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Biomechanical engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885572/improving-tribological-and-anti-bacterial-properties-of-titanium-external-fixation-pins-through-surface-ceramic-conversion
#1
Huan Dong, Tatiana Mukinay, Maojun Li, Richard Hood, Sein Leung Soo, Simon Cockshott, Rachel Sammons, Xiaoying Li
In this study, an advanced ceramic conversion surface engineering technology has been applied for the first time to self-drilling Ti6Al4V external fixation pins to improve their performance in terms of biomechanical, bio-tribological and antibacterial properties. Systematic characterisation of the ceramic conversion treated Ti pins was carried out using Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy, nano- and micro-indentation and scratching; the biomechanical and bio-tribological properties of the surface engineered Ti pins were evaluated by insertion into high density bone simulation material; and the antibacterial behaviour was assessed with Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 6571...
January 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885191/-modeling-and-simulation-of-trabecular-pattern-formation-in-a-cancellous-bone-defect-under-mechanical-forces
#2
Taiji Adachi
Understanding regeneration of the trabecular structure in cancellous bone defects is an important issue in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Biochemical and biomechanical viewpoints are indispensable for understanding the fundamental mechanism that underlies the regeneration of the trabecular structure. In vitro observations of the Turing pattern-like bone differentiation into osteoblasts from human mesenchymal stem cells suggest that mathematical modeling and simulation based on a reaction-diffusion system model would help us to understand the mechanism of trabecular pattern formation during cancellous bone regeneration...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882697/biomechanical-properties-of-an-implanted-engineered-tubular-gut-sphincter-complex
#3
Elie Zakhem, Mostafa El Bahrawy, Giuseppe Orlando, Khalil N Bitar
Neuromuscular diseases of the gut alter the normal motility patterns. Although surgical intervention remains the standard treatment, preservation of the sphincter attached to the rest of the gut is challenging. The present study aimed to evaluate a bioengineered gut-sphincter complex following its subcutaneous implantation for 4 weeks in rats. Engineered innervated human smooth muscle sheets and innervated human sphincters with a predefined alignment were placed around tubular scaffolds to create a gut-sphincter complex...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872012/biomimetic-collagen-elastin-meshes-for-ventral-hernia-repair-in-a-rat-model
#4
Silvia Minardi, Francesca Taraballi, Xin Wang, Fernando J Cabrera, Jeffrey L Van Eps, Andrew B Robbins, Monica Sandri, Michael R Moreno, Bradley K Weiner, Ennio Tasciotti
: Ventral hernia repair remains a major clinical need. Herein, we formulated a type I collagen/elastin crosslinked blend (CollE) for the fabrication of biomimetic meshes for ventral hernia repair. To evaluate the effect of architecture on the performance of the implants, CollE was formulated both as flat sheets (CollE Sheets) and porous scaffolds (CollE Scaffolds). The morphology, hydrophylicity and in vitro degradation were assessed by SEM, water contact angle and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively...
November 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856282/numerical-investigation-of-the-influence-of-pattern-topology-on-the-mechanical-behavior-of-pegda-hydrogels
#5
Tao Jin, Ilinca Stanciulescu
: Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels can be potentially used as scaffold material for tissue engineered heart valves (TEHVs) due to their good biocompatibility and biomechanical tunability. The photolithographic patterning technique is an effective approach to pattern PEGDA hydrogels to mimic the mechanical behavior of native biological tissues that are intrinsically anisotropic. The material properties of patterned PEGDA hydrogels largely depend on the pattern topology...
November 14, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856147/in-vivo-tissue-engineered-bone-versus-autologous-bone-stability-and-structure
#6
R M Zimmerer, P Jehn, H Kokemüller, R Abedian, M Lalk, F Tavassol, N-C Gellrich, S Spalthoff
This pilot study investigated the biomechanical properties of prefabricated, vascularized bioartificial bone grafts, which may provide an alternative bone source for the restoration of segmental osseous defects. Vascularized bioartificial bone grafts comprise an artificial customized scaffold made of beta-tricalcium phosphate. Bone formation along the prefabricated scaffold is induced by autogenous cancellous bone. Vascularization of the bone graft is provided by the host's vascular system. Within 6 months, a mammalian bioreactor (sheep were used in the present study) creates heterotopic vascularized bioartificial bone grafts of a predetermined anatomical shape, which can be harvested for reconstructing osseous defects...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854562/full-shift-and-task-specific-upper-extremity-muscle-activity-among-u-s-large-herd-dairy-parlor-workers
#7
David I Douphrate, Nathan B Fethke, Matthew W Nonnenmann, Anabel Rodriguez, Robert Hagevoort, David Gimeno Ruiz de Porras
U.S. large-herd dairy parlor workers experience a high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the upper extremity. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare full-shift and task-specific muscle activity of the upper extremity among parlor workers. Surface EMG data was recorded continuously throughout a full work shift for each participant (n=60). For a subset of participants (n=33) muscular effort was estimated for milking task cycles. Lower muscle activity levels and higher percent muscular rest was observed among rotary parlor participants as compared to herringbone and parallel parlor participants for anterior deltoid, forearm flexor and forearm extensor muscles...
