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Leishmania braziliensis

Marliane Batista Campos, Luciana Vieira do Rêgo Lima, Ana Carolina Stocco de Lima, Thiago Vasconcelos Dos Santos, Patrícia Karla Santos Ramos, Claudia Maria de Castro Gomes, Fernando Tobias Silveira
Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and Leishmania(L.) amazonensis are the most pathogenic agents of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Brazil, causing a wide spectrum of clinical and immunopathological manifestations, including: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCLDTH+/++), borderline disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (BDCLDTH±), anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (ADCLDTH-), and mucosal leishmaniasis (MLDTH++++). It has recently been demonstrated, however, that while L. (V.) braziliensis shows a clear potential to advance the infection from central LCL (a moderate T-cell hypersensitivity form) towards ML (the highest T-cell hypersensitivity pole), L...
2018: PloS One
Patrícia Flávia Quaresma, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito, Jeronimo Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Janaína de Moura Freire, Rodrigo de Paula Baptista, Elizabeth Castro Moreno, Raquel Carvalho Gontijo, Felipe Dutra Rego, Joaquim Edemilson Diniz, Maria Norma Melo, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) samples obtained from the lesions of patients with typical (n = 25, 29%), atypical (n = 60, 69%) or both (n = 2%) clinical manifestations were analysed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, hsp70 restriction-fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), hsp70 sequencing and phylogenetics methods. The hsp70 PCR-RFLP analysis revealed two different profiles whose the most samples differed from those expected for Leishmania braziliensis and the other Leishmania species tested: of 39 samples evaluated, two (5%) had a restriction profile corresponding to L...
March 12, 2018: Parasitology
Johana Marin, Daniel Urrea, Carlos Muskus, María Clara Echeverry, Ana María Mejía, Omar Triana
Introducción. La leishmaniasis cutánea es una enfermedad causada por parásitos del género Leishmania que tiene gran incidencia en Colombia. El diagnóstico y la identificación de la especie infecciosa son factores críticos en el momento de escoger e iniciar el tratamiento. Actualmente, los métodos de diagnóstico y tipificación requieren procedimientos complejos, por lo que es necesario validar nuevos marcadores moleculares y métodos que simplifiquen el proceso.Objetivo. Desarrollar una herramienta basada en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) con curvas de fusión (High Resolution Melting; PCR-HRM) para el diagnóstico y tipificación de las tres especies de Leishmania de importancia epidemiológica en casos de leishmaniasis cutánea en Colombia...
December 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Simone Miranda da Costa, José Luís Passos Cordeiro, Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis represents an important public health problem in Brazil. The continuous process of urbanization and expansion of human activities in forest areas impacts natural habitats, modifying the ecology of some species of Leishmania, as well as its vectors and reservoirs and, consequently, changes the epidemiological pattern that contributes to the expansion of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Here, we discuss Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani, the main vector of ACL, transmitting two dermotropic Leishmania species including Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (V...
March 7, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Sofia Sales Martins, Adriana de Oliveira Santos, Beatriz Dolabela Lima, Ciro Martins Gomes, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro Sampaio
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is usually transmitted by infected phlebotomine sand fly bites that initiate local cutaneous lesions. Few reports in the literature describe other modes of transmission. We report a case of a previously healthy 59-year-old woman who underwent electrocoagulation to remove seborrheic keratosis confirmed by dermatoscopy. Three months later, a skin fragment tested positive for Leishmania culture; the parasite was identified as L. (V.) braziliensis. Trauma may generate inflammatory cascades that favor Leishmania growth and lesion formation in previously infected patients...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
John I Robinson, Stephen M Beverley
Leishmania is a widespread trypanosomatid protozoan parasite causing significant morbidity and mortality in humans. The endobiont dsRNA virus Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1) chronically infects some strains, where it increases parasite numbers and virulence in murine leishmaniasis models, and correlates with increased treatment failure in human disease. Previously, we reported that 2'-C-methyladenosine (2CMA) potently inhibited LRV1 in Leishmania guyanensis ( Lgy ) and L. braziliensis , leading to viral eradication at concentrations above 10 µM...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Crhisllane Rafaele Dos Santos Vasconcelos, Túlio de Lima Campos, Antonio Mauro Rezende
BACKGROUND: Systematic analysis of a parasite interactome is a key approach to understand different biological processes. It makes possible to elucidate disease mechanisms, to predict protein functions and to select promising targets for drug development. Currently, several approaches for protein interaction prediction for non-model species incorporate only small fractions of the entire proteomes and their interactions. Based on this perspective, this study presents an integration of computational methodologies, protein network predictions and comparative analysis of the protozoan species Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum...
