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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783078/delayed-bipolar-and-ganglion-cells-neuroretinal-processing-in-regular-cannabis-users-the-retina-as-a-relevant-site-to-investigate-brain-synaptic-transmission-dysfunctions
#1
Thomas Schwitzer, Raymund Schwan, Karine Angioi-Duprez, Anne Giersch, Laurence Lalanne, Eliane Albuisson, Vincent Laprevote
Cannabis use is widespread worldwide, but the impact of smoking cannabis regularly on brain synaptic transmission has only been partially elucidated. The retina is considered as an easy means of determining dysfunction in brain synaptic transmission. The endocannabinoid system is involved in regulating retinal synaptic transmission, which might also be affected by tobacco. Previous preliminary results have shown impairments in retinal ganglion cell response in cannabis users. Here, we test the extent to which earlier retinal levels-bipolar cells and photoreceptors-are affected in cannabis users, i...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782004/levator-auris-longus-preparation-for-examination-of-mammalian-neuromuscular-transmission-under-voltage-clamp-conditions
#2
Steven R A Burke, Eric J Reed, Shannon H Romer, Andrew A Voss
This protocol describes a technique to record synaptic transmission from the neuromuscular junction under current-clamp and voltage-clamp conditions. An ex vivo preparation of the levator auris longus (LAL) is used because it is a thin muscle that provides easy visualization of the neuromuscular junction for microelectrode impalement at the motor endplate. This method allows for the recording of spontaneous miniature endplate potentials and currents (mEPPs and mEPCs), nerve-evoked endplate potentials and currents (EPPs and EPCs), as well as the membrane properties of the motor endplate...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780879/altered-cerebellar-short-term-plasticity-but-no-change-in-postsynaptic-ampa-type-glutamate-receptors-in-a-mouse-model-of-juvenile-batten-disease
#3
Dorota Studniarczyk, Elizabeth L Needham, Hannah M Mitchison, Mark Farrant, Stuart G Cull-Candy
Juvenile Batten disease is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder of childhood. It is associated with mutations in the CLN3 gene, causing loss of function of CLN3 protein and degeneration of cerebellar and retinal neurons. It has been proposed that changes in granule cell AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) contribute to the cerebellar dysfunction. In this study, we compared AMPAR properties and synaptic transmission in cerebellar granule cells from wild-type and Cln3 knock-out mice. In Cln3 Δ ex1-6 cells, the amplitude of AMPA-evoked whole-cell currents was unchanged...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779963/action-potential-initiation-propagation-and-cortical-invasion-in-the-hyperdirect-pathway-during-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation
#4
Ross W Anderson, AmirAli Farokhniaee, Kabilar Gunalan, Bryan Howell, Cameron C McIntyre
BACKGROUND: High frequency (∼130 Hz) deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic region is an established clinical therapy for the treatment of late stage Parkinson's disease (PD). Direct modulation of the hyperdirect pathway, defined as cortical layer V pyramidal neurons that send an axon collateral to the subthalamic nucleus (STN), has emerged as a possible component of the therapeutic mechanisms. However, numerous questions remain to be addressed on the basic biophysics of hyperdirect pathway stimulation...
May 12, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778899/dopamine-loss-alters-the-hippocampus-nucleus-accumbens-synaptic-transmission-in-the-tg2576-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Alberto Cordella, Paraskevi Krashia, Annalisa Nobili, Annabella Pignataro, Livia La Barbera, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Alessandro Valzania, Flavio Keller, Martine Ammassari-Teule, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Nicola Berretta, Marcello D'Amelio
The functional loop involving the ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal hippocampus and nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a pivotal role in the formation of spatial memory and persistent memory traces. In particular, the dopaminergic innervation from the VTA to the hippocampus is critical for hippocampal-related memory function and alterations in the midbrain dopaminergic system are frequently reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD), contributing to age-related decline in memory and non-cognitive functions. However, much less is known about the hippocampus-NAc connectivity in AD...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777761/functional-organization-of-postsynaptic-glutamate-receptors
#6
REVIEW
Nicky Scheefhals, Harold D MacGillavry
Glutamate receptors are the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain, responsible for mediating the vast majority of excitatory transmission in neuronal networks. The AMPA- and NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate the fast synaptic responses, while metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are coupled to downstream signaling cascades that act on much slower timescales. These functionally distinct receptor sub-types are co-expressed at individual synapses, allowing for the precise temporal modulation of postsynaptic excitability and plasticity...