November 17, 2016: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846786/systematic-comparison-of-protocols-for-the-preparation-of-human-articular-cartilage-for-use-as-scaffold-material-in-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#8
Cornelia Schneider, Johannes Lehmann, Gerjo van Osch, Florian Hildner, Andreas Herbert Teuschl, Xavier Monforte, David Miosga, Patrick Heimel, Eleni Priglinger, Heinz Redl, Susanne Wolbank, Sylvia Nürnberger
Natural extracellular matrix (ECM) derived biomaterials from decellularized allogenic tissues are of increasing interest for tissue engineering since their structure and composition provide a complexity that is not achievable with current manufacturing techniques. The prerequisite to bring allogenic tissue from bench to bedside as a functional biomaterial is the full removal of cells while preserving most of its native characteristics such as structure and composition. The exceptionally dense structure of articular cartilage, however, poses a special challenge for decellularisation, scaffold preparation and reseeding...
November 15, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845852/platelet-rich-plasma-a-source-of-autologous-growth-factors-and-biomimetic-scaffold-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#9
Mikel Sánchez, Eduardo Anitua, Diego Delgado, Peio Sanchez, Roberto Prado, Gorka Orive, Sabino Padilla
In mammals, axons of injured peripheral nerves (PNI) can and do regenerate, but often the functional recovery is incomplete or suboptimal. In recent years, in vivo tissue engineering approaches through molecular intervention and scaffolding are offering promising outcomes. Evidence is accumulating in both preclinical and clinical settings indicating that platelet rich plasma (PRP) and fibrin scaffolds obtained from this technology hold an important adjuvant therapeutic potential. Areas covered: This review addresses current molecular and cellular data in intrinsic nerve repair processes and describes different strategies to harness and enhance these processes by using biochemical and biomechanical cues...
November 15, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843707/fresh-and-frozen-tissue-engineered-three-dimensional-bone-ligament-bone-constructs-for-sheep-anterior-cruciate-ligament-repair-following-a-2-year-implantation
#10
Vasudevan Mahalingam, Edward M Wojtys, Deneen M Wellik, Ellen M Arruda, Lisa M Larkin
Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) often require surgical reconstruction utilizing tendon grafts to restore knee function and stability. Some current graft options for ACL repair are associated with poor long-term outcomes. Our laboratory has fabricated tissue-engineered bone-ligament-bone (BLB) constructs that demonstrate native ligament regeneration and advancement toward native ACL mechanical properties in a sheep ACL reconstruction model. Prior work has shown that freezing BLBs as a method of preservation resulted in similar outcomes compared with fresh BLBs after 6-month implantation...
2016: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836574/towards-bioreactor-development-with-physiological-motion-control-and-its-applications
#11
Marcus Stoffel, Wolfgang Willenberg, Marzieh Azarnoosh, Nadine Fuhrmann-Nelles, Bei Zhou, Bernd Markert
In biomedical applications bioreactors are used, which are able to apply mechanical loadings under cultivation conditions on biological tissues. However, complex mechanobiological evolutions, such as the dependency between mechanical properties and cell activity, depend strongly on the applied loading conditions. This requires correct physiological movements and loadings in bioreactors. The aim of the present study is to develop bioreactors, in which native and artificial biological tissues can be cultivated under physiological conditions in knee joints and spinal motion segments...
November 8, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836503/in-vitro-hip-testing-in-the-international-society-of-biomechanics-coordinate-system
#12
Richard J van Arkel, Jonathan R T Jeffers
Many innovative experiments are designed to answer research questions about hip biomechanics, however many fail to define a coordinate system. This makes comparisons between studies unreliable and is an unnecessary hurdle in extrapolating experimental results to clinical reality. The aim of this study was to present a specimen mounting protocol which aligns and registers hip specimens in the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) coordinate system, which is defined by bony landmarks that are identified by palpation of the patient׳s body...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830879/a-comparative-approach-to-the-cad-model-of-a-dog-femur
#13
Ozan Turamanlar, Ozgur Verim, Abdurrahman Karabulut
Computer assisted technologies offers new opportunities in medical imaging and rapid prototyping in biomechanical engineering. Three dimensional modelling of soft tissues and bones are becoming more important. The accuracy of the analysis in modelling processes depends on the outline of the tissues derived from medical images. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the accuracy of three dimensional (3D) models of a dog femur derived from computed tomography (CT) data by using point cloud method (PCM) and boundary line method (BLM) on several modeling software...
