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Trypanosomatids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860015/bias-due-to-methods-of-parasite-detection-when-estimating-prevalence-of-infection-of-triatoma-infestans-by-trypanosoma-cruzi
#1
Frédéric Lardeux, Claudia Aliaga, Stéphanie Depickère
The study aimed to quantify the bias from parasite detection methods in the estimation of the prevalence of infection of Triatoma infestans by Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease. Three common protocols that detect T. cruzi in a sample of 640 wild-caught T. infestans were compared: (1) the microscopic observation of insect fecal droplets, (2) a PCR protocol targeting mini-exon genes of T. cruzi (MeM-PCR), and (3) a PCR protocol targeting a satellite repeated unit of the parasite. Agreement among protocols was computed using Krippendorff Kα...
December 2016: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849219/genomic-and-phylogenetic-evidence-of-viper-retrotransposon-domestication-in-trypanosomatids
#2
Adriana Ludwig, Marco Aurelio Krieger
Transposable elements are important residents of eukaryotic genomes and eventually the host can domesticate them to serve cellular functions. We reported here a possible domestication event of the vestigial interposed retroelement (VIPER) in trypanosomatids. We found a large gene in a syntenic location in Leishmania braziliensis, L. panamensis, Leptomanas pyrrhocoris, and Crithidia fasciculata whose products share similarity in the C-terminal portion with the third protein of VIPER. No remnants of other VIPER regions surrounding the gene sequence were found...
November 16, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835948/development-of-a-toolbox-to-dissect-host-endosymbiont-interactions-and-protein-trafficking-in-the-trypanosomatid-angomonas-deanei
#3
Jorge Morales, Sofia Kokkori, Diana Weidauer, Jarrod Chapman, Eugene Goltsman, Daniel Rokhsar, Arthur R Grossman, Eva C M Nowack
BACKGROUND: Bacterial endosymbionts are found across the eukaryotic kingdom and profoundly impacted eukaryote evolution. In many endosymbiotic associations with vertically inherited symbionts, highly complementary metabolic functions encoded by host and endosymbiont genomes indicate integration of metabolic processes between the partner organisms. While endosymbionts were initially expected to exchange only metabolites with their hosts, recent evidence has demonstrated that also host-encoded proteins can be targeted to the bacterial symbionts in various endosymbiotic systems...
November 11, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820863/pyrimidine-salvage-enzymes-are-essential-for-de-novo-biosynthesis-of-deoxypyrimidine-nucleotides-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#4
Christopher Leija, Filipa Rijo-Ferreira, Lisa N Kinch, Nick V Grishin, Nicole Nischan, Jennifer J Kohler, Zeping Hu, Margaret A Phillips
The human pathogenic parasite Trypanosoma brucei possess both de novo and salvage routes for the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. Consequently, they do not require salvageable pyrimidines for growth. Thymidine kinase (TK) catalyzes the formation of dTMP and dUMP and is one of several salvage enzymes that appear redundant to the de novo pathway. Surprisingly, we show through analysis of TK conditional null and RNAi cells that TK is essential for growth and for infectivity in a mouse model, and that a catalytically active enzyme is required for its function...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810595/rational-design-of-nitrofuran-derivatives-synthesis-and-valuation-as-inhibitors-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-trypanothione-reductase
#5
D G Arias, F E Herrera, A S Garay, D Rodrigues, P S Forastieri, L E Luna, M D L M Bürgi, C Prieto, A A Iglesias, R M Cravero, S A Guerrero
The rational design and synthesis of a series of 5-nitro-2-furoic acid analogues are presented. The trypanocidal activity against epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and the toxic effects on human HeLa cells were tested. Between all synthetic compounds, three of thirteen had an IC50 value in the range of Nfx, but compound 13 exhibited an improved effect with an IC50 of 1.0 ± 0.1 μM and a selective index of 70 in its toxicity against HeLa cells. We analyzed the activity of compounds 8, 12 and 13 to interfere in the central redox metabolic pathway in trypanosomatids, which is dependent of reduced trypanothione as the major pivotal thiol...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791004/structure-and-assembly-model-for-the-trypanosoma-cruzi-60s-ribosomal-subunit
#6
Zheng Liu, Cristina Gutierrez-Vargas, Jia Wei, Robert A Grassucci, Madhumitha Ramesh, Noel Espina, Ming Sun, Beril Tutuncuoglu, Susan Madison-Antenucci, John L Woolford, Liang Tong, Joachim Frank