March 6, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Humberto F Freitas, Acássia Benjamim Leal Pires, Marcelo S Castilho
Among the neglected tropical diseases, leishmaniasis stands out for its worldwide distribution and diversity of symptoms. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), for instance, is endemic in 18 countries, but the available drugs to fight it have high toxicity and low patient adherence. In order to overcome this, dilemma drugs that target enzymes which are absent in the human host, such as Leishmania braziliensis sterol C24-methyltransferase (SMT-C24, EC, are needed. However, medicinal chemistry efforts toward this goal have been hampered by the low yield of soluble recombinant SMT-C24 afforded by currently available expression systems...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Léa Cysne-Finkelstein, Mariana Silva-Almeida, Bernardo Acácio Santini Pereira, Karen Dos Santos Charret, Álvaro Luiz Bertho, Leonardo Soares Bastos, Luzia de Oliveira Pinto, Francisco Odêncio Rodrigues de Oliveira, Mirian Cláudia da Souza Pereira, Carlos Roberto Alves
The present study demonstrates that the Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis strain MCAN/BR/1998/R619 is composed of multiple subpopulations with measurable distinctions. Single parasites were separated from a culture of promastigotes in stationary phase by cell sorting and then cultivated as subpopulations. Subsequently, these subpopulations were evaluated for features of in vitro growth, infectivity to murine macrophages and proteinase gene expression. The first evidence of distinct characteristics was observed during the in vitro cultivation of isolated subpopulations, as distinct clusters of patterns were formed among the cultures, indicating the existence of quantifiable fluctuations in metrics...
December 5, 2017: Protist
Adalberto Alves Pereira-Filho, Raquel Silva Fonteles, Maria da Conceição Abreu Bandeira, Jorge Luiz Pinto Moraes, José Manuel Macário Rebêlo, Maria Norma Melo
Sand flies are very common in the region of Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, an important tourist attraction in Brazil. However, the role of some species and their relative importance locally in Leishmania Ross 1903 transmission is unclear. The objective of this study was to identify Leishmania infection in phlebotomine sand flies collected around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, an important conservation area and popular international/national tourist destination with a high incidence of leishmaniasis...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Carlos Eduardo Sampaio Guedes, Beatriz Rocha Simões Dias, Antonio Luis de Oliveira Almeida Petersen, Kercia Pinheiro Cruz, Niara de Jesus Almeida, Daniela Rodrigues Andrade, Juliana Perrone Bezerra de Menezes, Valéria de Matos Borges, Patricia Sampaio Tavares Veras
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis, one of the most neglected diseases, is a serious public health problem in many countries, including Brazil. Currently available treatments require long-term use and have serious side effects, necessitating the development of new therapeutic interventions. Because translocator protein (TSPO) levels are reduced in Leishmania amazonensis-infected cells and because this protein participates in apoptosis and immunomodulation, TSPO represents a potential target for Leishmania chemotherapy...
February 5, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito, Ericka Lima Almeida, Angela Cristina Rapela Medeiros, Roberto Pereira Werkhäuser, Joanna Lucia de Almeida Alexandre, Bruna Santos Lima Figueiredo Sá, Eduardo Henrique Gomes Rodrigues, Sinval Pinto Brandão-Filho
Several studies have described the use of non-invasive collection methods, mostly based on the detection of parasite DNA, for diagnosis. However, no Leishmania specimens have been isolated from saliva. Here, we report the first isolation of Leishmania braziliensis from the saliva of humans with cutaneous leishmaniasis but without lesions on their mucosa. The isolates were obtained from salivary fluid inoculated in hamsters and were tested by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Seven samples from 43 patients suspected of having the disease were identified for in vivo culture...
