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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738336/innate-immune-memory-implications-for-microglial-function-and-neuroprogression
#1
Alex P Salam, Carmine M Pariante, Patricia Zunszain
Immunostimulatory insults such as stress and infection are risk factors for the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by neuroprogression. Inflammatory and neurotoxic molecules in the brain can cause disruptions in neurogenesis, neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival - changes that characterize neuroprogression. We draw on recent findings in the immunology literature that peripheral innate immune cells are capable of retaining long-term memory of infectious insults and displaying long-lasting upregulated proinflammatory function in response to repeated infectious insults - a concept known as "innate immune memory...
July 24, 2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736205/developmental-and-extrahepatic-physiological-functions-of-srebp-pathway-genes-in-mice
#2
REVIEW
Luke J Engelking, Mary Jo Cantoria, Yanchao Xu, Guosheng Liang
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), master transcriptional regulators of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, have been found to contribute to a diverse array of cellular processes. In this review, we focus on genetically engineered mice in which the activities of six components of the SREBP gene pathway, namely SREBP-1, SREBP-2, Scap, Insig-1, Insig-2, or Site-1 protease have been altered through gene knockout or transgenic approaches. In addition to the expected impacts on lipid metabolism, manipulation of these genes in mice is found to affect a wide array of developmental and physiologic processes ranging from interferon signaling in macrophages to synaptic transmission in the brain...
July 20, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735565/can-pharmacological-manipulation-of-ltp-favor-the-effects-of-motor-rehabilitation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Letizia Leocani, Giancarlo Comi, Ennio Iezzi, Diego Centonze
BACKGROUND: Synaptic plasticity, the basic mechanism of clinical recovery after brain lesion, can also remarkably influence the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Physical rehabilitation represents the main treatment option to promote synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and to enhance spontaneous recovery of neurological deficits. OBJECTIVES: To overview the role of pharmacological treatment and physical rehabilitation in modulating LTP and enhancing clinical recovery in MS...
July 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734961/radix-puerariae-modulates-glutamatergic-synaptic-architecture-and-potentiates-functional-synaptic-plasticity-in-primary-hippocampal-neurons
#4
Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque Bhuiyan, Md Nazmul Haque, Md Mohibbullah, Yung Kyu Kim, Il Soo Moon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Neurologic disorders are frequently characterized by synaptic pathology, including abnormal density and morphology of dendritic spines, synapse loss, and aberrant synaptic signaling and plasticity. Therefore, to promote and/or protect synapses by the use of natural molecules capable of modulating neurodevelopmental events, such as, spinogenesis and synaptic plasticity, could offer a preventive and curative strategy for nervous disorders associated with synaptic pathology...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729842/a-gene-based-analysis-of-acoustic-startle-latency
#5
Alicia K Smith, Tanja Jovanovic, Varun Kilaru, Adriana Lori, Lauren Gensler, Samuel S Lee, Seth Davin Norrholm, Nicholas Massa, Bruce Cuthbert, Bekh Bradley, Kerry J Ressler, Erica Duncan
Latency of the acoustic startle response is the time required from the presentation of startling auditory stimulus until the startle response is elicited and provides an index of neural processing speed. Latency is prolonged in subjects with schizophrenia compared to controls in some but not all studies and is 68-90% heritable in baseline startle trials. In order to determine the genetic association with latency as a potential inroad into genetically based vulnerability to psychosis, we conducted a gene-based study of latency followed by an independent replication study of significant gene findings with a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based analysis of schizophrenia and control subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729535/pld1-promotes-dendritic-spine-development-by-inhibiting-adam10-mediated-n-cadherin-cleavage
#6
Li-Da Luo, Gang Li, Yun Wang
Synapses are the basic units of information transmission, processing and integration in the nervous system. Dysfunction of the synaptic development has been recognized as one of the main reasons for mental dementia and psychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and autism. However, the underlying mechanisms of the synapse formation are far from clear. Here we report that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) promotes the development of dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. We found that overexpressing PLD1 increases both the density and the area of dendritic spines...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729445/preferential-disruption-of-prefrontal-gabaergic-function-by-nanomolar-concentrations-of-the-%C3%AE-7nach-negative-modulator-kynurenic-acid
#7
Eden Flores-Barrera, Daniel R Thomases, Daryn K Cass, Ajay Bhandari, Robert Schwarcz, John P Bruno, Kuei Y Tseng
Increased concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are thought to contribute to the development of cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. Although this view is consistent with pre-clinical studies showing a negative impact of prefrontal KYNA elevation on executive function, the mechanism underlying such a disruption remains unclear. Here we measured changes in local field potential responses to ventral hippocampal stimulation in vivo, and conducted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices to reveal how nanomolar concentrations of KYNA alter synaptic transmission in the PFC of male adult rats...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726541/characterization-of-postsynaptic-calcium-signals-in-the-pyramidal-neurons-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#8
Xu-Hui Li, Qian Song, Tao Chen, Min Zhuo
Calcium signaling is critical for synaptic transmission and plasticity. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors play a key role in synaptic potentiation in the anterior cingulate cortex. Most previous studies of calcium signaling focus on hippocampal neurons, little is known about the activity-induced calcium signals in the anterior cingulate cortex. In the present study, we show that NMDA receptor-mediated postsynaptic calcium signals induced by different synaptic stimulation in anterior cingulate cortex pyramidal neurons...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726234/-current-status-of-congenital-myasthenic-syndromes
#9
REVIEW
M Bestue-Cardiel, D Natera-de Benito
Since Engel reported the first case of congenital myasthenia in 1977 and the first pathogenic gene was found in 1995, knowledge about congenital myasthenic syndromes has continued to grow. Over the years, the pathogenic basis, its clinical features, the phenotype-genotype correlations that have been established and its therapeutic management have all been described. In this group of diseases the safety margin of neuromuscular transmission is altered by different mechanisms: in the synthesis or storage of acetylcholine quanta in the synaptic vesicles, in the calcium-mediated release of acetylcholine in the nerve terminal or in the efficiency of the quantum released to generate a post-synaptic depolarisation...
