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Leishmania braziliensis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128656/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-two-malic-enzymes-from-leishmania-parasites
#1
Lucila Giordana, Máximo Hernán Sosa, Alejandro E Leroux, Elkin F Rodas Mendoza, Patricia Petray, Cristina Nowicki
Leishmania parasites cause a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations in humans and the available clinical treatments are far from satisfactory. Since these pathogens require large amounts of NADPH to maintain intracellular redox homeostasis, oxidoreductases that catalyze the production of NADPH are considered as potential drug targets against these diseases. In the sequenced genomes of most Leishmania spp. two putative malic enzymes (MEs) with an identity of about 55% have been identified. In this work, the ME from L...
November 8, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123157/the-nod2-receptor-is-crucial-for-immune-responses-towards-new-world-leishmania-species
#2
Jéssica Cristina Dos Santos, Michelle S M A Damen, Marije Oosting, Dirk J de Jong, Bas Heinhuis, Rodrigo Saar Gomes, Carla Santos Araújo, Mihai G Netea, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias, Leo A B Joosten
American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis is a chronic infection caused by Leishmania protozoan. It is not known whether genetic variances in NOD-like receptor (NLR) family members influence the immune response towards Leishmania parasites and modulate intracellular killing. Using functional genomics, we investigated whether genetic variants in NOD1 or NOD2 influence the production of cytokines by human PBMCs exposed to Leishmania. In addition, we examined whether recognition of Leishmania by NOD2 contributes to intracellular killing...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107954/distribution-and-identification-of-sand-flies-naturally-infected-with-leishmania-from-the-southeastern-peruvian-amazon
#3
Victor Zorrilla, Maxy B De Los Santos, Liz Espada, Rocío Del Pilar Santos, Roberto Fernandez, Albino Urquia, Craig A Stoops, Sarah-Blythe Ballard, Andres G Lescano, Gissella M Vásquez, Hugo O Valdivia
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important health problem in the New World affecting civilian and military populations that are frequently exposed in endemic settings. The Peruvian region of Madre de Dios located near the border with Brazil is one of the most endemic CL regions in South America with more than 4,451 reported cases between 2010 and 2015 according to the Peruvian epidemiology directorate. However, little is known regarding the diversity and distribution of sand fly vectors in this region...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095818/dynamics-of-american-tegumentary-leishmaniasis-in-a-highly-endemic-region-for-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis-infection-in-northeast-brazil
#4
Juliana Silva, Adriano Queiroz, Izabella Moura, Rosana S Sousa, Luiz Henrique Guimarães, Paulo Roberto Lima Machado, Marcus Lessa, Ednaldo Lago, Mary E Wilson, Albert Schriefer
BACKGROUND: American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Corte de Pedra, Northeast Brazil. Most L. braziliensis infections manifest as localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Disseminated manifestations include mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), present at a low constant level for several decades, and newly emerging disseminated leishmaniasis (DL). Surprisingly, DL has recently surpassed ML in its spatial distribution. This led us to hypothesize that distinct forms of ATL might spread in different patterns through affected regions...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042262/molecular-epidemiology-and-in-vitro-evidence-suggest-that-leishmania-braziliensis-strain-helps-determine-antimony-response-among-american-tegumenary-leishmaniasis-patients
#5
Silvana C Silva, Luiz Henrique Guimarães, Juliana A Silva, Viviane Magalhães, Lilian Medina, Adriano Queiroz, Paulo Roberto L Machado, Albert Schriefer
Antimony is the first line drug for treating American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. In this country, Leishmania braziliensis causes at least three distinct forms of disease: localized cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML) and disseminated leishmaniasis (DL). All forms can be found in Corte de Pedra, Northeast Brazil. ML and DL respond poorly to antimony, in contrast to CL. The L. braziliensis population causing ATL in Corte de Pedra is genetically very diverse, with strains of the parasite associating with the clinical form of leishmaniasis...
