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Leishmania braziliensis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076470/first-description-of-leishmania-viannia-infection-in-evandromyia-saulensis-pressatia-sp-and-trichophoromyia-auraensis-psychodidae-phlebotominae-in-a-transmission-area-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-acre-state-amazon-basin-brazil
#1
Thais de Araujo-Pereira, Daniela de Pita-Pereira, Mariana Côrtes Boité, Myllena Melo, Taiana Amancio da Costa-Rego, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari, Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil, Constança Britto
Studies on the sandfly fauna to evaluate natural infection indexes are still limited in the Brazilian Amazon, a region with an increasing incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction directed to Leishmania kDNA and hybridisation, we were able to identify L. (Viannia) subgenus in 12 out of 173 sandflies captured in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre state, revealing a positivity of 6.94%. By sequencing the Leishmania 234 bp-hsp70 amplified products from positive samples, infection by L...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076241/phenotypic-and-functional-characteristics-of-hla-dr-neutrophils-in-brazilians-with-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#2
Richard E Davis, Smriti Sharma, Jacilara Conceição, Pedro Carneiro, Fernanda Novais, Phillip Scott, Shyam Sundar, Olivia Bacellar, Edgar M Carvalho, Mary E Wilson
The protozoan Leishmania braziliensis causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in endemic regions. In murine models, neutrophils (PMNs) are recruited to the site of infection soon after parasite inoculation. However, the roles of neutrophils during chronic infection and in human disease remain undefined. We hypothesized that neutrophils help maintain a systemic inflammatory state in subjects with CL. Lesion biopsies from all patients with CL tested contained neutrophils expressing HLA-DR, a molecule thought to be restricted to professional antigen-presenting cells...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070006/susceptibility-to-miltefosine-in-brazilian-clinical-isolates-of-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis
#3
Caroline R Espada, Fatima Ribeiro-Dias, Miriam L Dorta, Ledice Inácia de Araújo Pereira, Edgar M de Carvalho, Paulo R Machado, Jenicer K U Yokoyama-Yasunaka, Adriano C Coelho, Silvia R B Uliana
Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the main causative species of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Brazil. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of 16 clinical isolates of L. (V.) braziliensis from different regions of Brazil to miltefosine in vitro. Half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of miltefosine varied from 22.9 to 144.2 μm against promastigotes and from 0.3 to 4.2 μm against intracellular amastigotes. No significant differences were found between isolates of different geographical origins. A clear correlation between the EC50 against promastigotes and amastigotes within each isolate was found...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964761/involvement-of-nucleoside-diphosphate-kinase-b-and-elongation-factor-2-in-leishmania-braziliensis-antimony-resistance-phenotype
#4
Douglas S Moreira, Silvane M F Murta
BACKGROUND: Nucleoside diphosphate kinase b (NDKb) is responsible for nucleoside triphosphates synthesis and it has key role in the purine metabolism in trypanosomatid protozoans. Elongation factor 2 (EF2) is an important factor for protein synthesis. Recently, our phosphoproteomic analysis demonstrated that NDKb and EF2 proteins were phosphorylated and dephosphorylated in antimony (Sb(III))-resistant L. braziliensis line compared to its Sb(III)-susceptible pair, respectively. METHODS: In this study, the overexpression of NDKb and EF2 genes in L...
