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Biomechanical engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535384/invertebrate-biomechanics
#1
S N Patek, A P Summers
Invertebrate biomechanics focuses on mechanical analyses of non-vertebrate animals, which at root is no different in aim and technique from vertebrate biomechanics, or for that matter the biomechanics of plants and fungi. But invertebrates are special - they are fabulously diverse in form, habitat, and ecology and manage this without the use of hard, internal skeletons. They are also numerous and, in many cases, tractable in an experimental and field setting. In this Primer, we will probe three axes of invertebrate diversity: worms (Phylum Annelida), spiders (Class Arachnida) and insects (Class Insecta); three habitats: subterranean, terrestrial and airborne; and three integrations with other fields: ecology, engineering and evolution...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530131/a-novel-combination-of-a-polycaprolactone-fumarate-pclf-scaffold-with-polyethylene-terephthalate-pet-sutures-for-intra-articular-ligament-regeneration
#2
Joshua Parry, Eric R Wagner, Peter Kok, Mahrokh Dadsetan, Michael J Yaszemski, Andre J van Wijnen, Sanjeev Kakar
Intra-articular ligamentous injuries are typically unrepairable and have limited outcomes after graft reconstruction. A combination of porous polycaprolactone fumarate (PCLF) scaffolds with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sutures was developed with the goal of regenerating intra-articular ligaments. Scaffolds were fabricated by injecting PCLF over 3D-printed molds containing two strands of PET suture down its central pore followed by crosslinking. Scaffolds were seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from adipose tissue...
May 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515335/in-situ-bone-tissue-engineering-via-ultrasound-mediated-gene-delivery-to-endogenous-progenitor-cells-in-mini-pigs
#3
Maxim Bez, Dmitriy Sheyn, Wafa Tawackoli, Pablo Avalos, Galina Shapiro, Joseph C Giaconi, Xiaoyu Da, Shiran Ben David, Jayne Gavrity, Hani A Awad, Hyun W Bae, Eric J Ley, Thomas J Kremen, Zulma Gazit, Katherine W Ferrara, Gadi Pelled, Dan Gazit
More than 2 million bone-grafting procedures are performed each year using autografts or allografts. However, both options carry disadvantages, and there remains a clear medical need for the development of new therapies for massive bone loss and fracture nonunions. We hypothesized that localized ultrasound-mediated, microbubble-enhanced therapeutic gene delivery to endogenous stem cells would induce efficient bone regeneration and fracture repair. To test this hypothesis, we surgically created a critical-sized bone fracture in the tibiae of Yucatán mini-pigs, a clinically relevant large animal model...
May 17, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515058/tissue-engineered-cartilage-constructed-by-a-biotin-conjugated-anti-cd44-avidin-binding-technique-for-the-repairing-of-cartilage-defects-in-the-weight-bearing-area-of-knee-joints-in-pigs
#4
H Lin, J Zhou, L Cao, H R Wang, J Dong, Z R Chen
OBJECTIVES: The lack of effective treatment for cartilage defects has prompted investigations using tissue engineering techniques for their regeneration and repair. The success of tissue-engineered repair of cartilage may depend on the rapid and efficient adhesion of transplanted cells to a scaffold. Our aim in this study was to repair full-thickness defects in articular cartilage in the weight-bearing area of a porcine model, and to investigate whether the CD44 monoclonal antibody biotin-avidin (CBA) binding technique could provide satisfactory tissue-engineered cartilage...