October 16, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037520/immunization-with-ljm11-salivary-protein-protects-against-infection-with-leishmania-braziliensis-in-the-presence-of-lutzomyia-longipalpis-saliva
#6
Jurema M Cunha, Melissa Abbehusen, Martha Suarez, Jesus Valenzuela, Clarissa R Teixeira, Cláudia I Brodskyn
Leishmania is transmitted in the presence of sand fly saliva. Protective immunity generated by saliva has encouraged identification of a vector salivary-based vaccine. Previous studies have shown that immunization with LJM11, a salivary protein from Lutzomyia longipalpis, is able to induce a Th1 immune response and protect mice against bites of Leishmania major-infected Lutzomyia longipalpis. Here, we further investigate if immunization with LJM11 recombinant protein is able to confer cross-protection against infection with Leishmania braziliensis associated with salivary gland sonicate (SGS) from Lutzomyia intermedia or Lu...
October 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981507/reappraisal-of-leishmanin-skin-test-lst-in-the-management-of-american-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-a-retrospective-analysis-from-a-reference-center-in-argentina
#7
Alejandro Javier Krolewiecki, Maria Cristina Almazan, Marcelo Quipildor, Marisa Juarez, Jose Fernando Gil, Marco Espinosa, Maria Canabire, Silvana Pamela Cajal
Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the species most frequently implicated with cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in the Americas; its diagnosis is based on the identification of amastigotes in lesions, which is limited by low parasite burden. Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) is a support tool for diagnosis, based on delayed type hypersensitivity responses to Leishmania antigens injected intradermally, used in endemic areas as a complement to diagnosis. A retrospective analysis of individuals evaluated for their first episode of tegumentary leishmaniasis at a reference center in Argentina during the period 2006-2015 was performed, with the goal of assessing its usefulness as a support tool in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968786/influence-of-leishmania-rna-virus-1-on-proinflammatory-biomarker-expression-in-a-human-macrophage-model-of-american-tegumentary-leishmaniasis
#8
Ruwandi Kariyawasam, Jugvinder Grewal, Rachel Lau, Andrew Purssell, Braulio M Valencia, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Andrea K Boggild
Backgound: Species of the Leishmania Viannia (L. V.) subgenus harbor the double-stranded Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV-1), previously identified in isolates from Brazil and Peru. Higher levels of LRV-1 in metastasizing strains of L. V. guyanensis have been documented in both human and murine models, and correlated to disease severity. Methods: Expression of proinflammatory biomarkers, including interleukin (IL) 1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), CXCL10, CCL5, IL-6, and superoxide dismutase, in human macrophages infected with 3 ATCC and 5 clinical isolates of L...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959938/genotypic-profiles-of-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis-strains-from-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-patients-and-their-relationship-with-the-response-to-meglumine-antimoniate-treatment-a-pilot-study
#9
Thalita Gagini, Armando de Oliveira Schubach, Maria de Fatima Madeira, Cláudia Maria Valete-Rosalino, Maria Inês Fernandes Pimentel, Raquel da Silva Pacheco
BACKGROUND: Forty-four strains isolated from a cohort of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients who did or did not respond to one course of treatment with meglumine antimoniate were investigated to explore genetic polymorphisms in parasite kinetoplast DNA minicircles. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis strains isolated from responder (R) and non-responder (NR) patients who acquired infection in Rio de Janeiro or in other Brazilian states were studied using low-stringency single-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (LSSP-PCR) to identify genetic polymorphisms...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945741/assessment-of-sesquiterpene-lactones-isolated-from-mikania-plants-species-for-their-potential-efficacy-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-leishmania-sp
#10
Laura C Laurella, Natacha Cerny, Augusto E Bivona, Andrés Sánchez Alberti, Gustavo Giberti, Emilio L Malchiodi, Virginia S Martino, Cesar A Catalan, María Rosario Alonso, Silvia I Cazorla, Valeria P Sülsen