December 13, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927927/use-of-recombinant-antigens-for-sensitive-serodiagnosis-of-american-tegumentary-leishmaniasis-caused-by-different-leishmania-species
#5
Camila Massae Sato, Maria Carmen Arroyo Sanchez, Beatriz Julieta Celeste, Malcolm S Duthie, Jeffrey Guderian, Steven G Reed, Maria Edileuza Felinto Brito, Marliane Batista Campos, Helia Valeria de Souza Encarnação, Jorge Guerra, Tirza Gabrielle Ramos de Mesquita, Suzana Kanawati Pinheiro, Rajendranath Ramasawmy, Fernando Tobias Silveira, Marina de Assis Souza, Hiro Goto
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL; also known as cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)) is caused by various species of protozoa of the genus Leishmania The diagnosis is achieved on a clinical, epidemiological and pathological basis supported with positive parasitological exams and demonstration of Leishmanin delayed-type hypersensitivity. Serological assays are not routinely used in the diagnosis because many are considered to have low sensitivity and the particular Leishmania species causing the disease can lead to variable perfomance...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927916/field-validation-of-sybr%C3%A2-green-and-taqman%C3%A2-based-real-time-pcr-using-biopsy-and-swab-samples-to-diagnose-american-tegumentary-leishmaniasis-in-a-leishmania-v-braziliensis-endemic-area
#6
Ciro Martins Gomes, Mariana Vicente Cesetti, Natália Aparecida de Paula, Sebastián Vernal, Gaurav Gupta, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro Sampaio, Ana Maria Roselino
The precise diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an essential task due to the disease's associated morbidity. A non-invasive, extremely sensitive and highly specific exam is critical, particularly for mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), in which a low parasite quantity is expected. We aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of swab and biopsy sample analysis using SYBR® Green- and TaqMan®-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays with that of a composite reference standard consisting of the Montenegro skin test, serology, histopathology, smears, culture and conventional PCR...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925060/hepatozoon-canis-and-leishmania-spp-coinfection-in-dogs-diagnosed-with-visceral-leishmaniasis
#7
Fernanda Nazaré Morgado, Amanda Dos Santos Cavalcanti, Luisa Helena de Miranda, Lúcia Helena O'Dwyer, Maria Regina Lucas da Silva, Rodrigo Caldas Menezes, Aurea Virgínia Andrade da Silva, Mariana Côrtes Boité, Elisa Cupolillo, Renato Porrozzi
This study describes the occurrence of dogs naturally co-infected with Hepatozoon canis and two Leishmania species: L. infantum or L. braziliensis. Four dogs serologically diagnosed with Visceral Leishmaniasis were euthanized. Liver and spleen samples were collected for histopathological analysis and DNA isolation. H. canis meronts were observed in tissues from all four dogs. H. canis infection was confirmed by PCR followed by sequencing of a fragment of 18S rRNA gene. Leishmania detection and typing was confirmed by ITS1' PCR-RFLP and parasite burden was calculated using ssrRNA quantitative qPCR...
October 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922065/detc-based-bacterial-cellulose-bio-curatives-for-topical-treatment-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#8
Fabiana S Celes, Eliane Trovatti, Ricardo Khouri, Johan Van Weyenbergh, Sidney J L Ribeiro, Valeria M Borges, Hernane S Barud, Camila I de Oliveira
The treatment of leishmaniasis still relies on drugs with potentially serious adverse effects. Herein, we tested a topical formulation of bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes containing Diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC), a superoxide dismutase 1 inhibitor. Leishmania-infected macrophages exposed to BC-DETC resulted in parasite killing, without pronounced toxic effects to host cells. This outcome was associated with lower SOD1 activity and higher production of superoxide and cytokine mediators. Topical application of BC-DETC significantly decreased lesion size, parasite load and the inflammatory response at the infection site, as well as the production of both IFN-γ and TNF...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919786/increasing-in-cysteine-proteinase-b-expression-and-enzymatic-activity-during-in-vitro-differentiation-of-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis-first-evidence-of-modulation-during-morphological-transition
#9
Cinthia Bernardes Gomes, Franklin Souza da Silva, Karen Dos Santos Charret, Bernardo Acácio Santini Pereira, Léa Cysne Finkelstein, Raquel Santos de Souza, Luzia Monteiro de Castro Côrtes, Mirian Claudia Souza Pereira, Francisco Odêncio Rodrigues de Oliveira, Carlos Roberto Alves
Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis presents adaptive protease-dependent mechanisms, as cysteine proteinases B (CPB). This work focuses on the expression of three cpb gene isoforms and CPB enzymatic activity during the parasite differentiation. Relative expression levels of LbrM.08.0810 gene was assessed, showing a higher quantity of transcripts in the logarithmic promastigotes phase than in the stationary promastigotes phase (> 1.5 times). The cbp gene tends to decrease during acid pH shock and increases when the temperature rises (> 1...
