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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087816/acetazolamide-potentiates-the-afferent-drive-to-prefrontal-cortex-in%C3%A2-vivo
#1
Lezio S Bueno-Junior, Rafael N Ruggiero, Matheus T Rossignoli, Elaine A Del Bel, Joao P Leite, Osvaldo D Uchitel
The knowledge on real-time neurophysiological effects of acetazolamide is still far behind the wide clinical use of this drug. Acetazolamide - a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor - has been shown to affect the neuromuscular transmission, implying a pH-mediated influence on the central synaptic transmission. To start filling such a gap, we chose a central substrate: hippocampal-prefrontal cortical projections; and a synaptic phenomenon: paired-pulse facilitation (a form of synaptic plasticity) to probe this drug's effects on interareal brain communication in chronically implanted rats...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087765/synapsin-ii-regulation-of-gabaergic-synaptic-transmission-is-dependent-on-interneuron-subtype
#2
Pedro Feliciano, Heidi Matos, Rodrigo Andrade, Maria Bykhovskaia
: Synapsins are epilepsy susceptibility genes that encode phosphoproteins reversibly associated with synaptic vesicles. Synapsin II (SynII) gene deletion produces a deficit in inhibitory synaptic transmission, and this defect is thought to cause epileptic activity. We systematically investigated how SynII affects synchronous and asynchronous release components of inhibitory transmission in the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. We found that the asynchronous GABAergic release component is diminished in SynII deleted (SynII(-)) slices...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086931/the-release-and-trans-synaptic-transmission-of-tau-via-exosomes
#3
Yipeng Wang, Varun Balaji, Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan, Lars Krüger, Stephan Irsen, Katharina Tepper, RamReddy Chandupatla, Walter Maetzler, Anja Schneider, Eckhard Mandelkow, Eva-Maria Mandelkow
BACKGROUND: Tau pathology in AD spreads in a hierarchical pattern, whereby it first appears in the entorhinal cortex, then spreads to the hippocampus and later to the surrounding areas. Based on this sequential appearance, AD can be classified into six stages ("Braak stages"). The mechanisms and agents underlying the progression of Tau pathology are a matter of debate. Emerging evidence indicates that the propagation of Tau pathology may be due to the transmission of Tau protein, but the underlying pathways and Tau species are not well understood...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078988/bdnf-nf-kb-signaling-in-the-neurobiology-of-depression
#4
Ariel Caviedes, Carlos Lafourcade, Claudio Soto, Ursula Wyneken
BACKGROUND: Mood disorders, consisting of unipolar and bipolar depression, are complex diseases characterized by depressed mood and anhedonia. These core symptoms are accompanied in a varying manner by anxiety, several neurovegetative symptoms and cognitive impairment. Mood disorders are characterized by decreases in neurogenesis, alteration in synaptic structure and synaptic transmission, all of them regulated by BDNF, a neurotrophin that performs multiple functions in the adult central nervous system...
January 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077092/phylogenetic-analysis-of-ionotropic-l-glutamate-receptor-genes-in-the-bilateria-with-special-notes-on-aplysia-californica
#5
Justin B Greer, Sawsan Khuri, Lynne A Fieber
BACKGROUND: The neurotransmitter L-Glutamate (L-Glu) acting at ionotropic L-Glu receptors (iGluR) conveys fast excitatory signal transmission in the nervous systems of all animals. iGluR-dependent neurotransmission is a key component of the synaptic plasticity that underlies learning and memory. During learning, two subtypes of iGluR, α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPAR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR), are dynamically regulated postsynaptically in vertebrates...
January 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074469/development-of-cone-photoreceptors-and-their-synapses-in-the-human-and-monkey-fovea
#6
Anita Hendrickson, Chi Zhang
During retinal development, ribbon synapse assembly in the photoreceptors is a crucial step involving numerous molecules. While the developmental sequence of plexiform layers in human retina has been characterized, the molecular steps of synaptogenesis remain largely unknown. In the present study, we focused on the central rod-free region of primate retina, the fovea, to specifically investigate the development of cone photoreceptor ribbon synapses. Immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy were utilized to track the expression of photoreceptor transduction proteins and ribbon and synaptic markers in fetal human and Macaca retina...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072604/epigenetic-upregulation-of-cxcl12-expression-mediates-anti-tubulin-chemotherapeutics-induced-neuropathic-pain
#7
Ting Xu, Xiao-Long Zhang, Han-Dong Ou-Yang, Zhen-Yu Li, Cui-Cui Liu, Zhen-Zhen Huang, Jing Xu, Jia-You Wei, Bi-Lin Nie, Chao Ma, Shao-Ling Wu, Wen-Jun Xin
Clinically, Microtubule-targeted agents-induced neuropathic pain hampers chemotherapeutics for cancer patients. Here, we found that application of paclitaxel or vincristine increased the protein and mRNA expression of CXCL12, and frequency and amplitude of miniature excitatory post synaptic currents (mEPSCs) in spinal dorsal horn neurons. Spinal local application of CXCL12 induced the long-term potentiation (LTP) of nociceptive synaptic transmission and increased the amplitude of mEPSCs. Inhibition of CXCL12 by using the transgenic mice (CXCL12) or neutralizing antibody or siRNA ameliorated the mEPSCs enhancement and mechanical allodynia...