August 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724748/depressed-synaptic-transmission-and-reduced-vesicle-release-sites-in-huntington-s-disease-neuromuscular-junctions
#10
Ahmad Khedraki, Eric J Reed, Shannon H Romer, Qingbo Wang, William Romine, Mark M Rich, Robert J Talmadge, Andrew A Voss
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and fatal degenerative disorder that results in debilitating cognitive and motor dysfunction. Most HD studies have focused on degeneration of the central nervous system. We previously discovered that skeletal muscle from transgenic R6/2 HD mice is hyperexcitable due to decreased chloride and potassium conductances. The progressive and early onset of these defects suggest a primary myopathy in HD. In this study, we examined the relationship between neuromuscular transmission and skeletal muscle hyperexcitability...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721398/calcium-stimulated-adenylyl-cyclase-subtype-1-ac1-contributes-to-ltp-in-the-insular-cortex-of-adult-mice
#11
Manabu Yamanaka, Takanori Matsuura, Haili Pan, Min Zhuo
Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is a key form of cortical plasticity. The insular cortex (IC) is known to play important roles in pain perception, aversive memory and mood disorders. LTP has been recently reported in the IC, however, the signaling pathway for IC LTP remains unknown. Here, we investigated the synaptic mechanism of IC LTP. We found that IC LTP induced by the pairing protocol was N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) dependent, and expressed postsynaptically, since paired-pulse ratio (PPR) was not affected...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720858/gsk-3%C3%AE-deletion-in-dentate-gyrus-excitatory-neuron-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory
#12
Enjie Liu, Ao-Ji Xie, Qiuzhi Zhou, Mengzhu Li, Shujuan Zhang, Shihong Li, Weijin Wang, Xiaochuan Wang, Qun Wang, Jian-Zhi Wang
Increasing evidence suggests that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) plays a crucial role in neurodegenerative/psychiatric disorders, while pan-neural knockout of GSK-3β also shows detrimental effects. Currently, the function of GSK-3β in specific type of neurons is elusive. Here, we infused AAV-CaMKII-Cre-2A-eGFP into GSK-3β(lox/lox) mice to selectively delete the kinase in excitatory neurons of hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), and studied the effects on cognitive/psychiatric behaviors and the molecular mechanisms...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720382/activated-leukocyte-cell-adhesion-molecule-is-involved-in-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-and-plasticity-in-the-rat-spinal-dorsal-horn
#13
Eun-Sung Park, Sang-Min Jeon, Haein Weon, Hee-Jung Cho, Dong-Ho Youn
Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), a member of type I transmembrane immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecule, is expressed in the surface membrane of various cell types including neurons. In the spinal cord dorsal horn (DH), the first gate for the sensory and pain transmission to the brain, the expression and function of ALCAM have not been known yet. Therefore, we here investigate the synaptic function of ALCAM in the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) of the spinal DH, as well as its expression in the DH...
