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Leishmania braziliensis

Julia Angélica Gonçalves Silveira, Mirella Lauria D'Elia, Isabela de Oliveira Avelar, Lara Ribeiro de Almeida, Hudson Andrade Dos Santos, Danielle Ferreira de Magalhães Soares, Múcio Flávio Barbosa Ribeiro, Walter Dos Santos Lima, Roselene Ecco
An adult free-ranged female maned wolf was rescued from a periurban area subject to anthropogenic disturbances in the Minas Gerais, Brazil. The animal presented poor body condition and anemia. The clinical condition rapidly deteriorated culminating in dead and a necropsy was performed. The main gross lesions were marked anemia and blood content in the intestines accompanied by many types of parasites. The protozoa Rangelia vitalii was identified by histopathological analysis predominantly within the cytoplasm of endothelial cells of capillaries of the small intestine...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Fernanda A Marques, Rodrigo P Soares, Gregório G Almeida, Carolina C Souza, Maria N Melo, Sebastião A Pinto, Valeria B Quixabeira, Ledice I Pereira, Miriam L Dorta, Fatima Ribeiro-Dias, Fernando T Silveira, Sydnei M Silva, Celia M Gontijo, Wagner L Tafuri
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a neglected disease widely distributed in Latin America. In Brazil, it is caused by different Leishmania species belonging to the Subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. ATL diagnosis is routinely based on clinical, epidemiological, parasitological and immunological (delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test-DTH) evidences. The main objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of a previous immunohistochemical (IHC) method developed by our group. Seventy eight skin biopsies from patients with different ATL clinical forms and origins were evaluated...
October 8, 2016: Parasitology International
Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Allan Henrique Depieri Cataneo, Tatiane Marcuso Orsini, Ana Paula Fortes Dos Santos Thomazelli, Gabriela Alcântara Dalevedo, Admilton Gonçalves de Oliveira, Luciano Aparecido Panagio, Idessania Nazareth Costa, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ricardo Sergio Almeida
Galleria mellonella is an excellent invertebrate model for the study of diseases that involve interactions with cells from the innate immune system, since they have an innate immune system capable of recognizing the pathogens. Here we present for the first time, an alternative model for an in vitro phagocytic assay using hemocytes of G. mellonella larvae to study infection by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. We showed that the insect phagocytic cells were able to engulf promastigotes. Furthermore, this infective form differentiated into the amastigote form inside those cells...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
T N A Oliveira, P E B Guedes, G B Souza, F S Carvalho, R S Alberto Carlos, G R Albuquerque, A D Munhoz, F L Silva
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Two distinct forms are recognized: visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). In the Americas, the causative agent of VL is L. infantum chagasi, whereas L. braziliensis is principally responsible for CL. Domestic dogs constitute the main source of VL in urban environments, and have also been implicated in CL epidemiology. We carried out molecular and serological surveys to detect Leishmania infection in dogs from the municipality of Ituberá in Bahia, Brazil...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Ana Paula Fortes Dos Santos Thomazelli, Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Suelen Santos da Silva, Carolina Panis, Tatiane Marcusso Orsini, Allan Henrique Depieri Cataneo, Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla, Luiz Antonio Custódio, Vera Lúcia Hideko Tatakihara, Juliano Bordignon, Guilherme Ferreira Silveira, José Maurício Sforcin, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ivete Conchon-Costa
American Tegumentar Leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania parasites with ineffective treatment. The properties of propolis have been studied in different experimental studies, however, few works have investigated the effects of propolis on human-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in leishmaniasis models. Thus, we investigate the immunomodulatory effects of propolis treatment on PBMC from ATL patients and on PBMC from healthy donors infected with Leishmania braziliensis...
September 29, 2016: Cellular Immunology
Mariana Costa Duarte, Daniela Pagliara Lage, Vívian Tamietti Martins, Lourena Emanuele Costa, Ana Maria Ravena Severino Carvalho, Fernanda Ludolf, Thaís Teodoro de Oliveira Santos, Danniele Luciana Vale, Bruno Mendes Roatt, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Ana Paula Fernandes, Carlos Alberto Pereira Tavares, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz Coelho
In the present study, two proteins cloned from Leishmania braziliensis species, a hypothetical protein (LbHyp) and the eukaryotic initiation factor 5a (EiF5a), were evaluated to protect BALB/c mice against L. amazonensis infection. The animals were immunized with the antigens, either separately or in combination, using saponin as an immune adjuvant in both cases. Spleen cells from vaccinated and later infected mice produced significantly higher levels of protein and parasite-specific IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF, in addition to low levels of IL-4 and IL-10...