May 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777493/transgenic-mice-carrying-glud2-as-a-tool-for-studying-the-expressional-and-the-functional-adaptation-of-this-positive-selected-gene-in-human-brain-evolution
#7
Andreas Plaitakis, Dimitra Kotzamani, Zoe Petraki, Maria Delidaki, Vagelis Rinotas, Ioannis Zaganas, Eleni Douni, Kyriaki Sidiropoulou, Cleanthe Spanaki
Human evolution is characterized by brain expansion and up-regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism and synaptic transmission, including the glutamate signaling pathway. Glutamate is the excitatory transmitter of neural circuits sub-serving cognitive functions, with glutamate-modulation of synaptic plasticity being central to learning and memory. GLUD2 is a novel positively-selected human gene involved in glutamatergic transmission and energy metabolism that underwent rapid evolutionary adaptation concomitantly with prefrontal cortex enlargement...
May 18, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775678/synaptic-transmission-and-excitability-during-hypoxia-with-inflammation-and-reoxygenation-in-hippocampal-ca1-neurons
#8
Yoon-Sil Yang, Sook Jin Son, Joon Ho Choi, Jong-Cheol Rah
Although a number of experimental and clinical studies have shown that hypoxia typically accompanies acute inflammatory responses, the combinatorial effect of the two insults on basic neural function has not been thoroughly investigated. Previous studies have predominantly suggested that hypoxia reduces network activity; however, several studies suggest the opposite effect. Of note, inflammation is known to increase neural activity. In the current study, we examined the effects of limited oxygen in combination with an inflammatory stimulus, as well as the effects of reoxygenation, on synaptic transmission and excitability...
May 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774619/different-types-of-multiple-synapse-boutons-in-the-cerebellar-cortex-between-physically-enriched-and-ataxic-mutant-mice
#9
Hyun-Wook Kim, Seunghak Oh, Seung Hwan Lee, Sanghoon Lee, Ji-Eun Na, Kea Joo Lee, Im Joo Rhyu
Experience-dependent synapse remodeling is associated with information storage in the nervous system. Neuronal synapses show alteration in various neurological and cognitive disorders in their structure and function. At the ultrastructural level, parallel fiber boutons contacting multiple spines of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex are commonly observed in physiologically enriched animals as well as pathological ataxic mutants. However, the dendritic origin of those spines on parallel fiber multiple-synapse boutons (MSBs) has been poorly understood...
May 18, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773979/efficient-coding-and-energy-efficiency-are-promoted-by-balanced-excitatory-and-inhibitory-synaptic-currents-in-neuronal-network
#10
Lianchun Yu, Zhou Shen, Chen Wang, Yuguo Yu
Selective pressure may drive neural systems to process as much information as possible with the lowest energy cost. Recent experiment evidence revealed that the ratio between synaptic excitation and inhibition (E/I) in local cortex is generally maintained at a certain value which may influence the efficiency of energy consumption and information transmission of neural networks. To understand this issue deeply, we constructed a typical recurrent Hodgkin-Huxley network model and studied the general principles that governs the relationship among the E/I synaptic current ratio, the energy cost and total amount of information transmission...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770478/the-endocannabinoid-alcohol-crosstalk-recent-advances-on-a-bi-faceted-target
#11
REVIEW
Gianluca Lavanco, Valentina Castelli, Anna Brancato, Giuseppe Tringali, Fulvio Plescia, Carla Cannizzaro
Increasing evidence focuses on the endocannabinoid system as a relevant player in the induction of aberrant synaptic plasticity and related addictive phenotype following chronic excessive alcohol drinking. Besides, the endocannabinoid system is implicated in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Interestingly, whereas the involvement of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in alcohol rewarding properties is established, the central and peripheral action of CB2 cannabinoid signalling is still to be elucidated. This review aims at giving the input to deepen knowledge on the role of the endocannabinoid system, highlighting the advancing evidence that suggests that CB1 and CB2 receptors may play opposite roles in the regulation of both the reinforcing properties of alcohol in the brain and the mechanisms responsible for cell injury and inflammation in the hepatic tissue...