January 7, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070119/ocd-like-behavior-is-caused-by-dysfunction-of-thalamo-amygdala-circuits-and-upregulated-trkb-erk-mapk-signaling-as-a-result-of-spred2-deficiency
#8
M Ullrich, M Weber, A M Post, S Popp, J Grein, M Zechner, H Guerrero González, A Kreis, A G Schmitt, N Üçeyler, K-P Lesch, K Schuh
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disease affecting about 2% of the general population. It is characterized by persistent intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualized behaviors. While gene variations, malfunction of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits, and dysregulated synaptic transmission have been implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we show that OCD-like behavior in mice is caused by deficiency of SPRED2, a protein expressed in various brain regions and a potent inhibitor of Ras/ERK-MAPK signaling...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069928/functional-organization-of-cutaneous-and-muscle-afferent-synapses-onto-immature-spinal-lamina-i-projection-neurons
#9
Jie Li, Mark L Baccei
: It is well-established that sensory afferents innervating muscle are more effective at inducing hyperexcitability within spinal cord circuits compared to skin afferents, which likely contributes to the higher prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to pain of cutaneous origin. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences in central nociceptive signaling remain incompletely understood, as nothing is known about how superficial dorsal horn (SDH) neurons process sensory input from muscle vs...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069435/astrocytes-and-presynaptic-plasticity-in-the-striatum-evidence-and-unanswered-questions
#10
Anton Dvorzhak, Igor Melnick, Rosemarie Grantyn
One of the main functions of astrocytes is to ensure glutamate homeostasis by glutamate uptake and glutamine synthesis. However, during the past ten years it has become clear that astrocytes may also induce changes in synaptic glutamate release when respective pathways must cope with the consequences of brain damage or other alterations in their functional requirements. The loss of glutamatergic synapses in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease is likely to associate with a continuous redistribution of presynaptic activity within the pool of surviving synapses, and astrocytes may have a role in the maintenance of independent control at individual glutamate release sites...
January 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067279/impaired-novelty-acquisition-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-congenital-hyperammonemia-caused-by-hepatic-glutamine-synthetase-deficiency
#11
Aisa N Chepkova, Olga A Sergeeva, Boris Görg, Helmut L Haas, Nikolaj Klöcker, Dieter Häussinger
Genetic defects in ammonia metabolism can produce irreversible damage of the developing CNS causing an impairment of cognitive and motor functions. We investigated alterations in behavior, synaptic plasticity and gene expression in the hippocampus and dorsal striatum of transgenic mice with systemic hyperammonemia resulting from conditional knockout of hepatic glutamine synthetase (LGS-ko). These mice showed reduced exploratory activity and delayed habituation to a novel environment. Field potential recordings from LGS-ko brain slices revealed significantly reduced magnitude of electrically-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in both CA3-CA1 hippocampal and corticostriatal synaptic transmission...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065781/ischemic-brain-injury-new-insights-on-the-protective-role-of-melatonin
#12
REVIEW
Eva Ramos, Paloma Patiño, Russel J Reiter, Emilio Gil-Martín, José Marco-Contelles, Esther Parada, Cristobal de Los Rios, Alejandro Romero, Javier Egea
Stroke represents one of the most common causes of brain's vulnerability for many millions of people worldwide. The plethora of physiopathological events associated with brain ischemia are regulate through multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of oxidative stress process, Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, proinflammatory mediators, excitotoxicity and/or programmed neuronal cell death. Understanding this cascade of molecular events is mandatory in order to develop new therapeutic strategies for stroke...
January 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063222/astrocytic-ip3-rs-contribution-to-ca-2-signalling-and-hippocampal-ltp
#13
Mark William Sherwood, Misa Arizono, Chihiro Hisatsune, Hiroko Bannai, Etsuko Ebisui, John Lawrence Sherwood, Aude Panatier, Stéphane Henri Richard Oliet, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
Astrocytes regulate hippocampal synaptic plasticity by the Ca(2+) dependent release of the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) co-agonist d-serine. Previous evidence indicated that d-serine release would be regulated by the intracellular Ca(2+) release channel IP3 receptor (IP3 R), however, genetic deletion of IP3 R2, the putative astrocytic IP3 R subtype, had no impact on synaptic plasticity or transmission. Although IP3 R2 is widely believed to be the only functional IP3 R in astrocytes, three IP3 R subtypes (1, 2, and 3) have been identified in vertebrates...