December 2, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919688/leishmaniases-in-ecuador-comprehensive-review-and-current-status
#10
REVIEW
Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Lenin N Velez, Nancy V Villegas, Tatsuyuki Mimori, Eduardo A L Gomez, Hirotomo Kato
This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL)...
February 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906988/atypical-manifestations-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-region-endemic-for-leishmania-braziliensis-clinical-immunological-and-parasitological-aspects
#11
Luiz Henrique Guimarães, Adriano Queiroz, Juliana A Silva, Silvana C Silva, Viviane Magalhães, Ednaldo L Lago, Paulo Roberto L Machado, Olívia Bacellar, Mary E Wilson, Stephen M Beverley, Edgar M Carvalho, Albert Schriefer
BACKGROUND: Atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) has become progressively more frequent in Corte de Pedra, Northeast Brazil. Herein we characterize clinical presentation, antimony response, cytokine production and parasite strains prevailing in ACL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between 2005 and 2012, 51 ACL (cases) and 51 temporally matched cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) subjects (controls) were enrolled and followed over time in Corte de Pedra. Clinical and therapeutic data were recorded for all subjects...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886396/5-ala-mediated-photodynamic-therapy-reduces-the-parasite-load-in-mice-infected-with-leishmania-braziliensis
#12
Danila Malheiros Souza, Polyanna Miranda Alves, Mona Lisa Fabiana Silva, Tony Paiva Paulino, Henrique Ovidio Coraspe, Mônica Miguel Sawan Mendonça, Betânia Maria Ribeiro, Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Virmondes Rodrigues Júnior, Denise Bertulucci Rocha Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has proven to be an effective alternative for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Skin lesions consist of ulcers with well-defined raised edges, and granular floor. Th1 immune response is the protective profile in patients infected with Leishmania. In the present study, the photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid, the parasitic load, and the modulation of the immune response were evaluated in mice infected with Leishmania braziliensis...
November 25, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870860/gene-expression-profile-of-high-ifn-%C3%AE-producers-stimulated-with-leishmania-braziliensis-identifies-genes-associated-with-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#13
Marcia W Carneiro, Kiyoshi F Fukutani, Bruno B Andrade, Rebecca P Curvelo, Juqueline R Cristal, Augusto M Carvalho, Aldina Barral, Johan Van Weyenbergh, Manoel Barral-Netto, Camila I de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The initial response to Leishmania parasites is essential in determining disease development or resistance. In vitro, a divergent response to Leishmania, characterized by high or low IFN-γ production has been described as a potential tool to predict both vaccine response and disease susceptibility in vivo. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified uninfected and healthy individuals that were shown to be either high- or low IFN-γ producers (HPs and LPs, respectively) following stimulation of peripheral blood cells with Leishmania braziliensis...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860021/detection-of-leishmania-amazonensis-and-leishmania-braziliensis-in-culicoides-diptera-ceratopogonidae-in-an-endemic-area-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-the-brazilian-amazonia
#14
José Manuel Macário Rebêlo, Bruno Leite Rodrigues, Maria da Conceição Abreu Bandeira, Jorge Luiz Pinto Moraes, Raquel Silva Fonteles, Silma Regina Ferreira Pereira
Biting midges in the genus Culicoides act as vectors of arboviruses throughout the world and as vectors of filariasis in Latin America, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa. Although Culicoides spp. are currently not considered to be vectors of Leishmania protozoa, the high abundance of biting midges in areas with active cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission points to the possibility of Culicoides infection by these pathogens. We used PCR to test captured Culicoides species for natural infection with Leishmania spp...
