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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352377/difference-of-acute-dissociation-and-1-day-culture-on-the-electrophysiological-properties-of-rat-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#1
Yuanlong Song, Miaomiao Zhang, Xiaoqing Tao, Zifen Xu, Yunjie Zheng, Minjie Zhu, Liangpin Zhang, Jinhan Qiao, Linlin Gao
The dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with or without culture were widely used for investigation of their electrophysiological properties. The culture procedures, however, may alter the properties of these neurons and the effects are not clear. In the present study, we recorded the action potentials (AP) and the voltage-gated Na+, K+, and Ca2+ currents with patch clamp technique and measured the mRNA of Nav1.6-1.9 and Cav2.1-2.2 with real-time PCR technique from acutely dissociated and 1-day (1-d) cultured DRG neurons...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351552/in-situ-recording-of-ionic-currents-in-projection-neurons-and-kenyon-cells-in-the-olfactory-pathway-of-the-honeybee
#2
Jan Kropf, Wolfgang Rössler
The honeybee olfactory pathway comprises an intriguing pattern of convergence and divergence: ~60.000 olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) convey olfactory information on ~900 projection neurons (PN) in the antennal lobe (AL). To transmit this information reliably, PNs employ relatively high spiking frequencies with complex patterns. PNs project via a dual olfactory pathway to the mushroom bodies (MB). This pathway comprises the medial (m-ALT) and the lateral antennal lobe tract (l-ALT). PNs from both tracts transmit information from a wide range of similar odors, but with distinct differences in coding properties...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351460/macrophage-dependent-impairment-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-autoreceptor-function-in-sympathetic-neurons-from-doca-salt-but-not-high-fat-diet-induced-hypertensive-rats
#3
Ryan Kwun-Yee Mui, Roxanne Fernandes, Hannah Garver, Nico van Rooijen, James J Galligan
DOCA-salt and obesity-related hypertension are associated with inflammation and sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity. Prejunctional α2-adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) provide negative feedback to norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerves through inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels. Increased neuronal norepinephrine release in DOCA-salt and obesity-related hypertension occurs through impaired α2AR signaling, however, the mechanisms involved are unclear. Mesenteric arteries are resistance arteries that receive sympathetic innervation from the superior mesenteric and celiac ganglia (SMCG)...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350395/early-results-of-aortic-arch-reconstruction-and-bilateral-pulmonary-arteries-banding-modification-of-the-norwood-operation-for-treatment-of-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome
#4
Jacek W Pająk, Michał Buczyński, Piotr Stanek, Grzegorz Zalewski, Marek Wites, Lesław Szydłowski, Lidia Tomkiewicz-Pająk
BACKGROUND: In the period from 2003 to the end of 2015, 96 Norwood I procedures were performed in Pediatric Heart Surgery Department in Katowice, Poland, in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). AIM: This paper presents a retrospective analysis of early surgical results. METHODS: The patients consisted of two groups: Group I included 59 children operated on in the years 2003-2012 in whom the stage I Norwood procedure with the Sano modification was performed with the aortic arch reconstructed by use of a homogenous pulmonary artery patch or a bovine pericardial patch...
January 19, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349542/laparoscopic-pancreaticoduodenectomy-with-reconstruction-of-the-mesentericoportal-vein-with-the-parietal-peritoneum-and-the-falciform-ligament
#5
Safi Dokmak, Béatrice Aussilhou, Mélanie Calmels, Houcine Maghrebi, Fadhel Samir Ftériche, Olivier Soubrane, Alain Sauvanet
BACKGROUND: With the improvement of the surgical technique of Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD), indications will be extended to patients with vascular invasion. With LPD, vascular grafts for reconstruction are more frequently needed because adequate mobilization is not always done and vascular grafts can safely facilitate reconstruction. We describe our experience of reconstruction with the falciform ligament. METHODS: Venous reconstruction is performed after removal of the specimen...
