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Leishmania braziliensis

Simone Coughlan, Ali Shirley Taylor, Eoghan Feane, Mandy Sanders, Gabriele Schonian, James A Cotton, Tim Downing
The unicellular protozoan parasite Leishmania causes the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis, affecting 12 million people in 98 countries. In South America, where the Viannia subgenus predominates, so far only L. ( Viannia ) braziliensis and L. ( V. ) panamensis have been sequenced, assembled and annotated as reference genomes. Addressing this deficit in molecular information can inform species typing, epidemiological monitoring and clinical treatment. Here, L. ( V. ) naiffi and L. ( V. ) guyanensis genomic DNA was sequenced to assemble these two genomes as draft references from short sequence reads...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Valterlúcio Dos Santos Sales, Álefe Brito Monteiro, Gyllyandeson de Araújo Delmondes, Emmily Petícia do Nascimento, Francisco Rodolpho Sobreira Dantas Nóbrega de Figuêiredo, Cristina Kelly de Souza Rodrigues, Josefa Fernanda Evangelista de Lacerda, Cícera Norma Fernandes, Maysa de Oliveira Barbosa, Adamo Xenofonte Brasil, Saulo Relison Tintino, Maria Celeste Vega Gomez, Cathia Coronel, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Cícero Francisco Bezerra Felipe, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes, Marta Regina Kerntopf
With the increase of neglected diseases such as leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, there was a need for the search for new therapeutic alternatives that reduce the harm caused by medicine available for treatment. Thus, this study was performed to investigate the antiparasitic activity of the essential oil from the fruits of Piper tuberculatum Jacq, against lines of Leishmania braziliensis (MHOM/CO/88/UA301), Leishmania infantum (MHOM/ES/92/BCN83) and Trypanosoma cruzi (LC-B5 clone). Before running protocols, an analysis of the chemical composition of essential oil was conducted, which presented monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Pedro Soares de Sousa Araújo, Simone Santiago Carvalho de Oliveira, Claudia Masini d'Avila-Levy, André Luis Souza Dos Santos, Marta Helena Branquinha
Despite the available drug options, leishmaniasis treatment remains unsatisfactory. The repurposing of calpain inhibitors originally developed for human diseases became an interesting alternative, since Leishmania cells express calpain-related proteins. The susceptibility of six Leishmania species (L. amazonensis, L. braziliensis, L. major, L. mexicana, L. chagasi, and L. donovani) to the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 was determined. Promastigote and intracellular amastigote viability in the presence of MDL28170 was evaluated...
May 4, 2018: Parasitology Research
Francisca Janaina Soares Rocha, Caroline Louise Diniz Pereira, Fabio Lopes de Melo, Cynthia Regina Pedrosa Soares, Silvania Tavares Paz, Selma Giorgio
Several immune markers have been studied in controlling American tegumentary leishmaniosis based on mouse models. However, there is a lack of studies regarding human tegumentary leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania braziliensis. In this study, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α was found to be an important effector element in the localized control of human cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions.
2018: Annals of Parasitology
Bruna de Gois Macêdo, Rephany Fonseca Peixoto, Bruna Leal Lima Maciel, Juliana de Assis Silva Gomes, Fátima de Lourdes Assunção Araújo de Azevedo, Robson Cavalcanti Veras, Isac Almeida de Medeiros, Teresa Cristina Soares de Lima Grisi, Demétrius Antônio Machado de Araújo, Ian Porto Gurgel do Amaral, Tatjana Keesen de Souza Lima
Although the semi-invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) are a small subpopulation of cells in the peripheral blood, they are presumed to play a role in early stages of infection against various pathogens, including protozoa. This work investigates the activation status and cytokine profile of iNKT cells during human Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis infection. We studied iNKT cells in symptomatic active visceral patients (AVL) (n=8), symptomatic active cutaneous patients (ACL) (n=13), negative endemic controls (NEC) (n=6) and non-endemic controls (NonEC) (n=6), with and without Total Leishmania antigen stimulus (TLA)...
April 27, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Carlos Franco-Muñoz, Merab Manjarrés-Estremor, Clemencia Ovalle-Bracho
Amphotericin B (AmB) is a recommended medication for the treatment of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in cases of therapeutic failure with first-line medications; however, little is known about the in vitro susceptibility to AmB of clinical isolates of the subgenus Viannia, which is most prevalent in South America. This work aimed to determine the in vitro susceptibility profiles to AmB of clinical isolates of the species L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis. In vitro susceptibility to AmB was evaluated for 65 isolates...
2018: PloS One
Ludiele Souza Castro, Adriana de Oliveira França, Eduardo de Castro Ferreira, Manoel Sebastião da Costa Lima Júnior, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo, Agnes Antônia Sampaio Pereira, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros Dorval
Leishmaniasis represents a complex of diseases with a broad clinical spectrum and epidemiological diversity. Involving a variety of agents, reservoirs, and vectors, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) presents different transmission patterns, which makes its control especially difficult. Epidemiological characterization with identification of existing Leishmania species in a particular region is essential for understanding this parasitosis epidemiology. Because similar results may be observed in places with overlapping transmission of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, contributing to knowledge about the epidemiological cycle of cutaneous leishmaniasis is of global interest...