September 28, 2016: Immunobiology
Edson Moura Silva, Leucio Câmara Alves, Neurisvan Ramos Guerra, Márcia Paula Oliveira Farias, Elton Luiz Ritir Oliveira, Ricardo César de Souza, Carneiro da Cunha, Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos, Wagnner José Nascimento Porto
The synanthropic behavior of marsupials of the genus Didelphis in endemic areas of leishmaniasis suggests that these animals may play an important role in the epidemiology of this infection. The aim of the present study was to detect Leishmania spp. DNA in Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum) and Didelphis aurita (big-eared opossum) living in forested and peridomestic areas of northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 25 animals (23 D. albiventris and 2 D. aurita ) by cardiac puncture and then analyzed via PCR...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
J O M Infran, D A Souza, W S Fernandes, A E Casaril, G U Eguchi, E T Oshiro, C E S Fernandes, A C Paranhos Filho, A G Oliveira
Recording the nycthemeral rhythm of sand flies allows the evaluation of the daily activity in different ecotypes, the period of greatest activity, and their degree of anthropophily. We investigated the fauna and the rhythm of sand fly activity in an ecotourism region in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) state, Brazil. Sand flies were captured monthly, using a Shannon trap for 24 h periods between July 2012 and June 2014. We collected 1,815 sand flies, in which Lutzomyia whitmani (=Nyssomyia whitmani, sensu Galati) and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the most abundant species during the dry season, with activity from 5 p...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Hélio Galdino, Rodrigo Saar Gomes, Jessica Cristina Dos Santos, Lívia Lara Pessoni, Anetícia Eduarda Maldaner, Stéfanne Madalena Marques, Clayson Moura Gomes, Miriam Leandro Dorta, Milton Adriano Pelli de Oliveira, Leo A B Joosten, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias
While the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been investigated in murine models of tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the interaction between TLRs and Leishmania sp. has not been investigated in human cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of TLR4 in cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by L. braziliensis, and whether the parasite alters the expression of TLR4 on monocytes/macrophages. Amastigote forms were obtained from mice lesions and PBMCs were isolated from healthy donors...
December 2016: Cytokine
Lilian S Medina, Bruno Araújo Souza, Adriano Queiroz, Luiz Henrique Guimarães, Paulo Roberto Lima Machado, Edgar M Carvalho, Mary Edythe Wilson, Albert Schriefer
GP63 or leishmanolysin is the major surface protease of Leishmania spp. involved in parasite virulence and host cell interaction. As such, GP63 is a potential target of eventual vaccines against these protozoa. In the current study we evaluate the polymorphism of gp63 in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis isolated from two sets of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) cases from Corte de Pedra, Brazil, including 35 cases diagnosed between 1994 and 2001 and 6 cases diagnosed between 2008 and 2011. Parasites were obtained from lesions by needle aspiration and cultivation...
2016: PloS One
Stephen M Christensen, Laura A L Dillon, Lucas P Carvalho, Sara Passos, Fernanda O Novais, V Keith Hughitt, Daniel P Beiting, Edgar M Carvalho, Phillip Scott, Najib M El-Sayed, David M Mosser
Host and parasite gene expression in skin biopsies from Leishmania braziliensis-infected patients were simultaneously analyzed using high throughput RNA-sequencing. Biopsies were taken from 8 patients with early cutaneous leishmaniasis and 17 patients with late cutaneous leishmaniasis. Although parasite DNA was found in all patient lesions at the time of biopsy, the patients could be stratified into two groups: one lacking detectable parasite transcripts (PTNeg) in lesions, and another in which parasite transcripts were readily detected (PTPos)...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ana M Montalvo, Jorge Fraga, Ivón Montano, Lianet Monzote, Gert Van der Auwera, Marcel Marín, Carlos Muskus
INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is highly prevalent in Colombia, where at least six different species can cause disease of varying clinical presentations in humans. The identification of the infecting species is quite important for prognosis, therapeutics and epidemiology. Different techniques with variable discriminatory power have been used for the identification.  OBJECTIVE: To carry out the molecular identification of Leishmania species through the amplification of a fragment of the hsp70 gene...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Geraldo Pedral-Sampaio, Jessé S Alves, Albert Schriefer, Andréa Magalhães, Roberto Meyer, Marshall J Glesby, Edgar M Carvalho, Lucas P Carvalho
Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) relies on clinical presentation, parasite isolation, histopathologic evaluation and positive Montenegro skin test. However, the low amounts of parasites in the lesion of these individuals make parasite isolation and histopatologic diagnosis unreliable, often leading to false-negative results. Also, 15% of people living in endemic areas have sub-clinical infection characterized by positive Montenegro skin test, which may contribute to misdiagnosis. Although the main Leishmania killing mechanism is through cell-mediated immune response, antibodies against Leishmania antigens are found in infected individuals...