January 18, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346932/gap-junction-coupling-and-atp-sensitive-potassium-channels-in-human-%C3%AE-cell-clusters-effects-on-emergent-dynamics
#6
A Loppini, M G Pedersen, M Braun, S Filippi
The importance of gap-junction coupling between β cells in pancreatic islets is well established in mouse. Such ultrastructural connections synchronize cellular activity, confine biological heterogeneity, and enhance insulin pulsatility. Dysfunction of coupling has been associated with diabetes and altered β-cell function. However, the role of gap junctions between human β cells is still largely unexplored. By using patch-clamp recordings of β cells from human donors, we previously estimated electrical properties of these channels by mathematical modeling of pairs of human β cells...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343120/an-update-on-the-advancing-high-throughput-screening-techniques-for-patch-clamp-based-ion-channel-screens-implications-for-drug-discovery
#7
Alison Obergrussberger, Tom A Goetze, Nina Brinkwirth, Nadine Becker, Søren Friis, Markus Rapedius, Claudia Haarmann, Ilka Rinke-Weiß, Sonja Stölzle-Feix, Andrea Brüggemann, Michael George, Niels Fertig
Automated patch clamp (APC) devices have become commonplace in many industrial and academic labs. Their ease-of-use and flexibility have ensured that users can perform routine screening experiments and complex kinetic experiments on the same device without the need for months of training and experience. APC devices are being developed to increase throughput and flexibility. Areas covered: Experimental options such as temperature control, internal solution exchange and current clamp have been available on some APC devices for some time, and are being introduced on other devices...
January 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342363/differential-effects-of-inhibitory-g-protein-isoforms-on-g-protein-gated-inwardly-rectifying-k-currents-in-adult-murine-atria
#8
Muriel Nobles, David Montaigne, Sonia Sebastian, Lutz Birnbaumer, Andrew Tinker
G-protein gated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels are the major inwardly rectifying K+ currents in cardiac atrial myocytes and an important determinant of atrial electrophysiology. Inhibitory G-protein alpha subunits can both mediate activation via acetylcholine but can also supress basal currents in the absence of agonist. We studied this phenomenon using whole cell patch clamping in murine atria from mice with global genetic deletion of Gαi2, combined deletion of Gαi1/Gαi3 and littermate controls...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341884/acute-stress-persistently-alters-locus-coeruleus-function-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#9
Olga Borodovitsyna, Matthew D Flamini, Daniel J Chandler
Stress is a physiological state characterized by altered neuroendocrine signaling, behavioral arousal, and anxiety. Chronic or traumatic stress may predispose individuals for multiple somatic and psychiatric illnesses. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a major node in the stress response that integrates input from multiple stress responsive neural circuits and releases norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system to promote vigilance and anxiety. Many mood disorders associated with prior stress are characterized by chronically altered noradrenergic signaling, yet the long-term impact of an acute stressor on LC function is not clear...
