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Trypanosomatids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140234/prevalence-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-other-trypanosomatids-in-frequently-hunted-wild-mammals-from-the-peruvian-amazon
#1
E Angelo Morales, Pedro Mayor, Mark Bowler, Esar Aysanoa, Erika S Pérez-Velez, Jocelyn Pérez, Julio A Ventocilla, G Christian Baldeviano, Andrés G Lescano
To better understand the ecology of Trypanosoma cruzi in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon, we evaluated the prevalence of T. cruzi and other trypanosomatids in four orders of wild mammals hunted and consumed by inhabitants of three remote indigenous communities in the Peruvian Amazon. Of 300 wild mammals sampled, 115 (38.3%) were infected with trypanosomatids and 15 (5.0%) with T. cruzi. The prevalence of T. cruzi within each species was as follows: large rodents (Cuniculus paca, 5.5%; Dasyprocta spp., 2.6%), edentates (Dasypus novemcinctus, 4...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131838/expanded-repertoire-of-kinetoplast-associated-proteins-and-unique-mitochondrial-dna-arrangement-of-symbiont-bearing-trypanosomatids
#2
Silvana Sant Anna de Souza, Carolina Moura Catta-Preta, João Marcelo P Alves, Danielle P Cavalcanti, Marta M G Teixeira, Erney P Camargo, Wanderley De Souza, Rosane Silva, Maria Cristina M Motta
In trypanosomatids, the kinetoplast is the portion of the single mitochondrion that is connected to the basal body and contains the kDNA, a network composed by circular and interlocked DNA. The kDNA packing is conducted by Kinetoplast Associated Proteins (KAPs), which are similar to eukaryotic histone H1. In symbiont-harboring trypanosomatids (SHTs) such as Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis, a ß-proteobacterium co-evolves with the host in a mutualistic relationship. The prokaryote confers nutritional benefits to the host and affects its cell structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121981/intrinsic-dna-curvature-in-trypanosomes
#3
Pablo Smircich, Najib M El-Sayed, Beatriz Garat
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei are protozoan parasites causing Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness, displaying unique features of cellular and molecular biology. Remarkably, no canonical signals for RNA polymerase II promoters, which drive protein coding genes transcription, have been identified so far. The secondary structure of DNA has long been recognized as a signal in biological processes and more recently, its involvement in transcription initiation in Leishmania was proposed...
November 9, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114029/rapid-selection-free-high-efficiency-genome-editing-in-protozoan-parasites-using-crispr-cas9-ribonucleoproteins
#4
Lia Carolina Soares Medeiros, Lilith South, Duo Peng, Juan M Bustamante, Wei Wang, Molly Bunkofske, Natasha Perumal, Fernando Sanchez-Valdez, Rick L Tarleton
Trypanosomatids (order Kinetoplastida), including the human pathogens Trypanosoma cruzi (agent of Chagas disease), Trypanosoma brucei, (African sleeping sickness), and Leishmania (leishmaniasis), affect millions of people and animals globally. T. cruzi is considered one of the least studied and most poorly understood tropical disease-causing parasites, in part because of the relative lack of facile genetic engineering tools. This situation has improved recently through the application of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) technology, but a number of limitations remain, including the toxicity of continuous Cas9 expression and the long drug marker selection times...
November 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113738/quantitative-pcr-assessment-of-lotmaria-passim-in-apis-mellifera-colonies-co-infected-naturally-with-nosema-ceranae
#5
Branislav Vejnovic, Jevrosima Stevanovic, Ryan S Schwarz, Nevenka Aleksic, Milorad Mirilovic, Nemanja M Jovanovic, Zoran Stanimirovic
A recently described trypanosomatid species Lotmaria passim and the microsporidium Nosema ceranae infect the honey bee (Apis mellifera), but the interspecific dynamic of these two common gut parasites is unknown. In this study, a real-time qPCR assay was developed to enable the specific detection and quantification of L. passim. The annual dynamics of N. ceranae and L. passim infections were evaluated in ten A. mellifera colonies naturally infected with both parasites at one apiary in Serbia from March 2016 to March 2017...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107734/involvement-of-snare-protein-ykt6-in-glycosome-biogenesis-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#6
Hiren Banerjee, Richard A Rachubinski
The kinetoplastid parasites Trypanosoma and Leishmania are etiologic agents of diseases like African sleeping sickness, Chagas and leishmaniasis that inflict many tropical and subtropical parts of the world. These parasites are distinctive in that they compartmentalize most of the usually cytosolic enzymes of the glycolytic pathway within a peroxisome-like organelle called the glycosome. Functional glycosomes are essential in both the procyclic and bloodstream forms of trypanosomatid parasites, and mislocalization of glycosomal enzymes to the cytosol is fatal for the parasite...