May 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512850/in-situ-handheld-3d-bioprinting-for-cartilage-regeneration
#5
Claudia Di Bella, Serena Duchi, Cathal D O'Connell, Romane Blanchard, Cheryl Augustine, Zhilian Yue, Fletcher Thompson, Christopher Richards, Stephen Beirne, Carmine Onofrillo, Sebastien H Bauquier, Stewart D Ryan, Peter Pivonka, Gordon G Wallace, Peter F Choong
Articular cartilage injuries experienced at an early age can lead to the development of osteoarthritis later in life. In situ 3D printing is an exciting and innovative bio-fabrication technology that enables the surgeon to deliver tissue- engineering techniques at the time and location of need. We have created a hand- held 3D printing device (Biopen) that allows the simultaneous co-axial extrusion of bioscaffold and cultured cells directly into the cartilage defect in vivo in a single session surgery. This pilot study assesses the ability of the Biopen to repair a full thickness chondral defect and the early outcomes in cartilage regeneration, and compares these results to other treatments in a large animal model...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505597/an-interpenetrating-network-strengthened-and-toughened-hydrogel-that-supports-cell-based-nucleus-pulposus-regeneration
#6
Yibo Gan, Pei Li, Liyuan Wang, Xiumei Mo, Lei Song, Yuan Xu, Chen Zhao, Bin Ouyang, Bing Tu, Lei Luo, Linyong Zhu, Shiwu Dong, Fuyou Li, Qiang Zhou
Hydrogel is a suitable scaffold for the nucleus pulposus (NP) regeneration. However, its unmatched mechanical properties lead to implant failure in late-stage disc degeneration because of structural failure and implant extrusion after long-term compression. In this study, we evaluated an interpenetrating network (IPN)-strengthened and toughened hydrogel for NP regeneration, using dextran and gelatin as the primary network while poly (ethylene glycol) as the secondary network. The aim of this study was to realize the NP regeneration using the hydrogel...
May 10, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498625/biomechanics-of-the-human-uterus
#7
REVIEW
Kristin M Myers, David Elad
The appropriate biomechanical function of the uterus is required for the execution of human reproduction. These functions range from aiding the transport of the embryo to the implantation site, to remodeling its tissue walls to host the placenta, to protecting the fetus during gestation, to contracting forcefully for a safe parturition and postpartum, to remodeling back to its nonpregnant condition to renew the cycle of menstruation. To serve these remarkably diverse functions, the uterus is optimally geared with evolving and contractile muscle and tissue layers that are cued by chemical, hormonal, electrical, and mechanical signals...
May 12, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493850/importance-of-endogenous-extracellular-matrix-in-biomechanical-properties-of-human-skin-model
#8
Flavien Pillet, Laure Gibot, Moinecha Madi, Marie-Pierre Rols, Etienne Dague
The physical and mechanical properties of cells modulate their behavior such proliferation rate, migration and extracellular matrix remodeling. In order to study cell behavior in a tissue-like environment in vitro, it is of utmost importance to develop biologically and physically relevant 3D cell models. Here, we characterized the physical properties of a single cell type growing in configurations of increasing complexity. From one human skin biopsy, primary dermal fibroblasts were isolated and seeded to give monolayer (2D model), spheroid (3D model poor in extracellular matrix) and tissue-engineered cell sheet (3D model rich in endogenous extracellular matrix)...
May 11, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485136/fabrication-and-characterization-of-three-dimensional-3d-core-shell-structure-nanofibers-designed-for-3d-dynamic-cell-culture
#9
Lin Jin, Qinwei Xu, Shreyas Kuddannaya, Cheng Li, Yilei Zhang, Zhenling Wang
Three-dimensional elastic nanofibers (3D eNFs) can offer a suitable 3D dynamic microenvironment and sufficient flexibility to regulate cellular behavior and functional protein expression. In this study, we report a novel approach to prepare 3D nanofibers with excellent mechanical properties by solution-assisted electrospinning technology and in situ polymerization. The obtained 3D eNFs demonstrated excellent biocompatible properties to meet cell culture requirements under a dynamic environment in vitro. Moreover, these 3D eNFs also promoted human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) adhesion and collagen expression under biomechanical stimulation...
May 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474537/physioxia-promotes-the-articular-chondrocyte-like-phenotype-in-human-chondroprogenitor-derived-self-organized-tissue
#10
Devon E Anderson, Brandon Markway, Kenneth J Weekes, Helen E McCarthy, Brian Johnstone
INTRODUCTION: Biomaterial-based tissue engineering has not successfully reproduced the structural architecture or functional mechanical properties of native articular cartilage. In scaffold-free tissue engineering systems, cells secrete and organize the entire extracellular matrix over time in response to environmental signals, such as oxygen level. In this study, we investigated the effect of oxygen on the formation of neocartilage from human-derived chondrogenic cells. METHODS: Articular chondrocytes (ACs) and articular cartilage progenitor cells (ACPs) derived from healthy human adults were guided toward cell condensation by centrifugation onto plate inserts that were uncoated or coated with either agarose or fibronectin...