April 20, 2018: Parasitology Research
Sara Nunes, Icaro Bonyek Silva, Mariana Rosa Ampuero, Almério Libório Lopes de Noronha, Lígia Correia Lima de Souza, Thaizza Cavalcante Correia, Ricardo Khouri, Viviane Sampaio Boaventura, Aldina Barral, Pablo Ivan Pereira Ramos, Cláudia Brodskyn, Pablo Rafael Silveira Oliveira, Natalia Machado Tavares
Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) is a chronic disease characterized by ulcerated skin lesion(s) and uncontrolled inflammation. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of LCL are not completely understood, and little is known about posttranscriptional regulation during LCL. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression and can be implicated in the pathogenesis of LCL. We investigated the involvement of miRNAs and their targets genes in human LCL using publicly available transcriptome data sets followed by ex vivo validation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Clemencia Ovalle-Bracho, Carolina Camargo, Yira Díaz-Toro, Marcela Parra-Muñoz
INTRODUCTION: Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) is the reference standard for the characterization of Leishmania species. The test is restricted to specialized laboratories due to its technical complexity, cost, and time required to obtain results. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is used to identify Leishmania species. OBJECTIVE: To establish the concordance between the two tests as identifying methods for circulating species in Colombia...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Carlos A Nieto, Lina M Sánchez, Diana M Sánchez, Gonzalo J Díaz, María H Ramírez
BACKGROUND: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential molecule in the energy metabolism of living beings, and it has various cellular functions. The main enzyme in the biosynthesis of this nucleotide is nicotinamide/nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT, EC because it is the convergence point for all known biosynthetic pathways. NMNATs have divergences in both the number of isoforms detected and their distribution, depending on the organism. METHODS: In the laboratory of basic research in biochemistry (LIBBIQ: acronym in Spanish) the NMNATs of protozoan parasites (Leishmania braziliensis, Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Giardia duodenalis) have been studied, analysing their catalytic properties through the use of proteins...
April 11, 2018: Malaria Journal
Anthony Febres, Oriana Vanegas, Michelle Giammarresi, Carlos Gomes, Emilia Díaz, Alicia Ponte-Sucre
The Calcitonin-Like Receptor (CLR) belongs to the classical seven-transmembrane segment molecules coupled to heterotrimeric G proteins. Its pharmacology depends on the simultaneous expression of the so-called Receptor Activity Modifier Proteins (RAMP-) -1, -2 and -3. RAMP-associated proteins modulate glycosylation and cellular traffic of CLR, therefore determining its pharmacodynamics. In higher eukaryotes, the complex formed by CLR and RAMP-1 is more akin to bind Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP), whereas those formed by CLR and RAMP-2 or RAMP-3, bind preferentially Adrenomedullin (AM)...
April 4, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Vanete Thomaz-Soccol, André Luiz Gonçalves, Claudio Adriano Piechnik, Rafael Antunes Baggio, Walter Antônio Boeger, Themis Leão Buchman, Mario Sergio Michaliszyn, Demilson Rodrigues Dos Santos, Adão Celestino, José Aquino, André de Souza Leandro, Otacílio Lopes de Souza da Paz, Marcelo Limont, Alceu Bisetto, Jeffrey Jon Shaw, Zaida Estela Yadon, Oscar Daniel Salomon
Every year about 3 million tourists from around the world visit Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay´s triple border region where the Iguaçu Falls are located. Unfortunately, in recent years an increasing number of autochthonous canine and human visceral leishmaniosis (VL) cases have been reported. The parasite is Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and it is transmitted by sand flies (Phlebotominae). To assess the risk factors favorable for the establishment and spread of potential vectors the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap (CDC-light trap) collections were made in the Foz do Iguaçu (FI) and Santa Terezinha de Itaipu (STI) townships and along two transects between them...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
C G Andrade, R C B Q Figueiredo, K R C Ribeiro, L I O Souza, J F Sarmento-Neto, J S Rebouças, B S Santos, M S Ribeiro, L B Carvalho, A Fontes
Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease present in more than 88 countries. The currently adopted chemotherapy faces challenges related to side effects and the development of resistance. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as a therapeutic modality for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Zn(ii) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (ZnTE-2-PyP4+, ZnP) is a cationic, water-soluble, zinc porphyrin-based photosensitizer whose photodynamic effect on Leishmania braziliensis was analyzed by evaluating the number of visibly undamaged and motile cells, cell membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ultrastructural damage...
