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mental health, drugs, medicine, public health

Shareefa Dalvie, Nastassja Koen, Nathaniel McGregor, Kevin O'Connell, Louise Warnich, Raj Ramesar, Caroline M Nievergelt, Dan J Stein
Mental disorders represent a major public health burden worldwide. This is likely to rise in the next decade, with the highest increases predicted to occur in low- and middle-income countries. Current psychotropic medication treatment guidelines focus on uniform approaches to the treatment of heterogeneous disorders and achieve only partial therapeutic success. Developing a global precision medicine approach in psychiatry appears attractive, given the value of this approach in other fields of medicine, such as oncology and infectious diseases...
October 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Andrés Felipe Tirado-Otálvaro
This article addresses illegal drug use within the current debate in traditional public health and in proposals from Latin America, while emphasizing the need to approach the issue from an alternative public health perspective centered on individual users, groups, and social movements as protagonists. This counterhegemonic approach thus aims to orient the discussion on the need for inclusive and democratic public policies. Illegal drug use has been addressed from various perspectives: clinical medicine, viewing it as a problem that generates mental disorders and infectious diseases, both through risky sexual practices and/or use of injecting paraphernalia; from a legal perspective, as a problem related to delinquency; and according to traditional public health, as a problem that generates school dropout and work absenteeism and increases the demand on health services, in addition to increasing violence and death...
July 21, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Nikolaj Kunøe, Arild Opheim, Kristin Klemmetsby Solli, Zhanna Gaulen, Kamni Sharma-Haase, Zill-E-Huma Latif, Lars Tanum
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for opioid dependence recommend daily maintenance of physical dependence with methadone or buprenorphine, and discourage abstinence due to the high risk of relapse and overdose. Extended-release formulations of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (XR-NTX) block heroin and other opioid agonists competitively for around 4 weeks per administration. XR-NTX thus enables opioid users to experience abstinence from opioid agonists with greatly reduced risk of overdose compared to medication-free abstinence...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Bradley H Wagenaar, Andy Stergachis, Deepa Rao, Roxanne Hoek, Vasco Cumbe, Manuel Napúa, Kenneth Sherr
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the availability of essential medicines for mental healthcare (MH) across levels of the public healthcare system to aid in future systems planning. DESIGN: Non-expired MH medications were assessed in 24 public health facilities and 13 district warehouses across Sofala Province, Mozambique, from July to August 2014. Medication categories included: antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, antiepileptics and mood stabilizers, and anticholinergics and antihistamines...
2015: Global Health Action
María Dolores Braquehais, Pilar Lusilla, Miquel Jordi Bel, María Cecilia Navarro, Viviana Nasillo, Albert Díaz, Sergi Valero, Jaume Padrós, Eugeni Bruguera, Miquel Casas
Co-occurrence of mental disorders and substance use disorders (dual diagnosis) among doctors is a cause of serious concern due to its negative personal, professional, and social consequences. This work provides an overview of the prevalence of dual diagnosis among physicians, suggests a clinical etiological model to explain the development of dual diagnosis in doctors, and recommends some treatment strategies specifically for doctors. The most common presentation of dual diagnosis among doctors is the combination of alcohol use disorders and affective disorders...
2014: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Marta Concheiro, Matthew N Newmeyer, Jose Luiz da Costa, Ron Flegel, David A Gorelick, Marilyn A Huestis
Opiates are an important drug class in drug testing programmes. Ingestion of poppy seeds containing morphine and codeine can yield positive opiate tests and mislead result interpretation in forensic and clinical settings. Multiple publications evaluated urine opiate concentrations following poppy seed ingestion, but only two addressed oral fluid (OF) results; neither provided the ingested morphine and codeine dosage. We administered two 45 g raw poppy seed doses, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3.1 mg codeine, 8 h apart to 17 healthy adults...
July 2015: Drug Testing and Analysis
Tatyana Rekrut-Lapa, Alexander Lapa
The aim of this systematic is to review and analyse the literature concerned with the health needs of detainees in police custody in England and Wales. The healthcare of detainees in police custody is regulated by the England and Wales Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984. The Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine of the Royal College of Physicians also sets quality standards for the provision of custodial healthcare. The provision of healthcare in custody presents a number of challenges including the patient group, the setting and the overlap between the legal and medical concerns that are addressed by the medical team...
October 2014: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Shu-Lung Yang, Louise Ann Rohrbach, Dennis Daley
The "Prevention, Family, and Community" session was chaired by Dr. Joseph Jror-Serk Cheng, who is an expert in community psychiatry and mental health policy and is superintendent of the Bali Psychiatric Center in Taipei. Dr. Shu-Lung Yang, dean of Student Affairs and Professor/Director of the Crime Research Center, National Chung Cheng University in Taiwan, served as the discussant. The two presenters were Dr. Louise Ann Rohrbach, who presented on "Prevention of Alcohol and other Drug Abuse: Science, Practice, Critical Issues, and Future Direction," and Dr...
December 2013: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Alanna Kulchak Rahm, Jennifer M Boggs, Carmen Martin, David W Price, Arne Beck, Thomas E Backer, James W Dearing
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse in the United States is a serious public health concern impacting morbidity and mortality. However, systematic screening and intervention has not been widely adopted into routine practice by health care organizations and routine screening and intervention is not currently in place for primary care at Kaiser Permanente Colorado. Therefore, a formative evaluation was conducted to explore and enhance implementation of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) approach in the organization...
2015: Substance Abuse
Hyeouk Chris Hahm, Stephanie Tzu-Han Chang, Hui Qi Tong, Michelle Ann Meneses, Rojda Filiz Yuzbasioglu, Denise Hien
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar...