January 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061384/oligomeric-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-disrupts-olfactory-information-output-by-impairment-of-local-inhibitory-circuits-in-rat-olfactory-bulb
#14
Bin Hu, Chi Geng, Xiao-Yu Hou
Although early olfactory dysfunction has been found in patients with Alzheimer's disease, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether and how oligomeric amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) affects the responses of mitral cells (MCs). We found that oligomeric Aβ1-42 increased spontaneous and evoked firing rates but decreased the ratio of evoked to spontaneous firings in MCs. Aβ1-42 oligomers showed no impact on the hyperactivity exerted by pharmacological blockage of GABAA receptors, suggesting an involvement of GABAergic inhibitory transmission in Aβ1 to 42-induced over-excitability...
December 14, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061363/de-novo-mutations-in-synaptic-transmission-genes-including-dnm1-cause-epileptic-encephalopathies
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059571/presynaptic-calmodulin-targets-lessons-from-structural-proteomics
#16
Noa Lipstein, Melanie Göth, Christine Piotrowski, Kevin Pagel, Andrea Sinz, Olaf Jahn
Calmodulin (CaM) is a highly conserved Ca(2+)-binding protein that is exceptionally abundant in the brain. In the presynaptic compartment of neurons, CaM transduces changes in Ca(2+) concentration into the regulation of synaptic transmission dynamics. Areas covered: We review selected literature including published CaM interactor screens and outline established and candidate presynaptic CaM targets. We present a workflow of biochemical and structural proteomic methods that were used to identify and characterize the interactions between CaM and Munc13 proteins...
January 6, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058503/genetic-manipulation-of-specific-neural-circuits-by-use-of-a-viral-vector-system
#17
REVIEW
Kenta Kobayashi, Shigeki Kato, Kazuto Kobayashi
To understand the mechanisms underlying higher brain functions, we need to analyze the roles of specific neuronal pathways or cell types forming the complex neural networks. In the neuroscience field, the transgenic approach has provided a useful gene engineering tool for experimental studies of neural functions. The conventional transgenic technique requires the appropriate promoter regions that drive a neuronal type-specific gene expression, but the promoter sequences specifically functioning in each neuronal type are limited...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056817/proteomic-analyses-of-limbic-regions-in-neonatal-male-female-and-androgen-receptor-knockout-mice
#18
Anna Zettergren, Sara Karlsson, Erik Studer, Anna Sarvimäki, Petronella Kettunen, Annika Thorsell, Carina Sihlbom, Lars Westberg
BACKGROUND: It is well-established that organizational effects of sex steroids during early development are fundamental for sex-typical displays of, for example, mating and aggressive behaviors in rodents and other species. Male and female brains are known to differ with respect to neuronal morphology in particular regions of the brain, including the number and size of neurons, and the density and length of dendrites in nuclei of hypothalamus and amygdala. The aim of the present study was to use global proteomics to identify proteins differentially expressed in hypothalamus/amygdala during early development (postnatal day 8) of male, female and conditional androgen receptor knockout (AR(NesDel)) male mice, lacking androgen receptors specifically in the brain...
January 5, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054918/app-modulates-kcc2-expression-and-function-in-hippocampal-gabaergic-inhibition
#19
Ming Chen, Jinzhao Wang, Jinxiang Jiang, Xingzhi Zheng, Nicholas J Justice, Kun Wang, Xiangqian Ran, Yi Li, Qingwei Huo, Jiajia Zhang, Hongmei Li, Nannan Lu, Ying Wang, Hui Zheng, Cheng Long, Li Yang
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is enriched at the synapse, but its synaptic function is still poorly understood. We previously showed that GABAergic short-term plasticity is impaired in App knock-out (App(-/-)) animals, but the precise mechanism by which APP regulates GABAergic synaptic transmission has remained elusive. Using electrophysiological, biochemical, moleculobiological, and pharmacological analysis, here we show that APP can physically interact with KCC2, a neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter that is essential for Cl(-) homeostasis and fast GABAergic inhibition...
January 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052248/hox2-genes-are-required-for-tonotopic-map-precision-and-sound-discrimination-in-the-mouse-auditory-brainstem
#20
Kajari Karmakar, Yuichi Narita, Jonathan Fadok, Sebastien Ducret, Alberto Loche, Taro Kitazawa, Christel Genoud, Thomas Di Meglio, Raphael Thierry, Joao Bacelo, Andreas Lüthi, Filippo M Rijli
Tonotopy is a hallmark of auditory pathways and provides the basis for sound discrimination. Little is known about the involvement of transcription factors in brainstem cochlear neurons orchestrating the tonotopic precision of pre-synaptic input. We found that in the absence of Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 function in Atoh1-derived glutamatergic bushy cells of the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus, broad input topography and sound transmission were largely preserved. However, fine-scale synaptic refinement and sharpening of isofrequency bands of cochlear neuron activation upon pure tone stimulation were impaired in Hox2 mutants, resulting in defective sound-frequency discrimination in behavioral tests...
January 3, 2017: Cell Reports
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