May 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768201/activation-of-ephb2-forward-signaling-enhances-memory-consolidation
#12
Jessica M Alapin, Monica Dines, Maria Vassiliev, Tal Tamir, Alon Ram, Clifford Locke, Ji Yu, Raphael Lamprecht
EphB2 is involved in enhancing synaptic transmission and gene expression. To explore the roles of EphB2 in memory formation and enhancement, we used a photoactivatable EphB2 (optoEphB2) to activate EphB2 forward signaling in pyramidal neurons in lateral amygdala (LA). Photoactivation of optoEphB2 during fear conditioning, but not minutes afterward, enhanced long-term, but not short-term, auditory fear conditioning. Photoactivation of optoEphB2 during fear conditioning led to activation of the cAMP/Ca2+ responsive element binding (CREB) protein...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766792/gabaa-receptors-various-stoichiometrics-of-subunit-arrangement-in-%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-3-and-%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-3%C3%AE%C2%B5-receptors
#13
Ahmad Tarmizi Che Has, Mary Chebib
GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are members of the Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel (LGIC) superfamily, which includes nicotinic acetylcholine, glycine, and serotonin (5HT3) receptors [1,2,3,4]. LGICs typically mediate fast synaptic transmission via the movement of ions through channels gated by neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine for nicotinic receptors and GABA for GABAARs [5]. The term Cys-loop receptors originates from the presence of a conserved disulphide bond (or bridge) which holds together two cysteine amino acids of the loop that forms from the structure of polypeptides in the extracellular domain of the receptor's subunit [6]...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765302/the-role-of-actin-cytoskeleton-in-dendritic-spines-in-the-maintenance-of-long-term-memory
#14
REVIEW
Sreetama Basu, Raphael Lamprecht
Evidence indicates that long-term memory formation involves alterations in synaptic efficacy produced by modifications in neural transmission and morphology. However, it is not clear how such alterations induced by learning, that encode memory, are maintained over long period of time to preserve long-term memory. This is especially intriguing as the half-life of most of the proteins that underlie such changes is usually in the range of hours to days and these proteins may change their location over time. In this review we describe studies that indicate the involvement of dendritic spines in memory formation and its maintenance...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764453/ampa-ergic-regulation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-levels-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#15
Jane C Hettinger, Hyo Lee, Guojun Bu, David M Holtzman, John R Cirrito
BACKGROUND: Extracellular aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into toxic multimers is a key event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Aβ aggregation is concentration-dependent, with higher concentrations of Aβ much more likely to form toxic species. The processes that regulate extracellular levels of Aβ therefore stand to directly affect AD pathology onset. Studies from our lab and others have demonstrated that synaptic activity is a critical regulator of Aβ production through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762713/snap23-kif5-complex-controls-mglu1-receptor-trafficking
#16
Fabrice Raynaud, Vincent Homburger, Martial Seveno, Oana Vigy, Enora Moutin, Laurent Fagni, Julie Perroy
Metabotropic glutamate receptors are expressed at excitatory synapses and control synaptic transmission in mammalian brain. These receptors are involved in numerous patho-physiological functions. However, little is known about the molecular determinants responsible for their intracellular transport and membrane targeting. Here we investigated the nature of the molecular motor and adaptor protein responsible for trafficking and membrane localization of the group I metabotropic glutamate mGlu1 post-synaptic receptor in cultured hippocampal neurons...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761896/sphingolipids-regulate-neuromuscular-synapse-structure-and-function-in-drosophila