Ribosomes of trypanosomatids, a family of protozoan parasites causing debilitating human diseases, possess multiply fragmented rRNAs that together are analogous to 28S rRNA, unusually large rRNA expansion segments, and r-protein variations compared with other eukaryotic ribosomes. To investigate the architecture of the trypanosomatid ribosomes, we determined the 2.5-Å structure of the Trypanosoma cruzi ribosome large subunit by single-particle cryo-EM. Examination of this structure and comparative analysis of the yeast ribosomal assembly pathway allowed us to develop a stepwise assembly model for the eight pieces of the large subunit rRNAs and a number of ancillary "glue" proteins...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784255/clear-shot-at-primary-aim-susceptibility-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-organelles-structures-and-molecular-targets-to-drug-treatment
#7
Rubem Figueiredo Sadok Menna-Barreto, Solange Lisboa de Castro
Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, stands out due to its socio- economic effects on low-income tropical populations. This disease affects millions of people worldwide. The current chemotherapy for it is based on benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox (Nif) and is unsatisfactory. In this review, we will focus on the search for potential target organelles and molecules for the chemotherapy of Chagas disease. We consider as potential target organelles those that are absent or significantly different in host cells and present in the clinically relevant forms of the parasite (trypomastigotes and amastigotes), which are the mitochondrion, cytoskeletal- related structures, the acidocalcisomes/contractile vacuole complex and glycosomes...
October 25, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771468/phytomonas-euglenozoa-trypanosomatidae-phylogenetic-analyses-support-infrageneric-lineages-and-a-new-species-transmitted-to-solanaceae-fruits-by-a-pentatomid-hemipteran
#8
Andernice Zanetti, Robson C Ferreira, Myrna G Serrano, Carmen S A Takata, Marta Campaner, Marcia Attias, Wanderley de Souza, Marta M G Teixeira, Erney P Camargo
The genus Phytomonas includes trypanosomatids transmitted to the fruits, latex, and phloem of vascular plants by hemipterans. We inferred the phylogenetic relationships of plant and insect isolates assigned to the previously defined genetic groups A-F and H of Phytomonas, particularly those from groups A, C and E comprising flagellates of Solanaceae fruits. Phylogenetic analyses using glycosomal Glyceraldehyde Phosphate Dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) and Small Subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) genes strongly supported the monophyly of the genus Phytomonas and its division into seven main infrageneric phylogenetic lineages (Phy clades)...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760165/the-role-of-the-trypanosoma-cruzi-tcnrbd1-protein-in-translation
#9
Camila Oliveira, Paulo Costa Carvalho, Lysangela Ronalte Alves, Samuel Goldenberg
The regulation of gene expression in trypanosomatids occurs mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Despite the importance of this type of control in Trypanosoma cruzi, few RNA binding proteins have been characterized. The RRM domain (RNA Recognition Motif) is one of the most abundant domains found in RNA-binding proteins in higher eukaryotes. Proteins containing the RRM domain are involved in the majority of post-transcriptional processes regulating gene expression. In this work, we aimed to characterize the protein TcNRBD1 from T...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756617/expression-of-profilin-in-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-identification-of-some-of-its-ligands
#10
Juan Felipe Osorio-Méndez, Andrea Vizcaíno-Castillo, Rebeca Manning-Cela, Roberto Hernandez, Ana María Cevallos
The role and regulation of actin in Trypanosoma cruzi and other related parasites is largely unknown. Based on early genome analysis, it was proposed that there was a reduced dependency on the acto-myosin system in the trypanosomatid parasites. However, more recent studies have extended the set of potential actin regulatory proteins, particularly for T. cruzi. One of the identified actin-binding proteins in trypanosomatids is profilin. In other systems, it is capable of simultaneously binding both monomeric actin and several actin-regulatory factors...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756429/an-increase-of-larval-rearing-temperature-does-not-affect-the-susceptibility-of-phlebotomus-sergenti-to-leishmania-tropica-but-effectively-eliminates-the-gregarine-psychodiella-sergenti
#11
Magdalena Jancarova, Jana Hlavacova, Jan Votypka, Petr Volf
BACKGROUND: In mosquitoes, it has previously been shown that rearing conditions of immature stages have an effect on the vector competence of adults. Here, we studied the impact of different larval rearing temperatures (27 °C versus 32 °C) on the sand fly Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot, 1917 and its susceptibility to two parasites: Leishmania tropica Wright, 1903, a dixenous trypanosomatid transmissible from sand flies to humans, and Psychodiella sergenti Lantova, Volf & Votypka, 2010, a monoxenous sand fly gregarine...