July 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713915/concurrent-administration-of-thyroxine-and-donepezil-induces-plastic-changes-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-adult-hypothyroid-rats
#14
Fen Wang, Zhangbi Wu, Xiaoxue Zha, Yaojun Cai, Bo Wu, Xuemei Jia, Defa Zhu
The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of the concurrent administration of thyroxine (T4) and an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, donepezil (DON), on the hypothyroidism‑induced ultrastructural changes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in adult rats. The acetylcholine (ACh) content and AChE activity was assessed, as well as the expressions of synaptotagmin‑1 (syt‑1) and SNAP‑25 were analyzed in the rats. Adding 0.05% propylthiouracil to rats' drinking water induced a hypothyroid rat model...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713286/mechanism-of-action-for-rtms-a-working-hypothesis-based-on-animal-studies
#15
REVIEW
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Maria F M Ghilardi, Hoau-Yan Wang, Emanuela Mazzon, Placido Bramanti, Domenico Restivo, Angelo Quartarone
Experiments in rodents have elucidated some of the molecular mechanisms underlying repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). These studies may be useful in a translational perspective so that future TMS studies in rodents can closely match human TMS protocols designed for therapeutic purposes. In the present work we will review the effects of rTMS on glutamate neurotransmission which in turn induce persistent changes in synaptic activity. In particular, we will focus on the role of NMDA and non-NMDA transmission and on the permissive role of BDNF-TrKB interaction in the rTMS induced after-effects...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713243/synaptic-interactome-mining-reveals-p140cap-as-a-new-hub-for-psd-proteins-involved-in-psychiatric-and-neurological-disorders
#16
Annalisa Alfieri, Oksana Sorokina, Annie Adrait, Costanza Angelini, Isabella Russo, Alessandro Morellato, Michela Matteoli, Elisabetta Menna, Elisabetta Boeri Erba, Colin McLean, J Douglas Armstrong, Ugo Ala, Joseph D Buxbaum, Alfredo Brusco, Yohann Couté, Silvia De Rubeis, Emilia Turco, Paola Defilippi
Altered synaptic function has been associated with neurological and psychiatric conditions including intellectual disability, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Amongst the recently discovered synaptic proteins is p140Cap, an adaptor that localizes at dendritic spines and regulates their maturation and physiology. We recently showed that p140Cap knockout mice have cognitive deficits, impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), and immature, filopodia-like dendritic spines...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712640/resident-calmodulin-primes-nmda-receptors-for-ca-2-dependent-inactivation
#17
Gary J Iacobucci, Gabriela K Popescu
N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are glutamate- and glycine-gated channels that flux Na(+) and Ca(2+) into postsynaptic neurons during synaptic transmission. The resulting intracellular Ca(2+) transient is essential to physiological and pathological processes related to synaptic development, plasticity, and apoptosis. It also engages calmodulin (CaM) to reduce subsequent NMDA receptor activity in a process known as Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation (CDI). Here, we used whole-cell electrophysiology to measure CDI and computational modeling to dissect the sequence of events that underlies it...
July 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711655/ubiquitination-at-the-mitochondria-in-neuronal-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Christian Covill-Cooke, Jack Howden, Nicol Birsa, Josef Kittler
The preservation of mitochondrial function is of particular importance in neurons given the high energy requirements of action potential propagation and synaptic transmission. Indeed, disruptions in mitochondrial dynamics and quality control are linked to cellular pathology in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Here, we will discuss the role of ubiquitination by the E3 ligases: Parkin, MARCH5 and Mul1, and how they regulate mitochondrial homeostasis. Furthermore, given the role of Parkin and Mul1 in the formation of mitochondria-derived vesicles we give an overview of this area of mitochondrial homeostasis...
July 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710284/the-neuronal-protein-neurexin-directly-interacts-with-the-scribble-pix-complex-to-stimulate-f-actin-assembly-for-synaptic-vesicle-clustering
#19
Menglong Rui, Jinjun Qian, Lijuan Liu, Yihan Cai, Huihui Lv, Junhai Han, Zhengping Jia, Wei Xie
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) form distinct pools at synaptic terminals, and this well-regulated separation is necessary for normal neuro-transmission. However, how SV cluster in particular synaptic compartments to maintain normal neurotransmitter release remains a mystery. The presynaptic protein Neurexin (NRX) plays a significant role in synaptic architecture and function, and some evidences suggest that NRX is associated with neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. However, the role of NRX in SV clustering is unclear...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707389/methamphetamine-promotes-habitual-action-and-alters-the-density-of-striatal-glutamate-receptor-and-vesicular-proteins-in-dorsal-striatum
#20
Teri M Furlong, Laura H Corbit, Robert A Brown, Bernard W Balleine
Goal-directed actions are controlled by the value of the consequences they produce and so increase when what they produce is valuable and decrease when it is not. With continued invariant practice, however, goal-directed actions can become habits, controlled not by their consequences but by antecedent, reward-related states and stimuli. Here, we show that pre-exposure to methamphetamine (METH) caused abnormally rapid development of habitual control. Furthermore, these drug-induced habits differed strikingly from conventional habits; we found that they were insensitive both to changes in reward value and to the effects of negative feedback...
July 14, 2017: Addiction Biology
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