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Biomechanical engineering

J J Paredes, Nelly Andarawis-Puri
Tendon injuries, known as tendinopathies, are common musculoskeletal injuries that affect a wide range of the population. Canonical tendon healing is characterized by fibrosis, scar formation, and the loss of tissue mechanical and structural properties. Understanding the regenerative tendon environment is an area of increasing interest in the field of musculoskeletal research. Previous studies have focused on utilizing individual elements from the fields of biomechanics, developmental biology, cell and growth factor therapy, and tissue engineering in an attempt to develop regenerative tendon therapeutics...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Lydia Zajiczek, Michael Shaw, Nilofar Faruqui, Angelo Bella, Vijay M Pawar, Mandayam A Srinivasan, Maxim G Ryadnov
Extracellular protein matrices provide a rigidity interface exhibiting nano-mechanical cues that guide cell growth and proliferation. Cells sense such cues using actin-rich filopodia extensions which encourage favourable cell-matrix contacts to recruit more actin-mediated local forces into forming stable focal adhesions. A challenge remains in identifying and measuring these local cellular forces and in establishing empirical relationships between them, cell adhesion and filopodia formation. Here we investigate such relationships using a micromanipulation system designed to operate at the time scale of focal contact dynamics, with the sample frequency of a force probe being 0...
October 13, 2016: Nanoscale
Zhiguo Yuan, Shuyun Liu, Chunxiang Hao, Weimin Guo, Shuang Gao, Mingjie Wang, Mingxue Chen, Zhen Sun, Yichi Xu, Yu Wang, Jiang Peng, Mei Yuan, Quan-Yi Guo
Tissue-engineered meniscus regeneration is a very promising treatment strategy for meniscus lesions. However, generating the scaffold presents a huge challenge for meniscus engineering as this has to meet particular biomechanical and biocompatibility requirements. In this study, we utilized acellular meniscus extracellular matrix (AMECM) and demineralized cancellous bone (DCB) to construct three different types of three-dimensional porous meniscus scaffold: AMECM, DCB, and AMECM/DCB, respectively. We tested the scaffolds' physicochemical characteristics and observed their interactions with meniscus fibrochondrocytes to evaluate their cytocompatibility...
December 2016: Biomaterials
Karin V Greco, Lydia Francis, Honglei Huang, Rutger Ploeg, Aldo R Boccaccini, Tahera Ansari
As biocompatible matrices, porcine dermal scaffolds have limited application in tissue engineering due to rapid degradation following implantation. This study compared the physical, chemical, and biomechanical changes that occurred when genipin and quercetin were used to crosslink dermal scaffolds and to determine whether quercetin could be used as an alternative to genipin. Physicochemical changes in the collagen were assessed using spectroscopic methods (XRD and NMR analysis). Crosslinking reaction was evaluated by quantification of amino acids and the degree of this reaction by ninhydrin assay...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
S Barone, A Paoli, A V Razionale, R Savignano
Transparent and removable aligners represent an effective solution to correct various orthodontic malocclusions through minimally invasive procedures. An aligner-based treatment requires patients to sequentially wear dentition-mating shells obtained by thermoforming polymeric disks on reference dental models. An aligner is shaped introducing a geometrical mismatch with respect to the actual tooth positions to induce a loading system, which moves the target teeth toward the correct positions. The common practice is based on selecting the aligner features (material, thickness, and auxiliary elements) by only considering clinician's subjective assessments...
October 5, 2016: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Fernando Campos, Ana B Bonhome-Espinosa, Laura García-Martínez, Juan D G Durán, Modesto T López-López, Miguel Alaminos, María Carmen Sánchez-Quevedo, Víctor Carriel
The generation of biomaterials with adequate biomechanical and structural properties remains a challenge in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Earlier research has shown that nanostructuration and cross-linking techniques improved the biomechanical and structural properties of different biomaterials. Currently, uncompressed and nanostructured fibrin-agarose hydrogels (FAH and NFAH, respectively) have been used successfully in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the structural and biomechanical properties of FAH and NFAH by using 0...