October 18, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744363/detection-of-an-unknown-trypanosoma-dna-in-a-phlebotomus-stantoni-diptera-psychodidae-collected-from-southern-thailand-and-records-of-new-sand-flies-with-reinstatement-of-sergentomyia-hivernus-raynal-gaschen-1935-diptera-psychodidae
#12
Atchara Phumee, Apiwat Tawatsin, Usavadee Thavara, Theerakamol Pengsakul, Suwich Thammapalo, Jérôme Depaquit, Frédérick Gay, Padet Siriyasatien
Although female sand flies are best known as the vectors of Leishmania parasites and viruses, several previous reports have demonstrated that these insects can also act as vectors for the trypanosomes of bats, lizards, and snakes. In this report, we created an inventory of Phlebotomine sand flies from southern Thailand. A novel trypanosome was found in a specimen of Phlebotomus stantoni, and two sand fly species newly recorded in the country, Sergentomyia khawi and Sergentomyia hivernus, were described. PCR primer pairs specific for the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) gene of trypanosomatids were used to demonstrate the presence of the parasite in the sand fly...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734008/the-cyclical-development-of-trypanosoma-vivax-in-the-tsetse-fly-involves-an-asymmetric-division
#13
Cher-Pheng Ooi, Sarah Schuster, Christelle Cren-Travaillé, Eloise Bertiaux, Alain Cosson, Sophie Goyard, Sylvie Perrot, Brice Rotureau
Trypanosoma vivax is the most prevalent trypanosome species in African cattle. It is thought to be transmitted by tsetse flies after cyclical development restricted to the vector mouthparts. Here, we investigated the kinetics of T. vivax development in Glossina morsitans morsitans by serial dissections over 1 week to reveal differentiation and proliferation stages. After 3 days, stable numbers of attached epimastigotes were seen proliferating by symmetric division in the cibarium and proboscis, consistent with colonization and maintenance of a parasite population for the remaining lifespan of the tsetse fly...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733833/new-approaches-to-overcome-transport-related-drug-resistance-in-trypanosomatid-parasites
#14
Jose A Garcia-Salcedo, Juan D Unciti-Broceta, Javier Valverde-Pozo, Miguel Soriano
Leishmania and Trypanosoma are members of the Trypanosomatidae family that cause severe human infections such as leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and sleeping sickness affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite efforts to eradicate them, migrations are expanding these infections to developing countries. There are no vaccines available and current treatments depend only on chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a major obstacle for the treatment of these diseases given that existing drugs are old and limited, with some having severe side effects...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720295/targeting-the-hsp60-10-chaperonin-systems-of-trypanosoma-brucei-as-a-strategy-for-treating-african-sleeping-sickness
#15
Sanofar Abdeen, Nilshad Salim, Najiba Mammadova, Corey M Summers, Karen Goldsmith-Pestana, Diane McMahon-Pratt, Peter G Schultz, Arthur L Horwich, Eli Chapman, Steven M Johnson
Trypanosoma brucei are protozoan parasites that cause African sleeping sickness in humans (also known as Human African Trypanosomiasis-HAT). Without treatment, T. brucei infections are fatal. There is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies as current drugs are toxic, have complex treatment regimens, and are becoming less effective owing to rising antibiotic resistance in parasites. We hypothesize that targeting the HSP60/10 chaperonin systems in T. brucei is a viable anti-trypanosomal strategy as parasites rely on these stress response elements for their development and survival...
