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Biomechanical engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097935/finite-element-simulations-of-the-head-brain-responses-to-the-top-impacts-of-a-construction-helmet-effects-of-the-neck-and-body-mass
#1
John Z Wu, Christopher S Pan, Bryan M Wimer, Charles L Rosen
Traumatic brain injuries are among the most common severely disabling injuries in the United States. Construction helmets are considered essential personal protective equipment for reducing traumatic brain injury risks at work sites. In this study, we proposed a practical finite element modeling approach that would be suitable for engineers to optimize construction helmet design. The finite element model includes all essential anatomical structures of a human head (i.e. skin, scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, brain, medulla, spinal cord, cervical vertebrae, and discs) and all major engineering components of a construction helmet (i...
January 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089422/low-magnitude-mechanical-signals-and-the-spine-a-review-of-current-and-future-applications
#2
REVIEW
Martin H Pham, Zorica Buser, Jeffrey C Wang, Frank L Acosta
Animal and human studies demonstrate the anabolic properties of low-magnitude mechanical stimulation (LMMS) in its ability to improve bone formation by enhancing the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells and their subsequent commitment down an osteoblastic lineage. Response to mechanical strains as low as 10μɛ have been seen, illustrating the sensitivity of mechanosensory cells to mechanotransduction pathways. Applications to the spine include treatment of osteoporosis in preparation for instrumented fusion, fracture reduction in spinal cord injury patients to slow bone mineral density loss, and bone tissue engineering and enhancement of bone-implant osseointegration for pseudarthrosis and hardware failure...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087486/enhanced-articular-cartilage-by-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-enzymatically-mediated-transiently-rgds-functionalized-collagen-mimetic-hydrogels
#3
Paresh A Parmar, Jean-Philippe St-Pierre, Lesley W Chow, Christopher D Spicer, Violet Stoichevska, Yong Y Peng, Jerome A Werkmeister, John A M Ramshaw, Molly M Stevens
: Recapitulation of the articular cartilage microenvironment for regenerative medicine applications faces significant challenges due to the complex and dynamic biochemical and biomechanical nature of native tissue. Towards the goal of biomaterial designs that enable the temporal presentation of bioactive sequences, recombinant bacterial collagens such as Streptococcal collagen-like 2 (Scl2) proteins can be employed to incorporate multiple specific bioactive and biodegradable peptide motifs into a single construct...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077052/examinations-of-a-new-long-term-degradable-electrospun-polycaprolactone-scaffold-in-three-rat-abdominal-wall-models
#4
Hanna Jangö, Søren Gräs, Lise Christensen, Gunnar Lose
Alternative approaches to reinforce native tissue in reconstructive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are warranted. Tissue engineering combines the use of a scaffold with the regenerative potential of stem cells and is a promising new concept in urogynecology. Our objective was to evaluate whether a newly developed long-term degradable polycaprolactone scaffold could provide biomechanical reinforcement and function as a scaffold for autologous muscle fiber fragments. We performed a study with three different rat abdominal wall models where the scaffold with or without muscle fiber fragments was placed (1) subcutaneously (minimal load), (2) in a partial defect (partial load), and (3) in a full-thickness defect (heavy load)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072567/commentary-on-the-integration-of-model-sharing-and-reproducibility-analysis-to-scholarly-publishing-workflow-in-computational-biomechanics
#5
Ahmet Erdemir, Trent M Guess, Jason P Halloran, Luca Modenese, Jeffrey A Reinbolt, Darryl G Thelen, Brian R Umberger, Ahmet Erdemir, Trent M Guess, Jason P Halloran, Luca Modenese, Jeffrey A Reinbolt, Darryl G Thelen, Brian R Umberger, Brian R Umberger, Ahmet Erdemir, Darryl G Thelen, Trent M Guess, Jeffrey A Reinbolt, Luca Modenese, Jason P Halloran
OBJECTIVE: The overall goal of this paper is to demonstrate that dissemination of models and analyses for assessing the reproducibility of simulation results can be incorporated in the scientific review process in biomechanics. METHODS: As part of a special issue on model sharing and reproducibility in the IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, two manuscripts on computational biomechanics were submitted: Rajagopal et al., IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 2016 and Schmitz and Piovesan, IEEE Trans...
October 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070690/reconstruction-of-defects-of-the-trachea
#6
Margot Den Hondt, Jan Jeroen Vranckx
The trachea has a complex anatomy to fulfill its tasks. Its unique fibro-cartilaginous structure maintains an open conduit during respiration, and provides vertical elasticity for deglutition, mobility of the neck and speech. Blood vessels pierce the intercartilaginous ligaments to perfuse the ciliated epithelium, which ensures effective mucociliary clearance. Removal of a tracheal segment affected by benign or malignant disease requires airtight restoration of the continuity of the tube. When direct approximation of both tracheal ends is no longer feasible, a reconstruction is needed...