2014: Advances in Dual Diagnosis
Maria Rosaria Gualano, Fabrizio Bert, Alice Mannocci, Giuseppe La Torre, Patrizia Zeppegno, Roberta Siliquini
OBJECTIVES: The study assessed the consumption of antidepressants in Italy between 2000 and 2011 and identified trends in use. METHODS: Data on use of antidepressant drugs between 2000 and 2011 were collected from the Italian Medicines Agency database. Data were expressed as the daily defined dose (DDD) per 1,000 inhabitants. Trends in drug consumption were ascertained by logarithmic transformation of incidence rates by using the formula ln(y)=b × x, where y is the incidence rate, b is the regression coefficient, and x represents the calendar years...
October 2014: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Jerome Sarris, Adrienne O'Neil, Carolyn E Coulson, Isaac Schweitzer, Michael Berk
The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments...
2014: BMC Psychiatry
Mònica Sabaté, Juan Fernando Pacheco, Elena Ballarín, Pili Ferrer, Hans Petri, Joerg Hasford, Marieke Wilma Schoonen, Marietta Rottenkolber, Joan Fortuny, Joan-Ramon Laporte, Luisa Ibáñez
BACKGROUND: The assessment of the benefit-risk of medicines needs careful consideration concerning their patterns of utilization. Systems for the monitoring of medicines consumption have been established in many European countries, and several international groups have identified and described them. No other compilation of European working groups has been published. As part of the PROTECT project, as a first step in searching for European data sources on the consumption of five selected groups of medicines, we aimed to identify and describe the main characteristics of the existing collaborative European working groups...
2014: BMC Research Notes
Khary K Rigg, Jason A Ford
BACKGROUND: The misuse of benzodiazepines (BZs) among adolescents is an important issue within the fields of mental health, medicine, and public health. Though there is an increasing amount of research on prescription medication misuse, a relatively small number of studies focus on adolescent BZ misuse. The goal of this study, therefore, is to identify demographic and psychosocial factors that place adolescents at risk for misusing BZs. Additionally, the authors applied concepts from social bonding theory, social learning theory, and strain theory to determine the extent to which these concepts explain BZ misuse...
April 1, 2014: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Eileen Burns, Sherena Nair
Care home medicine has been an under-researched area, but over the last decade there has been a substantial growth in publications. Most of these have focused on the 'geriatric giants' of falls, incontinence and mental health issues (especially dementia, behavioural disturbance and depression) as well as other key topics such as medication use and issues related to death and dying. Other areas of recent interest are around access to health services for care home residents, how such services may most effectively be developed and how the quality of life for residents can be enhanced...
January 2014: Age and Ageing
Louis E Baxter, Anthony Campbell, Michael Deshields, Petros Levounis, Judith A Martin, Laura McNicholas, J Thomas Payte, Edwin A Salsitz, Trusandra Taylor, Bonnie B Wilford
OBJECTIVES: Methadone is a well-studied, safe, and effective medication when dispensed and consumed properly. However, a number of studies have identified elevated rates of overdose and death in patients being treated with methadone for either addiction or chronic pain. Among patients being treated with methadone in federally certified opioid treatment programs, deaths most often occur during the induction and stabilization phases of treatment. To address this issue, the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration invited the American Society of Addiction Medicine to convene an expert panel to develop a consensus statement on methadone induction and stabilization, with recommendations to reduce the risk of patient overdose or death related to methadone maintenance treatment of addiction...
November 2013: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Helena Brentani, Cristiane Silvestre de Paula, Daniela Bordini, Deborah Rolim, Fabio Sato, Joana Portolese, Maria Clara Pacifico, James T McCracken
Pervasive developmental disorders are now commonly referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). ASDs present with a range of severity and impairments, and often are a cause of severe disability, representing a major public health concern. The diagnostic criteria require delays or abnormal functioning in social interaction, language, and/or imaginative play within the first 3 years of life, resulting in a deviation from the developmental pattern expected for the age. Because establishing a diagnosis of ASD is possible as early as 18-24 months of age, clinicians should strive to identify and begin intervention in children with ASD as soon as signs are manifest...
2013: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Shuntaro Ando, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Sho Kanata, Aya Hojo, Daisuke Yasugi, Nobuaki Eto, Chiaki Kawanishi, Nozomu Asukai, Kiyoto Kasai
AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of and risk factors for repetition of suicidal behavior within a year after admission for drug overdose in Japan. METHODS: Patients admitted to the emergency department of a general public hospital in Tokyo for drug overdose of prescribed medicine and/or over-the-counter drugs between March 2008 and February 2009 were followed up after 1 year. Demographic characteristics, previous suicide attempts, and mental health state were examined by self-report questionnaire and interview at recovery from the initial attempt...
September 2013: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Robert H Howland
Clostridium difficile (C.difficile) infection (CDI) is a common and clinically significant cause of diarrhea associated with the use of antibiotic drugs. Two observational studies have suggested that antidepressant drug use is associated with an increased risk of developing CDI. Because of the potential public health significance of this finding, this article critically evaluates the methodology of these studies and provides evidence to question the plausibility and validity of this finding. The safety of antidepressant and other psychotropic drugs should not be taken for granted, but studies that receive media attention may cause harm if their findings are not valid and they result in a reluctance to use these drugs for treating serious mental disorders...
July 2013: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Cecilie T Hagemann, Arne Helland, Olav Spigset, Ketil A Espnes, Kari Ormstad, Berit Schei
The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ≥ 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway...
August 2013: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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