March 27, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Alexsandro Souza do Lago, Maurício Nascimento, Augusto M Carvalho, Neuza Lago, Juliana Silva, José Roberto Queiroz, Lucas P Carvalho, Albert Schriefer, Mary Wilson, Paulo Machado, Edgar M Carvalho
There is evidence that elderly patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) have more mucosal and disseminated diseases than young patients and their cells produce less antigen-induced interferon (IFN)-γ. Herein, we compared the roles of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-15 as modulators of antigen-induced immune responses and the incidence of adverse reaction and response to therapy in young versus elderly patients with CL. Study participants included 35 senior (60-85 years) and 35 young (18-40 years) patients who had a diagnosis of CL documented by typical cutaneous lesions containing Leishmania braziliensis DNA...
March 26, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Antonio J T Machado, Antonia T L Santos, Gioconda M A B Martins, Rafael P Cruz, Maria do S Costa, Fábia F Campina, Maria A Freitas, Camila F Bezerra, Antonio L A B Leal, Joara N P Carneiro, Cathia Coronel, Miriam Rolón, Celeste V Gómez, Henrique D M Coutinho, Maria F B Morais-Braga
In the search for new therapeutic agents against neglected diseases, both aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium guajava L. and P. brownianum Mart ex DC leaves were investigated regarding their antiparasitic effect and cytotoxic potential. The extracts were tested at three concentrations (250, 500 and 1000 μg/mL) against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms (Chagas, 1909), Leishmania braziliensis (Vianna, 1911) and L. infantum promastigotes forms (Nicolle, 1908), as well as against fibroblasts...
March 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Gustavo F Paz, Jeronimo M N Rugani, Andreza P Marcelino, Célia M F Gontijo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between naturally occurring Leishmania spp. infections in dogs (Canis familiaris) and the practical implications of the use of serological and molecular methods to confirm diagnoses. The study population consisted of 96 domestic dogs in southeastern Brazil. Serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using four commercial canine visceral leishmaniasis kits. Dogs confirmed positive by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) were culled and samples from mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen border, bone marrow and ear skin were taken and submitted to DNA extraction...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Marliane Batista Campos, Luciana Vieira do Rêgo Lima, Ana Carolina Stocco de Lima, Thiago Vasconcelos Dos Santos, Patrícia Karla Santos Ramos, Claudia Maria de Castro Gomes, Fernando Tobias Silveira
Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and Leishmania(L.) amazonensis are the most pathogenic agents of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Brazil, causing a wide spectrum of clinical and immunopathological manifestations, including: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCLDTH+/++), borderline disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (BDCLDTH±), anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (ADCLDTH-), and mucosal leishmaniasis (MLDTH++++). It has recently been demonstrated, however, that while L. (V.) braziliensis shows a clear potential to advance the infection from central LCL (a moderate T-cell hypersensitivity form) towards ML (the highest T-cell hypersensitivity pole), L...
2018: PloS One
Patrícia Flávia Quaresma, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito, Jeronimo Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Janaína de Moura Freire, Rodrigo de Paula Baptista, Elizabeth Castro Moreno, Raquel Carvalho Gontijo, Felipe Dutra Rego, Joaquim Edemilson Diniz, Maria Norma Melo, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) samples obtained from the lesions of patients with typical (n = 25, 29%), atypical (n = 60, 69%) or both (n = 2%) clinical manifestations were analysed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, hsp70 restriction-fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), hsp70 sequencing and phylogenetics methods. The hsp70 PCR-RFLP analysis revealed two different profiles whose the most samples differed from those expected for Leishmania braziliensis and the other Leishmania species tested: of 39 samples evaluated, two (5%) had a restriction profile corresponding to L...
March 12, 2018: Parasitology
Johana Marin, Daniel Urrea, Carlos Muskus, María Clara Echeverry, Ana María Mejía, Omar Triana
Introducción. La leishmaniasis cutánea es una enfermedad causada por parásitos del género Leishmania que tiene gran incidencia en Colombia. El diagnóstico y la identificación de la especie infecciosa son factores críticos en el momento de escoger e iniciar el tratamiento. Actualmente, los métodos de diagnóstico y tipificación requieren procedimientos complejos, por lo que es necesario validar nuevos marcadores moleculares y métodos que simplifiquen el proceso.Objetivo. Desarrollar una herramienta basada en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) con curvas de fusión (High Resolution Melting; PCR-HRM) para el diagnóstico y tipificación de las tres especies de Leishmania de importancia epidemiológica en casos de leishmaniasis cutánea en Colombia...
December 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Simone Miranda da Costa, José Luís Passos Cordeiro, Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis represents an important public health problem in Brazil. The continuous process of urbanization and expansion of human activities in forest areas impacts natural habitats, modifying the ecology of some species of Leishmania, as well as its vectors and reservoirs and, consequently, changes the epidemiological pattern that contributes to the expansion of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Here, we discuss Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani, the main vector of ACL, transmitting two dermotropic Leishmania species including Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (V...
March 7, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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