January 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341416/resveratrol-influences-pancreatic-islets-by-opposing-effects-on-electrical-activity-and-insulin-release
#10
Simone Brouwer, Theresa Hoffmeister, Anne Gresch, Lisa Schönhoff, Martina Düfer
SCOPE: Resveratrol is suggested to improve glycemic control by activation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and has already been tested clinically. Our investigation characterizes the targets of resveratrol in pancreatic beta cells and their contribution to short- and long-term effects on insulin secretion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Islets or beta cells were isolated from C57Bl/6N mice. Electrophysiology was performed with microelectrode arrays and patch-clamp technique, insulin secretion and content were determined by radioimmunoassay, cAMP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration by fluorescence methods...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335317/reduced-n-type-ca2-channels-in-atrioventricular-ganglion-neurons-are-involved-in-ventricular-arrhythmogenesis
#11
Dongze Zhang, Huiyin Tu, Liang Cao, Hong Zheng, Robert L Muelleman, Michael C Wadman, Yu-Long Li
BACKGROUND: Attenuated cardiac vagal activity is associated with ventricular arrhythmogenesis and related mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. Our recent study has shown that expression of N-type Ca2+ channel α-subunits (Cav2.2-α) and N-type Ca2+ currents are reduced in intracardiac ganglion neurons from rats with chronic heart failure. Rat intracardiac ganglia are divided into the atrioventricular ganglion (AVG) and sinoatrial ganglion. Ventricular myocardium receives projection of neuronal terminals only from the AVG...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333591/differential-inhibition-of-nav1-7-and-neuropathic-pain-by-hybridoma-produced-and-recombinant-monoclonal-antibodies-that-target-nav1-7-differential-activities-of-nav1-7-targeting-monoclonal-antibodies
#12
Sangsu Bang, Jiho Yoo, Xingrui Gong, Di Liu, Qingjian Han, Xin Luo, Wonseok Chang, Gang Chen, Sang-Taek Im, Yong Ho Kim, Judith A Strong, Ma-Zhong Zhang, Jun-Ming Zhang, Seok-Yong Lee, Ru-Rong Ji
The voltage-gated Na+ channel subtype Nav1.7 is important for pain and itch in rodents and humans. We previously showed that a Nav1.7-targeting monoclonal antibody (SVmab) reduces Na+ currents and pain and itch responses in mice. Here, we investigated whether recombinant SVmab (rSVmab) binds to and blocks Nav1.7 similar to SVmab. ELISA tests revealed that SVmab was capable of binding to Nav1.7-expressing HEK293 cells, mouse DRG neurons, human nerve tissue, and the voltage-sensor domain II of Nav1.7. In contrast, rSVmab showed no or weak binding to Nav1...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330796/monitoring-functional-responses-to-hypoxia-in-single-carotid-body-cells
#13
Ana María Muñoz-Cabello, Hortensia Torres-Torrelo, Ignacio Arias-Mayenco, Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, José López-Barneo
The carotid body is the main arterial chemoreceptor in mammals that mediates the cardiorespiratory reflexes activated by acute hypoxia. Here we describe the protocols followed in our laboratory to study responsiveness to hypoxia of single, enzymatically dispersed, glomus cells monitored by microfluorimetry and the patch-clamp technique.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330128/exploiting-ion-channel-structure-to-assess-rare-variant-pathogenicity
#14
Brett M Kroncke, Tao Yang, Prince Kannankeril, M Benjamin Shoemaker, Dan M Roden
BACKGROUND: A 27-year-old female was seen for long QT syndrome. She was found to be a carrier of two variants, KCNQ1 Val162Met and KCNH2 Ser55Leu, and both were annotated as pathogenic by a diagnostic laboratory in part because of sequence proximity to other known pathogenic variants. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between both the KCNQ1 and KCNH2 variants and clinical significance using protein structure, in vitro functional assays, and familial segregation...
January 9, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330035/harmine-enhances-gabaergic-transmission-onto-basoamygdala-projection-neurons-in-mice
#15
Wei-Zhu Liu, Bo-Wei Huang, Wen-Jie You, Ping Hu, Xue-Hui Wang, Jun-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Bin Xu, Zong-Yong Zhang, Bing-Xing Pan, Wen-Hua Zhang
Emerging evidence indicates that loss of inhibitory tone in amygdala with its subsequent overactivation contributes to the development of multiple mental disorders such as anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Harmine is a member of natural β-carboline alkaloids which can readily cross the blood brain barrier and displays significant antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in rodents. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, by using whole-cell patch clamp recordings in in vitro amygdala slices, we examined the effect of harmine on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission onto basal amygdala (BA) projection neurons (PNs)...