May 5, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462436/development-and-characterization-of-a-porcine-mitral-valve-scaffold-for-tissue-engineering
#11
M Granados, L Morticelli, S Andriopoulou, P Kalozoumis, M Pflaum, P Iablonskii, B Glasmacher, M Harder, J Hegermann, C Wrede, I Tudorache, S Cebotari, A Hilfiker, A Haverich, Sotirios Korossis
Decellularized scaffolds represent a promising alternative for mitral valve (MV) replacement. This work developed and characterized a protocol for the decellularization of whole MVs. Porcine MVs were decellularized with 0.5% (w/v) SDS and 0.5% (w/v) SD and sterilized with 0.1% (v/v) PAA. Decellularized samples were seeded with human foreskin fibroblasts and human adipose-derived stem cells to investigate cellular repopulation and infiltration, and with human colony-forming endothelial cells to investigate collagen IV formation...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462422/a-new-approach-to-teaching-biomechanics-through-active-adaptive-and-experiential-learning
#12
Anita Singh
Demand of biomedical engineers is rising exponentially to meet the needs of healthcare industry. Current training of bioengineers follows the traditional and dominant model of theory-focused curricula. However, the unmet needs of the healthcare industry warrant newer skill sets in these engineers where translational training strategies such as solving real world problems can be incorporated to the existing biomedical engineering education through active, adaptive and experiential learning. In this paper we report our findings of active and adaptive project based learning approach through a simulation lab visit that served as a clinical immersion experience for students enrolled in a senior-level Biomechanics undergraduate course...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460883/effectiveness-of-tissue-engineered-based-platelet-gel-embedded-chitosan-scaffold-on-experimentally-induced-critical-sized-segmental-bone-defect-model-in-rat
#13
Ahmad Oryan, Soodeh Alidadi, Amin Bigham-Sadegh, Ali Moshiri
BACKGROUND: Healing and regeneration of large bone defects are a challenging problem for reconstructive orthopedic surgeons. PURPOSE: This study investigated the effectiveness of chitosan scaffold (CS), platelet gel (PG) and their combination (CS-PG) on healing process of an experimentally induced critical sized segmental bone defect model in rat. METHODS: Fifty bilateral defects were created in the mid diaphysis of the radial bones of 25 Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 24, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445366/biomechanical-integrity-in-craniofacial-surgery-calvarial-reconstruction-in-favorable-and-infected-defects-with-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2
#14
Zoe M MacIsaac, Sarah E Henderson, Sameer Shakir, Sanjay Naran, Darren M Smith, Liliana Camison, James J Cray, Alejandro J Almarza, Gregory M Cooper, Joseph E Losee
BACKGROUND: The limitations of autologous and alloplastic reconstruction for craniofacial bone defects have created a clinical need for viable tissue-engineering strategies. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) has shown promise in this setting. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term biomechanical properties of rhBMP-2-mediated calvarial reconstruction. METHODS: Twelve-week-old New Zealand White rabbits underwent subtotal calvarectomy...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432818/characterization-of-decellularized-ovine-small-intestine-submucosal-layer-as-extracellular-matrix-based-scaffold-for-tissue-engineering
#15
Morteza Rashtbar, Jamshid Hadjati, Jafar Ai, Issa Jahanzad, Mahmoud Azami, Sadegh Shirian, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Esmaeil Sadroddiny
Extracellular matrix-based scaffolds derived from mammalian tissues have been used in tissue engineering applications. Among all the tissues, decellularized small intestine submucosal layer (SIS) has been recently investigated for its exceptional characteristics and biocompatibilities. These investigations have been mainly focused on the decellularized porcine SIS; however, there has not been any report on ovine SIS (OSIS) layer. In this study, OSIS was decellularized and its physical, chemical, and morphological properties were evaluated...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425209/identification-of-dynamic-load-for-prosthetic-structures
#16
Dequan Zhang, Xu Han, Zhongpu Zhang, Jie Liu, Chao Jiang, Nobuhiro Yoda, Xianghua Meng, Qing Li
Dynamic load exists in numerous biomechanical systems and its identification signifies a critical issue for characterizing dynamic behaviors and studying biomechanical consequence of the systems. This study aims to identify dynamic load in the dental prosthetic structures, namely three-unit implant-supported fixed partial denture (I-FPD) and teeth-supported fixed partial denture (T-FPD). The three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models were constructed through patient's computerized tomography (CT) images...