December 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105342/optimization-and-evaluation-of-antiparasitic-benzamidobenzoic-acids-as-inhibitors-of-kinetoplastid-hexokinase-1
#7
Daniel P Flaherty, Michael T Harris, Chad E Schroeder, Haaris Khan, Elizabeth Kahney, Amber Hackler, Stephen Patrick, Warren S Weiner, Jeffrey Aube, Elizabeth R Sharlow, James C Morris, Jennifer E Golden
Kinetoplastid-based infections are neglected diseases that represent a significant human health issue. Chemotherapeutic options are limited due to toxicity, parasite susceptibility, and poor patient compliance. In response, we studied a molecular target-directed approach involving intervention of hexokinase activity - a pivotal enzyme in parasite metabolism. A benzamidobenzoic acid hit with modest biochemical inhibition of Trypanosoma brucei hexokinase 1 (TbHK1, IC₅₀ = 9.1 μM), low mammalian cytotoxicity (IMR90, EC₅₀ > 25 μM), and no appreciable activity on whole BSF parasites was optimized to afford a probe with improved TbHK1 potency and, significantly, efficacy against whole BSF parasites (TbHK1, IC₅₀ = 0...
November 4, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100927/an-evaluation-of-lipid-metabolism-in-the-insect-trypanosomatid-herpetomonas-muscarum-uncovers-a-pathway-for-the-uptake-of-extracellular-insect-lipoproteins
#8
George Kluck, Karla C Régis, Nuccia N T De Cicco, Lívia Silva-Cardoso, Miria G Pereira, Patrícia Fampa, Alessandra C Chagas-Lima, Alexandre Romeiro, Narcisa L Cunha-Silva, Georgia C Atella
Lipid uptake and metabolism by trypanosomatid parasites from vertebrate host blood have been well established in the literature. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the same aspects concerning the parasites that cross the hemolymph of their invertebrate hosts. We have investigated the lipid composition and metabolism of the insect trypanosomatid Herpetomonas muscarum by (3)H- palmitic acid and phosphate ((32)Pi) and the parasite interaction with Lipophorin (Lp) the main lipid carrying protein of insect hemolymph...
October 31, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098492/molecular-epidemiology-of-trypanosomatids-and-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-primates-from-peru
#9
Esar Aysanoa, Pedro Mayor, A Patricia Mendoza, Carlos M Zariquiey, E Angelo Morales, Jocelyn G Pérez, Mark Bowler, Julio A Ventocilla, Carlos González, G Christian Baldeviano, Andrés G Lescano
We determined the prevalence rate and risk of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi and other trypanosomatids in Peruvian non-human primates (NHPs) in the wild (n = 126) and in different captive conditions (n = 183). Blood samples were collected on filter paper, FTA cards, or EDTA tubes and tested using a nested PCR protocol targeting the 24Sα rRNA gene. Main risk factors associated with trypanosomatid and T. cruzi infection were genus and the human-animal context (wild vs captive animals). Wild NHPs had higher prevalence of both trypanosomatids (64...
November 2, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089182/the-deadly-dance-of-b-cells-with-trypanosomatids
#10
REVIEW
Sasha Silva-Barrios, Tania Charpentier, Simona Stäger
B cells are notorious actors for the host's protection against several infectious diseases. So much so that early vaccinology seated its principles upon their long-term protective antibody secretion capabilities. Indeed, there are many examples of acute infectious diseases that are combated by functional humoral responses. However, some chronic infectious diseases actively induce immune deregulations that often lead to defective, if not deleterious, humoral immune responses. In this review we summarize how Leishmania and Trypanosoma spp...