December 2016: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849219/genomic-and-phylogenetic-evidence-of-viper-retrotransposon-domestication-in-trypanosomatids
#15
Adriana Ludwig, Marco Aurelio Krieger
Transposable elements are important residents of eukaryotic genomes and eventually the host can domesticate them to serve cellular functions. We reported here a possible domestication event of the vestigial interposed retroelement (VIPER) in trypanosomatids. We found a large gene in a syntenic location in Leishmania braziliensis, L. panamensis, Leptomanas pyrrhocoris, and Crithidia fasciculata whose products share similarity in the C-terminal portion with the third protein of VIPER. No remnants of other VIPER regions surrounding the gene sequence were found...
December 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845489/leishmaniasis-and-ifn-%C3%AE-dependent-chemokines
#16
P Fallahi, G Elia, A Bonatti
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by Leishmania and spread by the bite of certain types of sandflies. Leishmaniasis affects as many as 12 million people worldwide, with 2 million new cases each year. Leishmania infection, and Leishmaniasis, following occupational exposure has been also reported. Three forms of Leishmaniasis are known: a- Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL); b-Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis; c- Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). The visceral form of Leishmaniasis has an estimated incidence of 500,000 new cases...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812653/evaluation-of-the-antiplasmodial-and-leishmanicidal-potential-of-myrciaria-dubia-myrtaceae-extract
#17
Vanessa Carolina de Sena Correia, Nathália Oliveira Lima, Flávio Augusto de Souza Oliveira, Ana Paula de Azevedo Dos Santos, Carolina Bioni Garcia Teles, Waldesse Piragé de Oliveira, And Raphael Sanzio Pimenta
INTRODUCTION: Malaria and leishmaniasis are prevalent in tropical regions, which have environmental characteristics that are highly favorable to protozoa and vectors of these diseases; the transmission of these infections in sub-tropical regions, although recognized, represents only a small fraction of cases. Plants are constantly being used in the search for and acquisition of new drugs, and many compounds derived from them have been used to combat various diseases. In this study, we evaluated the action of the dichloromethanolic extract of Myrciaria dubia leaves against the protozoa Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania braziliensis, and Leishmania chagasi through bioassays...
September 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812113/immunity-to-lutzomyia-whitmani-saliva-protects-against-experimental-leishmania-braziliensis-infection
#18
Regis Gomes, Katrine Cavalcanti, Clarissa Teixeira, Augusto M Carvalho, Paulo S Mattos, Juqueline R Cristal, Aline C Muniz, José Carlos Miranda, Camila I de Oliveira, Aldina Barral
BACKGROUND: Previous works showed that immunization with saliva from Lutzomyia intermedia, a vector of Leishmania braziliensis, does not protect against experimental infection. However, L. braziliensis is also transmitted by Lutzomyia whitmani, a sand fly species closely related to Lu. intermedia. Herein we describe the immune response following immunization with Lu. whitmani saliva and the outcome of this response after L. braziliensis infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: BALB/c mice immunized with Lu...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808385/standardization-of-a-molecular-method-for-epidemiologic-identification-of-leishmania-strains
#19
R F Rocha, E V Menezes, A R E O Xavier, V A Royo, D A Oliveira, A F M Júnior, E S Dias, A C V M R Lima, E M Michalsky
Molecular studies of the evolutionary relationships among Leishmania species suggest the presence of high genetic variation within this genus, which has a direct effect on public health in many countries. The coexistence of species in a particular region can result in different leishmaniasis clinical forms and treatment responses. We aimed to standardize the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for molecular epidemiological identification of Leishmania strains, and estimate existing inter-strain genomic differences and kDNA signatures using this technique...
October 6, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803094/fluconazole-in-the-treatment-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-caused-by-leishmania-braziliensis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Fernanda V de O Prates, Mayra E F Dourado, Silvana C Silva, Albert Schriefer, Luiz H Guimarães, Maria das Graças O Brito, Juliana Almeida, Edgar M Carvalho, Paulo R L Machado
BACKGROUND:  The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Brazil with pentavalent antimony (Sb(v)) is associated with a high rate of failure, up to 45% of cases. In addition, Sb(v) can only administered parenterally and has important toxic effect. An effective, safe, and oral treatment for CL is required. METHODS:  A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of high-dosage oral fluconazole (6...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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