February 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069510/species-specific-effects-of-aortic-valve-decellularization
#7
Mitchell C VeDepo, Eric E Buse, Rachael W Quinn, Todd Williams, Michael S Detamore, Richard A Hopkins, Gabriel L Converse
: Decellularized heart valves have great potential as a stand-alone valve replacement or as a scaffold for tissue engineering heart valves. Before decellularized valves can be widely used clinically, regulatory standards require pre-clinical testing in an animal model, often sheep. Numerous decellularization protocols have been applied to both human and ovine valves; however, the ways in which a specific process may affect valves of these species differently have not been reported. In the current study, the comparative effects of decellularization were evaluated for human and ovine aortic valves by measuring mechanical and biochemical properties...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060331/biomechanical-characterization-of-human-soft-tissues-using-indentation-and-tensile-testing
#8
Michelle Griffin, Yaami Premakumar, Alexander Seifalian, Peter Edward Butler, Matthew Szarko
Regenerative medicine aims to engineer materials to replace or restore damaged or diseased organs. The mechanical properties of such materials should mimic the human tissues they are aiming to replace; to provide the required anatomical shape, the materials must be able to sustain the mechanical forces they will experience when implanted at the defect site. Although the mechanical properties of tissue-engineered scaffolds are of great importance, many human tissues that undergo restoration with engineered materials have not been fully biomechanically characterized...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060270/building-finite-element-models-to-investigate-zebrafish-jaw-biomechanics
#9
Lucy H Brunt, Karen A Roddy, Emily J Rayfield, Chrissy L Hammond
Skeletal morphogenesis occurs through tightly regulated cell behaviors during development; many cell types alter their behavior in response to mechanical strain. Skeletal joints are subjected to dynamic mechanical loading. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a computational method, frequently used in engineering that can predict how a material or structure will respond to mechanical input. By dividing a whole system (in this case the zebrafish jaw skeleton) into a mesh of smaller 'finite elements', FEA can be used to calculate the mechanical response of the structure to external loads...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058277/raman-spectroscopy-reveals-new-insights-into-the-zonal-organization-of-native-and-tissue-engineered-articular-cartilage
#10
Mads S Bergholt, Jean-Philippe St-Pierre, Giovanni S Offeddu, Paresh A Parmar, Michael B Albro, Jennifer L Puetzer, Michelle L Oyen, Molly M Stevens
Tissue architecture is intimately linked with its functions, and loss of tissue organization is often associated with pathologies. The intricate depth-dependent extracellular matrix (ECM) arrangement in articular cartilage is critical to its biomechanical functions. In this study, we developed a Raman spectroscopic imaging approach to gain new insight into the depth-dependent arrangement of native and tissue-engineered articular cartilage using bovine tissues and cells. Our results revealed previously unreported tissue complexity into at least six zones above the tidemark based on a principal component analysis and k-means clustering analysis of the distribution and orientation of the main ECM components...
December 28, 2016: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056713/three-dimensional-printed-bone-scaffolds-the-role-of-nano-micro-hydroxyapatite-particles-on-the-adhesion-and-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#11
Marco Domingos, Antonio Gloria, Jorge Coelho, Paulo Bartolo, Joaquim Ciurana
Bone tissue engineering is strongly dependent on the use of three-dimensional scaffolds that can act as templates to accommodate cells and support tissue ingrowth. Despite its wide application in tissue engineering research, polycaprolactone presents a very limited ability to induce adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic cell differentiation. To overcome some of these limitations, different calcium phosphates, such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, have been employed with relative success. This work investigates the influence of nano-hydroxyapatite and micro-hydroxyapatite (nHA and mHA, respectively) particles on the in vitro biomechanical performance of polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite scaffolds...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056131/journal-of-biomechanical-engineering-legacy-paper-2016
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047096/we-h-202-02-biomechanical-modeling-of-anatomical-response-over-the-course-of-therapy
#13
K Brock
: Deformable image registration has now been commercially available for several years, with solid performance in a number of sites and for several applications including contour and dose mapping. However, more complex applications have arisen, such as assessing response to radiation therapy over time, registering images pre- and post-surgery, and auto-segmentation from atlases. These applications require innovative registration algorithms to achieve accurate alignment. The goal of this session is to highlight emerging registration technology and these new applications...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024607/robust-formulation-for-the-design-of-tissue-engineering-scaffolds-a-comprehensive-study-on-structural-anisotropy-viscoelasticity-and-degradation-of-3d-scaffolds-fabricated-with-customized-desktop-robot-based-rapid-prototyping-drbrp-system
#14
M Enamul Hoque
This study investigates the scaffolds' structural anisotropy (i.e. the effect of loading direction), viscoelasticity (i.e. the effect of cross head speed or strain rate), and the influence of simulated physiological environment (PBS solution at 37°C) on the mechanical properties. Besides, the in vitro degradation study has also been performed that evaluates the effect of variation in material and lay-down pattern on the scaffolds' degradation kinetics in terms of mass loss, and change in morphological and mechanical properties...