October 28, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078369/extensive-flagellar-remodeling-during-the-complex-life-cycle-of-paratrypanosoma-an-early-branching-trypanosomatid
#11
Tomáš Skalický, Eva Dobáková, Richard J Wheeler, Martina Tesařová, Pavel Flegontov, Dagmar Jirsová, Jan Votýpka, Vyacheslav Yurchenko, Francisco J Ayala, Julius Lukeš
Paratrypanosoma confusum is a monoxenous kinetoplastid flagellate that constitutes the most basal branch of the highly diverse parasitic trypanosomatids, which include human pathogens Trypanosoma and Leishmania This makes Paratrypanosoma uniquely informative for the evolution of obligatory parasitism from free-living lifestyle and the evolution of human parasitism in some trypanosomatid lineages. It has typical promastigote morphology but also forms surface-attached haptomonads and amastigotes. Haptomonads form by attachment to a surface via a large bulge at the base of the flagellum, which is then remodeled into a thin attachment pad associated with flagellum shortening...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077018/the-role-of-cytoplasmic-mrna-cap-binding-protein-complexes-in-trypanosoma-brucei-and-other-trypanosomatids
#12
REVIEW
Eden R Freire, Nancy R Sturm, David A Campbell, Osvaldo P de Melo Neto
Trypanosomatid protozoa are unusual eukaryotes that are well known for having unusual ways of controlling their gene expression. The lack of a refined mode of transcriptional control in these organisms is compensated by several post-transcriptional control mechanisms, such as control of mRNA turnover and selection of mRNA for translation, that may modulate protein synthesis in response to several environmental conditions found in different hosts. In other eukaryotes, selection of mRNA for translation is mediated by the complex eIF4F, a heterotrimeric protein complex composed by the subunits eIF4E, eIF4G, and eIF4A, where the eIF4E binds to the 5'-cap structure of mature mRNAs...
October 27, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073503/euglenoid-pellicle-morphogenesis-and-evolution-in-light-of-comparative-ultrastructure-and-trypanosomatid-biology-semi-conservative-microtubule-strip-duplication-strip-shaping-and-transformation
#13
REVIEW
Thomas Cavalier-Smith
Uniquely in eukaryotes, euglenoid pellicles comprise longitudinal proteinaceous, epiplasmic strips underlain by microtubules. Contradictory interpretations of pellicle microtubule duplication and segregation assumed opposite microtubule polarity from kinetoplastid Euglenozoa and conservative microtubule segregation. Distigma shows new pellicle microtubules nucleating posteriorly as in trypanosomatids, unifying euglenoid and kinetoplastid pellicle morphogenesis, but strip-growth is unpolarised. Epiplasmic insertion and cutting make new strip junctions between alternating wide and narrow daughter strips that grow intussusceptively...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061745/mechanism-of-action-of-miltefosine-on-leishmania-donovani-involves-the-impairment-of-acidocalcisomes-function-and-the-activation-of-the-sphingosine-dependent-plasma-membrane-ca-2-channel
#14
Andrea K Pinto-Martinez, Jessica Rodriguez-Durán, Xenon Serrano-Martin, Vanessa Hernandez-Rodriguez, Gustavo Benaim
Leishmania donovani is the causing agent of visceral leishmaniasis, a common infection that affects millions of people from the most underdeveloped countries. Miltefosine is the only oral drug to treat infections caused by L. donovani. Nevertheless, its mechanism of action is not well understood. While miltefosine inhibits the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, and also affects the parasite mitochondrion inhibiting the cytochrome C oxidase, it is to be expected that this potent drug also produces its effect through other targets...
October 23, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051559/comparative-sphingolipidomics-of-disease-causing-trypanosomatids-reveal-unique-lifecycle-and-taxonomy-specific-lipid-chemistries
#15
Xue Li Guan, Pascal Mäser
Trypanosomatids are parasitic protozoa which cause a spectrum of diseases, including trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis, affecting millions of humans and animals worldwide. The surface of most protozoan parasites is heavily decorated with lipids and lipid-anchored molecules, forming protective barriers and acting as virulence factors during infection. Sphingolipids (SP) are major components of eukaryotic biomembranes, which play important roles in structural integrity, energy homeostasis and signaling. However, the precise chemical composition of SP in pathogens as well as their biochemical pathways and functions remain poorly characterized...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050949/high-frequency-of-trypanosomatids-in-gallery-forest-bats-of-a-neotropical-savanna
#16
João Lucas M Lourenço, Thaís T C Minuzzi-Souza, Larissa R Silva, Amanda C Oliveira, Vagner J Mendonça, Nadjar Nitz, Ludmilla M S Aguiar, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves
Bats are well-known hosts of trypanosomatids, though information about their role as reservoirs of these protozoans in the Brazilian savanna is poorly known. We aimed to analyze the occurrence of trypanosomatid species in bats occurring in remnants of gallery forests of Brasília, Federal District of Brazil. We sampled bats using mist nets in six sites, and we collected blood, wing fragments and oral swab samples from all captured individuals. Trypanosomatids were identified in the captured bats through sequencing of the SSUrRNA region and kDNA qPCR...
