-ground theory and distance iconicity theory, the concept of ashi point was newly defined...
January 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220318/detection-and-separation-of-smoke-from-single-image-frames
#14
Hongda Tian, Wanqing Li, Philip O Ogunbona, Lei Wang
This paper proposes novel methods for detecting and separating smoke from a single image frame. Specifically, an image formation model is derived based on the atmospheric scattering models. The separation of a frame into quasi-smoke and quasi-background components is formulated as convex optimization that solves a sparse representation problem using dual dictionaries for the smoke and background components, respectively. A novel feature is constructed as a concatenation of the respective sparse coefficients for detection...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220308/learning-midlevel-auditory-codes-from-natural-sound-statistics
#15
Wiktor Młynarski, Josh H McDermott
Interaction with the world requires an organism to transform sensory signals into representations in which behaviorally meaningful properties of the environment are made explicit. These representations are derived through cascades of neuronal processing stages in which neurons at each stage recode the output of preceding stages. Explanations of sensory coding may thus involve understanding how low-level patterns are combined into more complex structures. To gain insight into such midlevel representations for sound, we designed a hierarchical generative model of natural sounds that learns combinations of spectrotemporal features from natural stimulus statistics...
December 8, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218589/stimulstat-a-lexical-database-for-russian
#16
Svetlana Alexeeva, Natalia Slioussar, Daria Chernova
In this article, we present StimulStat - a lexical database for the Russian language in the form of a web application. The database contains more than 52,000 of the most frequent Russian lemmas and more than 1.7 million word forms derived from them. These lemmas and forms are characterized according to more than 70 properties that were demonstrated to be relevant for psycholinguistic research, including frequency, length, phonological and grammatical properties, orthographic and phonological neighborhood frequency and size, grammatical ambiguity, homonymy and polysemy...
December 7, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191247/the-implication-of-the-shortage-of-health-workforce-specialist-on-universal-health-coverage-in-kenya
#17
Mumbo Hazel Miseda, Samuel Odhiambo Were, Cirindi Anne Murianki, Milo Peter Mutuku, Stephen N Mutwiwa
BACKGROUND: Globally, there is an acute shortage of human resources for health (HRH), and the greatest burden is borne by low-income countries especially in sub-Saharan Africa and some parts of Asia. This shortage has not only considerably constrained the achievement of health-related development goals but also impeded accelerated progress towards universal health coverage (UHC). Like any other low-income country, Kenya is experiencing health workforce shortage particularly in specialized healthcare workers to cater for the rapidly growing need for specialized health care (MOH Training Needs Assessment report (2015))...
December 1, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190659/a-digital-memories-based-user-authentication-scheme-with-privacy-preservation
#18
JunLiang Liu, Qiuyun Lyu, Qiuhua Wang, Xiangxiang Yu
The traditional username/password or PIN based authentication scheme, which still remains the most popular form of authentication, has been proved insecure, unmemorable and vulnerable to guessing, dictionary attack, key-logger, shoulder-surfing and social engineering. Based on this, a large number of new alternative methods have recently been proposed. However, most of them rely on users being able to accurately recall complex and unmemorable information or using extra hardware (such as a USB Key), which makes authentication more difficult and confusing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190575/dictionary-based-fiber-orientation-estimation-with-improved-spatial-consistency
#19
Chuyang Ye, Jerry L Prince
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has enabled in vivo investigation of white matter tracts. Fiber orientation (FO) estimation is a key step in tract reconstruction and has been a popular research topic in dMRI analysis. In particular, the sparsity assumption has been used in conjunction with a dictionary-based framework to achieve reliable FO estimation with a reduced number of gradient directions. Because image noise can have a deleterious effect on the accuracy of FO estimation, previous works have incorporated spatial consistency of FOs in the dictionary-based framework to improve the estimation...
November 23, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183925/cohort-profile-the-truenth-global-registry-an-international-registry-to-monitor-and-improve-localised-prostate-cancer-health-outcomes
#20
Sue M Evans, Jeremy L Millar, Caroline M Moore, John D Lewis, Hartwig Huland, Fanny Sampurno, Sarah E Connor, Paul Villanti, Mark S Litwin
PURPOSE: Globally, prostate cancer treatment and outcomes for men vary according to where they live, their race and the care they receive. The TrueNTH Global Registry project was established as an international registry monitoring care provided to men with localised prostate cancer (CaP). PARTICIPANTS: Sites with existing CaP databases in Movember fundraising countries were invited to participate in the international registry. In total, 25 Local Data Centres (LDCs) representing 113 participating sites across 13 countries have nominated to contribute to the project...
November 28, 2017: BMJ Open
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