#17
Ryan J H West, Laura Briggs, Maria Perona Fjeldstad, Richard R Ribchester, Sean T Sweeney
Sphingolipids are found in abundance at synapses and have been implicated in regulation of synapse structure, function and degeneration. Their precise role in these processes, however, remains obscure. Serine Palmitoyl-transferase (SPT) is the first enzymatic step for synthesis of sphingolipids. Analysis of the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction revealed mutations in the SPT enzyme subunit, lace/SPTLC2 resulted in deficits in synaptic structure and function. Although neuromuscular junction (NMJ) length is normal in lace mutants, the number of boutons per NMJ is reduced to ∼50% of the wild type number...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760484/top-down-descending-facilitation-of-spinal-sensory-excitatory-transmission-from-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#18
Tao Chen, Wataru Taniguchi, Qi-Yu Chen, Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh, Qian Song, Ren-Hao Liu, Kohei Koga, Tsuyoshi Matsuda, Yae Kaito-Sugimura, Jian Wang, Zhi-Hua Li, Ya-Cheng Lu, Kazuhide Inoue, Makoto Tsuda, Yun-Qing Li, Terumasa Nakatsuka, Min Zhuo
Spinal sensory transmission is under descending biphasic modulation, and descending facilitation is believed to contribute to chronic pain. Descending modulation from the brainstem rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) has been the most studied, whereas little is known about direct corticospinal modulation. Here, we found that stimulation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) potentiated spinal excitatory synaptic transmission and this modulation is independent of the RVM. Peripheral nerve injury enhanced the spinal synaptic transmission and occluded the ACC-spinal cord facilitation...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760176/postnatal-ablation-of-synaptic-retinoic-acid-signaling-impairs-cortical-information-processing-and-sensory-discrimination-in-mice
#19
Esther Park, Michelle Tjia, Yi Zuo, Lu Chen
Retinoic acid (RA) and its receptors (RARs) are well-established essential transcriptional regulators during embryonic development. Recent findings in cultured neurons identified an independent and critical post-transcriptional role of RA and RARα in the homeostatic regulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in mature neurons. However, the functional relevance of synaptic RA signaling in vivo has not been established. Here, using somatosensory cortex as a model system and the RARα conditional knockout mouse as a tool, we applied multiple genetic manipulations to delete RARα postnatally in specific populations of cortical neurons, and asked whether synaptic RA signaling observed in cultured neurons is involved in cortical information processing in vivo Indeed, conditional ablation of RARα in mice via a CaMKIIα-Cre or a layer 5-Cre driver line or via somatosensory cortex-specific viral expression of Cre-recombinase impaired whisker-dependent texture discrimination, suggesting a critical requirement of RARα expression in L5 pyramidal neurons of somatosensory cortex for normal tactile sensory processing...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758384/disruption-of-shp1-nmda-receptor-signaling-in-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn-alleviated-inflammatory-pain
#20
Li Yang, Hu-Hu Bai, Zi-Yang Zhang, Jiang-Ping Liu, Zhan-Wei Suo, Xian Yang, Xiao-Dong Hu
Src-homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP1) is one of the non-receptor-like phosphatases that are highly enriched in hematopoietic cells. Although accumulating evidence has implicated the protein tyrosine phosphatases in the regulation of nociceptive transmission and plasticity, it is largely unknown whether SHP1 was expressed in pain-related spinal cord dorsal horn and engaged in the synaptic modification of nociceptive signals. Here we found that SHP1 was present in spinal neurons of rats and functionally coupled to GluN2A subunit-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors, one of the key players in central sensitization of nociceptive behaviors...
April 30, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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