April 20, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380080/biodegradable-poly-lactic-acid-co-glycolic-acid-scaffolds-as-carriers-for-genetically-modified-fibroblasts
#17
Tatjana Perisic, Ziyang Zhang, Peter Foehr, Ursula Hopfner, Kathrin Klutz, Rainer H Burgkart, Alexei Slobodianski, Moritz Goeldner, Hans-Günther Machens, Arndt F Schilling
Recent advances in gene delivery into cells allow improved therapeutic effects in gene therapy trials. To increase the bioavailability of applied cells, it is of great interest that transfected cells remain at the application site and systemic spread is minimized. In this study, we tested clinically used biodegradable poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds (Vicryl & Ethisorb) as transient carriers for genetically modified cells. To this aim, we used human fibroblasts and examined attachment and proliferation of untransfected cells on the scaffolds in vitro, as well as the mechanical properties of the scaffolds at four time points (1, 3, 6 and 9 days) of cultivation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376803/characterization-of-biomechanical-properties-of-cells-through-dielectrophoresis-based-cell-stretching-and-actin-cytoskeleton-modeling
#18
Guohua Bai, Ying Li, Henry K Chu, Kaiqun Wang, Qiulin Tan, Jijun Xiong, Dong Sun
BACKGROUND: Cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic network that helps to maintain the rigidity of a cell, and the mechanical properties of a cell are closely related to many cellular functions. This paper presents a new method to probe and characterize cell mechanical properties through dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based cell stretching manipulation and actin cytoskeleton modeling. METHODS: Leukemia NB4 cells were used as cell line, and changes in their biological properties were examined after chemotherapy treatment with doxorubicin (DOX)...
April 4, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374682/biofabricated-soft-network-composites-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#19
Onur Bas, Elena De-Juan-Pardo, Christoph Meinert, Davide D'Angella, Jeremy Baldwin, Laura Bray, R Wellard, Stefan Kollmannsberger, Ernst Rank, Carsten Werner, Travis Klein, Isabelle Catelas, Dietmar Werner Hutmacher
Articular cartilage from a material science point of view is a soft network composite that plays a critical role in load-bearing joints during dynamic loading. Its composite structure, consisting of a collagen fiber network and a hydrated proteoglycan matrix, gives rise to the complex mechanical properties of the tissue including viscoelasticity and stress relaxation. Melt Electrospinning Writing (MEW) allows the design and fabrication of medical grade polycaprolactone (mPCL) fibrous networks for the reinforcement of soft hydrogel matrices for cartilage tissue engineering...
April 4, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364144/current-advances-in-the-development-of-natural-meniscus-scaffolds-innovative-approaches-to-decellularization-and-recellularization
#20
REVIEW
Yunbin Chen, Jiaxin Chen, Zeng Zhang, Kangliang Lou, Qi Zhang, Shengyu Wang, Jinhu Ni, Wenyue Liu, Shunwu Fan, Xianfeng Lin
The increasing rate of injuries to the meniscus indicates the urgent need to develop effective repair strategies. Irreparably damaged menisci can be replaced and meniscus allografts represent the treatment of choice; however, they have several limitations, including availability and compatibility. Another approach is the use of artificial implants but their chondroprotective activities are still not proved clinically. In this situation, tissue engineering offers alternative natural decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds, which have shown biomechanical properties comparable to those of native menisci and are characterized by low immunogenicity and promising regenerative potential...
March 31, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
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