2016: Biomedical Materials
Karl J Jepsen, Erin M R Bigelow, Melissa Ramcharan, Stephen H Schlecht, Carrie A Karvonen-Gutierrez
A major unmet challenge in developing preventative treatment programs for osteoporosis is that the optimal timing of treatment remains unknown. In this commentary we make the argument that the menopausal transition (MT) is a critical period in a woman's life for bone health, and that efforts aimed at reducing fracture risk later in life may benefit greatly from strategies that treat women earlier with the intent of keeping bones strong as long as possible. Bone strength is an important parameter to monitor during the MT because engineering principles can be applied to differentiate those women that maintain bone strength from those women that lose bone strength and are in need of early treatment...
2016: Womens Midlife Health
Ahmad Oryan, P Sharifi, Ali Moshiri, Ian A Silver
AIM OF THE STUDY: Large tendon defects involving extensive tissue loss present complex clinical problems. Surgical reconstruction of such injuries is normally performed by transplanting autogenous and allogenous soft tissues that are expected to remodel to mimic a normal tendon. However, the use of grafts has always been associated with significant limitations. Tissue engineering employing artificial scaffolds may provide acceptable alternatives. Gelatin is a hydrolyzed form of collagen that is bioactive, biodegradable and biocompatible...
September 23, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
Ana A Aldana, Gustavo A Abraham
The development of biomimetic highly-porous scaffolds is essential for successful tissue engineering. Electrospun nanofibers are highly versatile platforms for a broad range of applications in different research areas. In the biomedical field, micro/nanoscale fibrous structures have gained great interest for wound dressings, drug delivery systems, soft and hard-tissue engineering scaffolds, enzyme immobilization, among other healthcare applications. In this mini-review, electrospun gelatin-based scaffolds for a variety of tissue engineering applications, such as bone, cartilage, skin, nerve, and ocular and vascular tissue engineering, are reviewed and discussed...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Zhentao Man, Xiaoqing Hu, Zhenlong Liu, Hongjie Huang, Qingyang Meng, Xin Zhang, Linghui Dai, Jiying Zhang, Xin Fu, Xiaoning Duan, Chunyan Zhou, Yingfang Ao
Cartilage tissue engineering is the hotspot of cartilage repair. The allogenic chondrocytes appear to be a promising source of seed cells in cartilage tissue engineering. In this study, we aimed to transplant allogenic chondrocytes with chitosan hydrogel (CS)-demineralized bone matrix (DBM) hybrid scaffold (CS/DBM) to repair rabbit cartilage injury with one-step operation. After the CS/DBM scaffold was successfully fabricated, it showed that the porous CS filled the large pores of DBM, which improved the distribution of seed cells in the CS/DBM scaffold...
November 2016: Biomaterials
Yaser Shanjani, Yunqing Kang, Livia Zarnescu, Audrey K Ellerbee Bowden, Jeong-Tae Koh, Dai Fei Elmer Ker, Yunzhi Yang
Vascularization of tissue engineering constructs (TECs) in vitro is of critical importance for ensuring effective and satisfactory clinical outcomes upon implantation of TECs. Biomechanical properties of TECs have remarkable influence on the in vitro vascularization of TECs. This work utilized in vitro experiments and finite element analysis to investigate endothelial patterns in hybrid constructs of soft collagen gels and rigid macroporous poly(ε-caprolactone)-β-tricalcium phosphate (PCL-β-TCP) scaffold seeded/embedded with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for bone tissue engineering applications...
September 4, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Janina Burk, Amelie Plenge, Walter Brehm, Sandra Heller, Bastian Pfeiffer, Cornelia Kasper
Tendon and ligament pathologies are still a therapeutic challenge, due to the difficulty in restoring the complex extracellular matrix architecture and biomechanical strength. While progress is being made in cell-based therapies and tissue engineering approaches, comprehensive understanding of the fate of progenitor cells in tendon healing is still lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decellularized tendon matrix and moderate cyclic stretching as natural stimuli which could potentially direct tenogenic fate...
2016: Stem Cells International
Fan Zhang, Hao-Cheng Xu, Bo Yin, Xin-Lei Xia, Xiao-Sheng Ma, Hong-Li Wang, Jun Yin, Ming-Hao Shao, Fei-Zhou Lyu, Jian-Yuan Jiang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of endplate-conformed cervical cages by finite element method (FEM) analysis and cadaver study. METHODS: Twelve specimens (C2 -C7 ) and a finite element model (C3 -C7 ) were subjected to biomechanical evaluations. In the cadaver study, specimens were randomly assigned to intact (I), endplate-conformed (C) and non-conformed (N) groups with C4-5 discs as the treated segments. The morphologies of the endplate-conformed cages were individualized according to CT images of group C and the cages fabricated with a 3-D printer...