October 16, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048199/polyamine-based-thiols-in-trypanosomatids-evolution-protein-structural-adaptations-and-biological-functions
#17
Bruno Manta, Mariana Bonilla, Lucía Fiestas, Mattia Sturlese, Gustavo Salinas, Massimo Bellanda, Marcelo A Comini
<b>Significance.</b> Major pathogenic enterobacteria and protozoan parasites from the phylum Euglenozoa, such as Trypanosomatids, are endowed with glutathione-spermidine derivatives that play important roles in signaling, metal and thiol-redox homeostasis. For some Euglenozoa lineages, the glutathione-spermidine conjugates represent the main redox co-substrates around which entire new redox systems have evolved. Several proteins underwent molecular adaptations to synthesize and utilize the new polyamine-based thiols...
October 19, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046673/genome-of-ca-pandoraea-novymonadis-an-endosymbiotic-bacterium-of-the-trypanosomatid-novymonas-esmeraldas
#18
Alexei Y Kostygov, Anzhelika Butenko, Anna Nenarokova, Daria Tashyreva, Pavel Flegontov, Julius Lukeš, Vyacheslav Yurchenko
We have sequenced, annotated, and analyzed the genome of Ca. Pandoraea novymonadis, a recently described bacterial endosymbiont of the trypanosomatid Novymonas esmeraldas. When compared with genomes of its free-living relatives, it has all the hallmarks of the endosymbionts' genomes, such as significantly reduced size, extensive gene loss, low GC content, numerous gene rearrangements, and low codon usage bias. In addition, Ca. P. novymonadis lacks mobile elements, has a strikingly low number of pseudogenes, and almost all genes are single copied...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039273/in-vitro-selection-of-phytomonas-serpens-cells-resistant-to-the-calpain-inhibitor-mdl28170-alterations-in-fitness-and-expression-of-the-major-peptidases-and-efflux-pumps
#19
Simone S C Oliveira, Inês C Gonçalves, Vitor Ennes-Vidal, Angela H C S Lopes, Rubem F S Menna-Barreto, Claudia M D'Ávila-Levy, André L S Santos, Marta H Branquinha
The species Phytomonas serpens is known to express some molecules displaying similarity to those described in trypanosomatids pathogenic to humans, such as peptidases from Trypanosoma cruzi (cruzipain) and Leishmania spp. (gp63). In this work, a population of P. serpens resistant to the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 at 70 µ m (MDLR population) was selected by culturing promastigotes in increasing concentrations of the drug. The only relevant ultrastructural difference between wild-type (WT) and MDLR promastigotes was the presence of microvesicles within the flagellar pocket of the latter...
October 17, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037144/trypanosoma-cruzi-specific-mrna-amplification-by-in-vitro-transcription-improves-parasite-transcriptomics-in-host-parasite-rna-mixtures
#20
Rafael Luis Kessler, Daniela Parada Pavoni, Marco Aurelio Krieger, Christian Macagnan Probst
BACKGROUND: Trypanosomatids are a group of protozoan parasites that includes the etiologic agents of important human illnesses as Chagas disease, sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis. These parasites have a significant distinction from other eukaryotes concerning mRNA structure, since all mature mRNAs have an identical species-specific sequence of 39 nucleotides at the 5' extremity, named spliced leader (SL). Considering this peculiar aspect of trypanosomatid mRNA, the aim of the present work was to develop a Trypanosoma cruzi specific in vitro transcription (IVT) linear mRNA amplification method in order to improve parasite transcriptomics analyses...
October 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
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