February 5, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Nicolas Barros, Nestor Vasquez, Fernando Woll, Cesar Sanchez, Braulio Valencia, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, A Clinton White, Martin Montes
To evaluate the dynamics of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during tegumentary leishmaniasis, we assessed peripheral blood and biopsies from 54 patients. Patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) had a decreased proportion of Tregs in the peripheral blood, but the proportion was higher in the biopsies of lesions. During treatment of CL, circulating Tregs increased reaching normal proportions, whereas antigen-specific interferon-γ responses diminished. By contrast, circulating Tregs from mucosal leishmaniasis patients failed to normalize during treatment...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Diandra Arévalo-Lopéz, Nélida Nina, Juan C Ticona, Ivan Limachi, Efrain Salamanca, Enrique Udaeta, Crispin Paredes, Boris Espinoza, Alcides Serato, David Garnica, Abigail Limachi, Dayana Coaquira, Sarah Salazar, Ninoska Flores, Olov Sterner, Alberto Giménez
ETNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: thirty-eight Tacana medicinal plant species used to treat skin problems, including leishmania ulcers, skin infections, inflammation and wound healing, were collected in the community of Buena Vista, Bolivia, with the Tacana people. Twenty two species are documented for the first time as medicinal plants for this ethnic group living in the northern area of the Department of La Paz. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the leishmanicidal effect (IC50) and cytotoxicity (LD50) of the selected plants...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Márcia Moreira de Ávila, Andreia Fernandes Brilhante, Cristian Ferreira de Souza, Paula Dias Bevilacqua, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati, Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are insects of medical importance due to their involvement in the zoonotic transmission of Leishmania spp. to vertebrates. The aim of this work was to study the ecology of the sand fly fauna of two types of environments, a rural environment (the Transacreana Road) and an urban park (Horto Florestal Park), both located in the municipality of Rio Branco in the state of Acre, Brazil. Additionally, this study intended to investigate Leishmania infection and blood meal sources of these sand flies using molecular techniques...
January 26, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Humberto F Freitas, Acássia Benjamim Leal Pires, Marcelo S Castilho
Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Of the three main clinical forms, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common and 40 million people are at risk in the endemic areas. Currently, the available drugs to fight leishmaniasis have high toxicity and poor efficiency. Then, it is very important to search for effective and safe drugs that would target essential enzymes from the parasite, such as lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase (CYP51, EC 1.14.13...
January 23, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Erin A Brettmann, Lon-Fye Lye, Stephen M Beverley
An essential control for genetic manipulation of microbes is the regeneration of the wild-type state and phenotype to validate that any mutant phenotypes are 'on target'. For Leishmania gene knockouts, this is often done by re-expression of the target gene from episomal vectors, often bearing counter-selectable markers. Methods for similarly validating the outcomes from dominant mutations such as those arising from RNA interference (RNAi) are needed. We present here such an approach, relying on facilitated recovery after spontaneous excision - or 'popouts' - of dominant transgenes stably inserted into the ribosomal RNA array, utilizing GFP as a marker and single cell sorting to recover regenerated WT controls...
January 18, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Eline Eberhardt, Magali Van den Kerkhof, Dimitri Bulté, Dorien Mabille, Lieselotte Van Bockstal, Séverine Monnerat, Fabiana Alves, Jane Mbui, Peter Delputte, Paul Cos, Sarah Hendrickx, Louis Maes, Guy Caljon
Several methods have been developed for the detection of Leishmania, mostly targeting the minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). A new RNA qPCR assay was developed targeting the conserved and highly expressed spliced-leader (SL) mini-exon sequence. This study compared the limits of detection of various real-time PCR assays in hamsters infected with Leishmania infantum, in spiked human blood and in clinical blood samples from visceral leishmaniasis patients. The SL-RNA assay showed an excellent analytical sensitivity in tissues (0...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
Deborah Carbonera Guedes, João Carlos Minozzo, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi Pasquali, Craig Faulds, Carlos Ricardo Soccol, Vanete Thomaz-Soccol
INTRODUCTION: The production of the Montenegro antigen for skin test poses difficulties regarding quality control. Here, we propose that certain animal models reproducing a similar immune response to humans may be used in the quality control of Montenegro antigen production. METHODS: Fifteen Cavia porcellus (guinea pigs) were immunized with Leishmania amazonensis or Leishmania braziliensis , and, after 30 days, they were skin tested with standard Montenegro antigen...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Sara M Robledo, Ivan D Vélez, Thomas J Schmidt
In search for potential therapeutic alternatives to existing treatments for cutaneous Leishmaniasis, we have investigated the effect of Arnica tincture Ph. Eur. (a 70% hydroethanolic tincture prepared from flowerheads of Arnica montana L.) on the lesions caused by infection with Leishmania braziliensis in a model with golden hamsters. The animals were treated topically with a daily single dose of the preparation for 28 days. Subsequently, the healing process was monitored by recording the lesion size in intervals of 15 days up to day 90...
January 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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