January 9, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329401/morphological-and-functional-characterization-of-non-fast-spiking-gabaergic-interneurons-in-layer-4-microcircuitry-of-rat-barrel-cortex
#16
Vishalini Emmenegger, Guanxiao Qi, Haijun Wang, Dirk Feldmeyer
GABAergic interneurons are notorious for their heterogeneity, despite constituting a small fraction of the neuronal population in the neocortex. Classification of interneurons is crucial for understanding their widespread cortical functions as they provide a complex and dynamic network, balancing excitation and inhibition. Here, we investigated different types of non-fast-spiking (nFS) interneurons in Layer 4 (L4) of rat barrel cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings with biocytin-filling. Based on a quantitative analysis on a combination of morphological and electrophysiological parameters, we identified 5 distinct types of L4 nFS interneurons: 1) trans-columnar projecting interneurons,2) locally projecting non-Martinotti-like interneurons, 3) supra-granular projecting Martinotti-like interneurons,4) intra-columnar projecting VIP-like interneurons,and5) locally projecting neurogliaform-like interneurons...
January 10, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326166/a-skeletal-muscle-l-type-ca2-channel-with-a-mutation-in-the-selectivity-filter-cav1-1-e1014k-conducts-k
#17
Donald Beqollari, Karen Dockstader, Roger A Bannister
A glutamate to lysine substitution at position 1014 within the selectivity filter of the skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel (CaV1.1) abolishes Ca2+ flux through the channel pore. Mice engineered to exclusively express the mutant channel display accelerated muscle fatigue, changes in muscle composition and altered metabolism relative to wild-type littermates. By contrast, mice expressing another mutant CaV1.1 channel that is impermeable to Ca2+ (CaV1.1 N617D) have shown no detectable phenotypic differences from wild-type mice to date...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325900/orexin-b-modulates-synaptic-transmission-of-rod-bipolar-cells-in-rat-retina
#18
Gong Zhang, Xiao-Hua Wu, Guo-Zhong Xu, Shi-Jun Weng, Xiong-Li Yang, Yong-Mei Zhong
Orexin-A, -B play a crucial role in arousal and feeding by activating two G-protein-coupled receptors: orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and orexin receptor 2 (OX2R). Orexins, along with orexin receptors, are expressed in retinal neurons, and they have been shown to differentially modulate excitatory AMPA receptors of amacrine and ganglion cells in the inner retina. In this work we report that orexin-B modulates the activity of rod bipolar cells (RBCs) located in the outer retina of rat. Intravitreal injection of orexin-B increased the amplitude of the scotopic electroretinographic b-wave, a reflection of RBC activity, recorded in vivo...
January 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324898/the-etomidate-analog-et-26-hcl-retains-superior-myocardial-performance-comparisons-with-etomidate-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#19
Xingxing Liu, Haibo Song, Jun Yang, Cheng Zhou, Yi Kang, Linghui Yang, Jin Liu, Wensheng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: (R)-2-methoxyethyl1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate hydrochloride (ET-26 HCl) is a novel etomidate analogue. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether ET-26 HCl could retain the superior myocardial performance of etomidate in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: In vivo, the influence of ET-26 HCl and etomidate on the cardiac function of dogs was confirmed using echocardiography and electrocardiogram. In vitro, a Langendorff preparation was used to examine direct myocardial performance in isolated rat hearts, and a whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to study effects on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324661/protein-activity-of-the-fusarium-fujikuroi-rhodopsins-caro-and-opsa-and-their-relation-to-fungus-plant-interaction
#20
Alexander Adam, Stephan Deimel, Javier Pardo-Medina, Jorge García-Martínez, Tilen Konte, M Carmen Limón, Javier Avalos, Ulrich Terpitz
Fungi possess diverse photosensory proteins that allow them to perceive different light wavelengths and to adapt to changing light conditions in their environment. The biological and physiological roles of the green light-sensing rhodopsins in fungi are not yet resolved. The rice plant pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi exhibits two different rhodopsins, CarO and OpsA. CarO was previously characterized as a light-driven proton pump. We further analyzed the pumping behavior of CarO by patch-clamp experiments. Our data show that CarO pumping activity is strongly augmented in the presence of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid and in sodium acetate, in a dose-dependent manner under slightly acidic conditions...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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