March 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019665/the-impact-of-left-ventricular-stretching-in-model-cultivations-with-neonatal-cardiomyocytes-in-a-whole-heart-bioreactor
#15
Jörn Hülsmann, Hug Aubin, Alexander Wehrmann, Artur Lichtenberg, Payam Akhyari
Here, we investigate the impact of integrated three-dimensional (3D) left ventricular (LV) stretching on myocardial maturation in a whole-heart bioreactor setting. Therefore, decellularized rat hearts were selectively repopulated with rodent neonatal cardiomyocytes (5•10(6) cells per heart) and cultured over 5 d. Continuous medium perfusion was maintained through the coronary artery system in a customized whole-heart bioreactor system with or without integrated biomechanical stimulation of LV. 3D repopulation effectiveness and cellular vitality were evaluated by repetitive metabolic WST-1 assays and 3D confocal microscopy analysis through fluorescent staining, also assessing cellular organization...
December 26, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002916/mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-intervertebral-disc-regeneration
#16
G Vadalà, F Russo, L Ambrosio, R Papalia, V Denaro
Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common disabling symptoms affecting the adult population throughout the industrialized world. The main cause underlying this condition is intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD), which is characterized by progressive decrease of the proteoglycan content within the nucleus pulposus (NP), leading to disc dehydration and loss of its morpho-functional and biomechanical properties. To date, LBP treatment is based upon conservative and invasive procedures which are not capable of restoring the degenerative alterations of the disc, as they only help relieve the symptoms and/or slow down disc degeneration and are, nonetheless, characterized by significant comorbidities, costs and secondary risks...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002904/the-meniscus-vascularization-the-direct-correlation-with-tissue-composition-for-tissue-engineering-purposes
#17
A Di Giancamillo, L Mangiavini, I Tessaro, A Marmotti, R Scurati, G M Peretti
Meniscal lesions still represent an unsolved problem in clinical practice. Like the articular cartilage, meniscus has a scarce healing potential. Thus, when this tissue is damaged, the joint biomechanics is completely altered, leading to the development and progression of premature osteoarthritis. Therefore, in the last years, several tissue-engineering strategies have been developed to regenerate the meniscus with debated results. The comprehension of complex processes underlying meniscus maturation and structure is essential for a correct approach for the generation of a biomimetic meniscal substitute...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994992/ligaments-of-the-costovertebral-joints-including-biomechanics-innervations-and-clinical-applications-a-comprehensive-review-with-application-to-approaches-to-the-thoracic-spine
#18
REVIEW
Erfanul Saker, Rachel A Graham, Renee Nicholas, Anthony V D'Antoni, Marios Loukas, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
Few studies have examined the costovertebral joint and its ligaments in detail. Therefore, the following review was performed to better elucidate their anatomy, function and involvement in pathology. Standard search engines were used to find studies concerning the costovertebral joints and ligaments. These often-overlooked ligaments of the body serve important functions in maintaining appropriate alignment between the ribs and spine. With an increasing interest in minimally invasive approaches to the thoracic spine and an improved understanding of the function and innervation of these ligaments, surgeons and clinicians should have a good working knowledge of these structures...
November 11, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966916/injectable-and-3d-bioprinted-polysaccharide-hydrogels-from-cartilage-to-osteochondral-tissue-engineering
#19
Janani Radhakrishnan, Anuradha Subramanian, Uma Maheswari Krishnan, Swaminathan Sethuraman
Biomechanical performance of functional cartilage is executed by the exclusive anisotropic composition and spatially varying intricate architecture in articulating ends of diarthrodial joint. Osteochondral tissue constituting the articulating ends comprise superfical soft cartilage over hard subchondral bone sandwiching interfacial soft-hard tissue. The shock-absorbent, lubricating property of cartilage and mechanical stability of subchondral bone regions are rendered by extended chemical structure of glycosaminoglycans and mineral deposition, respectively...
December 14, 2016: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959397/engineering-of-the-human-vessel-wall-with-hair-follicle-stem-cells-in-vitro
#20
Zhi-Cheng Xu, Qun Zhang, Hong Li
Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are increasingly used as a stem cell paradigm in vascular tissue engineering due to the fact that they are a rich source of easily accessible multipotent adult stem cells. Promising results have been demonstrated with small diameter (less than 6 mm) tissue engineered blood vessels under low blood pressure, however engineering large vessels (>6 mm in diameter) remains a challenge due to the fact it demands a higher number of seed cells and higher quality biomechanical properties...
January 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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