September 22, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706380/symbiont-modulates-expression-of-specific-gene-categories-in-angomonas-deanei
#16
Luciana Loureiro Penha, Luísa Hoffmann, Silvanna Sant'Anna de Souza, Allan Cézar de Azevedo Martins, Thayane Bottaro, Francisco Prosdocimi, Débora Souza Faffe, Maria Cristina Machado Motta, Turán Péter Ürményi, Rosane Silva
Trypanosomatids are parasites that cause disease in humans, animals, and plants. Most are non-pathogenic and some harbor a symbiotic bacterium. Endosymbiosis is part of the evolutionary process of vital cell functions such as respiration and photosynthesis. Angomonas deanei is an example of a symbiont-containing trypanosomatid. In this paper, we sought to investigate how symbionts influence host cells by characterising and comparing the transcriptomes of the symbiont-containing A. deanei (wild type) and the symbiont-free aposymbiotic strains...
November 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693373/ruthenium-clotrimazole-complex-has-significant-efficacy-in-the-murine-model-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#17
Eva Iniguez, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Alberto Martínez, Caresse L Torres, Roberto A Sánchez-Delgado, Rosa A Maldonado
In previous studies we reported a novel series of organometallic compounds, Ru(II) complexed with clotrimazole, displaying potent trypanosomatid activity with unnoticeable toxicity toward normal mammalian cells. In view of the promising activity of Ru-clotrimazole complexes against Leishmania major (L. major), the present work sought to investigate the anti-leishmanial activity of the AM162 complex in the murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In addition, to facilitate the design of new therapeutic strategies against this disease, we investigated the mode of action of two Ru-clotrimazole complexes in L...
December 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659938/direct-identification-of-trypanosomatids-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-dit-maldi-tof-ms
#18
C C Avila, F G Almeida, G Palmisano
Accurate and rapid determination of trypanosomatids is essential in epidemiological surveillance and therapeutic studies. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been shown to be a useful and powerful technique to identify bacteria, fungi, metazoa and human intact cells with applications in clinical settings. Here, we developed and optimized a MALDI-TOF MS method to profile trypanosomatids. trypanosomatid cells were deposited on a MALDI target plate followed by addition of matrix solution...
August 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625397/co-dependence-between-trypanosome-nuclear-lamina-components-in-nuclear-stability-and-control-of-gene-expression
#19
Luke Maishman, Samson O Obado, Sam Alsford, Jean-Mathieu Bart, Wei-Ming Chen, Alexander V Ratushny, Miguel Navarro, David Horn, John D Aitchison, Brian T Chait, Michael P Rout, Mark C Field
The nuclear lamina is a filamentous structure subtending the nuclear envelope and required for chromatin organization, transcriptional regulation and maintaining nuclear structure. The trypanosomatid coiled-coil NUP-1 protein is a lamina component functionally analogous to lamins, the major lamina proteins of metazoa. There is little evidence for shared ancestry, suggesting the presence of a distinct lamina system in trypanosomes. To find additional trypanosomatid lamina components we identified NUP-1 interacting proteins by affinity capture and mass-spectrometry...
September 12, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622432/molecular-mechanisms-of-cardiac-electromechanical-remodeling-during-chagas-disease-role-of-tnf-and-tgf-%C3%AE
#20
Jader Santos Cruz, Fabiana Simão Machado, Catherine Ropert, Danilo Roman-Campos
Chagas disease is caused by the trypanosomatid Trypanosoma cruzi, which chronically causes heart problems in up to 30% of infected patients. Chagas disease was initially restricted to Latin America. However, due to migratory events, this disease may become a serious worldwide health problem. During Chagas disease, many patients die of cardiac arrhythmia despite the apparent benefits of anti-arrhythmic therapy (e.g., amiodarone). Here, we assimilate the cardiac form of Chagas disease to an inflammatory cardiac disease...
August 11, 2016: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
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