2016: PloS One
Rafael de Freitas E Silva, Luiz Felipe Gomes Rebello Ferreira, Marcelo Zaldini Hernandes, Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito, Beatriz Coutinho de Oliveira, Ailton Alvaro da Silva, Osvaldo Pompílio de-Melo-Neto, Antônio Mauro Rezende, Valéria Rêgo Alves Pereira
The leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases widespread throughout the globe, which are caused by protozoans from the genus Leishmania and are transmitted by infected phlebotomine flies. The development of a safe and effective vaccine against these diseases has been seen as the best alternative to control and reduce the number of cases. To support vaccine development, this work has applied an in silico approach to search for high potential peptide epitopes able to bind to different major histocompatibility complex Class I and Class II (MHC I and MHC II) molecules from different human populations...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Rodrigo Espíndola Godoy, Antônio Luís Ferreira de Santana, Carina Graser, Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel, Maurício Luiz Vilela
In Brazil, American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) ecology involves a diversity of Leishmania species transmitted by different sand fly species. Workers involved in agricultural activities are those mainly affected by ACL in some regions from Tocantins State (TO), Brazil, where the disease can be established in new settlements. The objective of this study was to examine the seasonal and hourly frequency of sand fly species, focusing on the potential vectors of ACL, in a settlement in Guaraí (TO), an ACL transmission area...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
G M L Carvalho, R P Brazil, F D Rêgo, M C N F Ramos, A P L A Zenóbio, J D Andrade Filho
Leishmania spp. are distributed throughout the world, and different species are associated with varying degrees of disease severity. In Brazil, Leishmania transmission involves several species of phlebotomine sand flies that are closely associated with different parasites and reservoirs, and thereby giving rise to different transmission cycles. Infection occurs during the bloodmeals of sand flies obtained from a variety of wild and domestic animals, and sometimes from humans. The present study focused on detection of Leishmania DNA in phlebotomine sand flies from a cave in the state of Minas Gerais...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Lucilene Aparecida Resende, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira Aguiar-Soares, Henrique Gama-Ker, Bruno Mendes Roatt, Ludmila Zanandreis de Mendonça, Marina Luiza Rodrigues Alves, Denise da Silveira-Lemos, Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Márcio Sobreira Silva Araújo, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo, Alexandre Barbosa Reis, Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti
Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L...
2016: PloS One
Filipe Dantas-Torres, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva Sales, Lidiane Gomes da Silva, Domenico Otranto, Luciana Aguiar Figueredo
We describe an improved real-time PCR assay for the detection and quantification of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis kinetoplast DNA minicircles in canine blood samples. The analytical sensitivity of this technique is 0.1 fg of DNA per reaction, which is equivalent to 0.002 parasite. This assay uses a small reaction volume (15 μl) and is rapid to perform, with the results being available in less than 34 min. This improved assay might also be suitable for detecting and quantifying L. infantum and L...
August 20, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Diego H Macedo, Armando Menezes-Neto, Jeronimo M Rugani, Ana C Rocha, Soraia O Silva, Maria N Melo, Lon-Fye Lye, Stephen M Beverley, Célia M Gontijo, Rodrigo P Soares
The double stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus Leishmaniavirus (Totiviridae) was first described in Leishmania guyanensis and L. braziliensis (LRV1), and more recently from L. major and L. aethiopica (LRV2). Parasites bearing LRV1 elicit a higher pro-inflammatory profile, arising through activation of Toll like receptor 3(TLR3) interacting with the viral dsRNA. LRV1 is most common in Leishmania from the Amazon region; however data for other regions of Brazil are more limited. Here we applied PCR tests with validated 'universal' LRV1 primers to search for LRV1 in 40 strains of cultured L...
August 18, 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Adriana Bezerra-Souza, Eduardo S Yamamoto, Márcia D Laurenti, Susan P Ribeiro, Luiz Felipe D Passero
The production of ergosterol lipid, important for the Leishmania membrane homeostasis, involves different enzymes. This pathway can be blocked to azoles and allylamines drugs, such as Butenafine. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anti-leishmanicidal activity of this drug in 2 major species of Leishmania responsible for causing the American tegumentar leishmaniasis (L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (V.) braziliensis). Butenafine eliminated promastigote forms of L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis with efficacy similar to miltefosine, a standard anti-leishmania drug...
December 2016: Parasitology International
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