August 2016: Orthopaedic Surgery
Linqing Li, Jeanna M Stiadle, Hang K Lau, Aidan B Zerdoum, Xinqiao Jia, Susan L Thibeault, Kristi L Kiick
Vocal folds are soft laryngeal connective tissues with distinct layered structures and complex multicomponent matrix compositions that endow phonatory and respiratory functions. This delicate tissue is easily damaged by various environmental factors and pathological conditions, altering vocal biomechanics and causing debilitating vocal disorders that detrimentally affect the daily lives of suffering individuals. Modern techniques and advanced knowledge of regenerative medicine have led to a deeper understanding of the microstructure, microphysiology, and micropathophysiology of vocal fold tissues...
November 2016: Biomaterials
Nancy K Drew, Nicholas E Johnsen, Jason Q Core, Anna Grosberg
In a properly contracting cardiac muscle, many different constructs are organized into an intricate architecture. While it has been observed that this organization is altered in pathological conditions, the relationship between length-scales and architecture has not been properly explored. In this work, we utilize a variety of architecture metrics to quantify organization and consistency of single constructs over multiple scales as well as correlation of organization of multiple constructs. Specifically, as the best way to characterize cardiac tissues, we chose the orientational and co-orientational order parameters...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Rui Liang, Katrina Knight, William Barone, Robert W Powers, Alexis Nolfi, Stacy Palcsey, Steven Abramowitch, Pamela A Moalli
BACKGROUND: The use of wide pore lightweight polypropylene mesh to improve anatomical outcomes in the surgical repair of prolapse has been hampered by mesh complications. One of the prototype prolapse meshes has been found to negatively impact the vagina by inducing a decrease in smooth muscle volume and contractility and the degradation of key structural proteins (collagen and elastin), resulting in vaginal degeneration. Recently, bioscaffolds derived from extracellular matrix have been used to mediate tissue regeneration and have been widely adopted in tissue engineering applications...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Berivan Cecen, Leyla Didem Kozaci, Mithat Yuksel, Ozcan Ustun, Bekir Ugur Ergur, Hasan Havitcioglu
The current study reports the biocompatibility and biomechanical characteristics of loofah-based scaffolds combined with hydroxyapatite (HA), cellulose, poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) with chondrocytes-like cells. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of the scaffolds showed that the addition of PLLA usually resulted in an increase in cell's attachment on scaffolds. Mechanical and elemental analyzes were assessed using tensile test and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), respectively. In summary, we showed that the loofah+PLLA+HA scaffolds perform significantly better than other loofah-based scaffolds employed in terms of increasing a diversity of mechanical properties including tensile strength and Young's modulus...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
T Masselter, L Hesse, H Böhm, A Gruhl, H Schwager, J Leupold, M Gude, M Milwich, C Neinhuis, T Speck
The aim of this study is the biomimetic optimisation of branched fibre-reinforced composites based on the detailed analysis of biological concept generators. The methods include analyses of the functional morphology and biomechanics of arborescent monocotyledons and columnar cacti as well as measurements and modelling of mechanical properties of biomimetic fibre-reinforced composites. The key results show evidence of notch stress reduction by optimised stem-branch-attachment morphology in monocotyledons and columnar cacti...
2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Konstantinos Markatos, Gregory Tsoucalas, Markos Sgantzos
This manuscript represents an attempt to review orthopaedic implants and reconstructive orthopaedic surgery for lower limbs lesions or trauma mainly in the 20th century. We emphasized on the type of implants, the biomaterials and their evolution, and we also engaged in a special reference for the pioneers of orthopaedic implant surgery and the innovative designers of those implants, in such a way to understand the ways and the stages through which they evolved to their present forms, as well as the scientific principles that affected their design and progress...
August 2016: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
Richard D Bartlett, David Choi, James B Phillips
Spinal cord injury is a severely debilitating condition which can leave individuals paralyzed and suffering from autonomic dysfunction. Regenerative medicine may offer a promising solution to this problem. Previous research has focused primarily on exploring the cellular and biological aspects of the spinal cord, yet relatively little remains known about the biomechanical properties of spinal cord tissue. Given that a number of regenerative strategies aim to deliver cells and materials in the form of tissue-engineered therapies, understanding the biomechanical properties of host spinal cord tissue is important...
October 2016: Regenerative Medicine
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