November 10, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826794/the-challenge-in-using-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-for-recellularization-of-decellularized-cartilage
#14
REVIEW
Zhao Huang, Owen Godkin, Gundula Schulze-Tanzil
Some decellularized musculoskeletal extracellular matrices (ECM)s derived from tissues such as bone, tendon and fibrocartilaginous meniscus have already been clinical use for tissue reconstruction. Repair of articular cartilage with its unique zonal ECM architecture and composition is still an unsolved problem, and the question is whether allogenic or xenogeneic decellularized cartilage ECM could serve as a biomimetic scaffold for this purpose.Hence, this survey outlines the present state of preparing decellularized cartilage ECM-derived scaffolds or composites for reconstruction of different cartilage types and of reseeding it particularly with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)...
November 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818306/i-wire-heart-on-a-chip-ii-biomechanical-analysis-of-contractile-three-dimensional-cardiomyocyte-tissue-constructs
#15
Alison K Schroer, Matthew S Shotwell, Veniamin Y Sidorov, John P Wikswo, W David Merryman
This companion study presents the biomechanical analysis of the "I-Wire" platform using a modified Hill model of muscle mechanics that allows for further characterization of construct function and response to perturbation. The I-Wire engineered cardiac tissue construct (ECTC) is a novel experimental platform to investigate cardiac cell mechanics during auxotonic contraction. Whereas passive biomaterials often exhibit nonlinear and dissipative behavior, active tissue equivalents, such as ECTCs, also expend metabolic energy to perform mechanical work that presents additional challenges in quantifying their properties...
November 3, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816181/acoustic-emission-in-orthopaedics-a-state-of-the-art-review
#16
Richard A Kapur
: Acoustic emission (AE) is the phenomenon of sonic and ultrasonic wave generation by materials as they undergo deformation and fracture processes. AE monitoring is widely used throughout civil and mechanical engineering as a highly sensitive and non-destructive technique for structural health monitoring. Advances in computational power and digital data storage have generated much further interest in the possible applications of AE technology. Of particular interest has been its application within the field of Orthopaedic surgery...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813286/crispr-cas9-editing-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-engineering-inflammation-resistant-tissues
#17
Jonathan M Brunger, Ananya Zutshi, Vincent P Willard, Charles A Gersbach, Farshid Guilak
OBJECTIVE: Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1) are elevated in diseased or injured tissues and promote rapid tissue degradation while preventing stem cell differentiation. The goals of this study were to engineer inflammation-resistant induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through deletion of the IL-1 signaling pathway and to demonstrate the utility of these cells for engineering replacements for diseased or damaged tissues. METHODS: Targeted deletion of the interleukin 1 receptor 1 (Il1r1) gene in murine iPSCs was achieved using the RNA-guided, site-specific CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering system...
November 3, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810730/an-interpenetrating-network-composite-for-a-regenerative-spinal-disc-application
#18
A H Chan, P C Boughton, A J Ruys, M L Oyen
Severe degeneration of the intervertebral disc has an immensely debilitating effect on quality of life that has become a serious health and economic burden throughout the world. The disc plays an integral role in biomechanical movement and support within the spine. The emergence of tissue engineering endeavours to restore the structural characteristics and functionality of the native tissue. Hydrogels have been widely investigated as a candidate for regeneration of the gelatinous nucleus pulposus due to its architectural resemblance and fluid retention characteristics...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806676/the-role-of-cell-seeding-bio-scaffolds-and-the-in-vivo-microenvironment-in-the-guided-generation-of-osteochondral-composite-tissue
#19
Jiao Wei, Tanja Herrler, Kai Liu, Dong Han, Mei Yang, Chuanchang Dai, Qing Feng Li
Tissue engineering based on cell seeding, bio-scaffolds, and growth factors has been widely applied for the reconstruction of tissue defects. Recent progress has fueled in vivo tissue engineering techniques in becoming hot topics in regenerative medicine and reconstructive surgery. To improve the efficacy of tissue engineering, we here investigated the roles of cell seeding, bio-scaffolds, growth factors, and in-vivo microenvironment in tissue regeneration. Bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs), allogenic demineralized bone matrix (DBM) as bio-scaffold, and growth factors bone morphogenetic protein 2/ transforming growth factor (BMP-2/TGF-β1), and the in-vivo microenvironment of rib periosteum and perichondrium were used in different combinations for the generation of osteochondral composite tissue...
November 2, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802781/blood-flow-in-the-cerebral-venous-system-modeling-and-simulation
#20
Olivia Miraucourt, Stéphanie Salmon, Marcela Szopos, Marc Thiriet
The development of a software platform incorporating all aspects, from medical imaging data, through three-dimensional reconstruction and suitable meshing, up to simulation of blood flow in patient-specific geometries, is a crucial challenge in biomedical engineering. In the present study, a fully three-dimensional blood flow simulation is carried out through a complete rigid macrovascular circuit, namely the intracranial venous network, instead of a reduced order simulation and partial vascular network. The biomechanical modeling step is carefully analyzed and leads to the description of the flow governed by the dimensionless Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible viscous fluid...
November 1, 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
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