Four sesquiterpene lactones, mikanolide, deoxymikanolide, dihydromikanolide and scandenolide, were isolated by a bioassay-guided fractionation of Mikania variifolia and Mikania micrantha dichloromethane extracts. Mikanolide and deoxymikanolide were the major compounds in both extracts (2.2% and 0.4% for Mikania variifolia and 21.0% and 6.4% for Mikania micrantha respectively, calculated on extract dry weight). Mikanolide, deoxymikanolide and dihydromikanolide were active against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes (50% inhibitory concentrations of 0...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930616/development-of-a-semi-automated-image-based-high-throughput-drug-screening-system
#11
Remzi Onur Eren, Dmitry Kopelyanskiy, Dimitri Moreau, Julien Bortoli Chapalay, Marc Chambon, Gerardo Turcatti, Lon-Fye Lye, Stephen M Beverley, Nicolas Fasel
We previously reported that the innate sensing of the endosymbiont Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1) within Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis through Toll-like receptor 3, worsens the pathogenesis of parasite infection in mice. The presence of LRV1 has been associated with the failure of first-line treatment in patients infected with LRV1 containing -L. guyanensis and -L. braziliensis parasites. Here, we established a semi-automated image-based high-throughput drug screening (HTDS) protocol to measure parasiticidal activity of the Prestwick chemical library in primary murine macrophages infected with LRV1-containing L...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929123/in-vitro-immunomodulatory-activity-of-a-transition-state-analog-inhibitor-of-human-purine-nucleoside-phosphorylase-in-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#12
Natália Barbosa Carvalho, Fernanda Ventin de Oliveira Prates, Rafael de Castro da Silva, Mayra Elizabeth Ferreira Dourado, Camila Farias Amorim, Paulo Roberto Lima Machado, Fernanda Grendene Pacheco, Temis Weber Furlanetto Corte, Pablo Machado, Diógenes Santiago Santos, Edgar Marcelino de Carvalho
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common clinical form of American tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. CL is associated with a strong Th1 immune response. This exacerbated inflammatory response is correlated with severity of disease and delays the healing time of the ulcer. The fourth-generation immucillin derivative (DI4G), a potent inhibitor of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, has been proposed as a promising agent in the treatment of diseases associated with T cell activation...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910663/strategies-for-overcoming-tropical-disease-by-ruthenium-complexes-with-purine-analog-application-against-leishmania-spp-and-trypanosoma-cruzi
#13
Marzena Fandzloch, José Manuel Méndez Arriaga, Manuel Sánchez-Moreno, Andrzej Wojtczak, Julia Jezierska, Jerzy Sitkowski, Joanna Wiśniewska, Juan Manuel Salas, Iwona Łakomska
Tropical diseases currently constitute a major health problem and thus a challenge in the field of drug discovery. The current treatments show serious disadvantages due to cost, toxicity, long therapy duration and resistance, and the use of metal complexes as chemotherapeutic agents against these ailments appears to be a very attractive alternative. Herein, we describe three newly synthesized ruthenium complexes with a bioactive molecule, the purine analogue 5,6,7-trimethyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine (tmtp): cis,fac-[RuCl2(dmso)3(tmtp)] (1), mer-[RuCl3(dmso)(H2O)(tmtp)]·2H2O (2) and fac,cis-[RuCl3(H2O)(tmtp)2] (3)...
November 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902287/structural-insights-into-leishmanolysins-encoded-on-chromosome-10-of-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis
#14
Amanda Sutter, Deborah Antunes, Mariana Silva-Almeida, Maurício Garcia de Souza Costa, Ernesto Raul Caffarena
BACKGROUND: Leishmanolysins have been described as important parasite virulence factors because of their roles in the infection of promastigotes and resistance to host's defenses. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis contains several leishmanolysin genes in its genome, especially in chromosome 10. However, the functional impact of such diversity is not understood, but may be attributed partially to the lack of structural data for proteins from this parasite. OBJECTIVES: This works aims to compare leishmanolysin sequences from L...
September 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859096/disclosing-3-utr-cis-elements-and-putative-partners-involved-in-gene-expression-regulation-in-leishmania-spp
#15
Monica Cristina Terrão, Elton José Rosas de Vasconcelos, Tânia Aquino Defina, Peter J Myler, Angela Kaysel Cruz
To identify putative cis-elements involved in gene expression regulation in Leishmania, we previously conducted an in silico investigation to find conserved intercoding sequences (CICS) in the genomes of L. major, L. infantum, and L. braziliensis. Here, the CICS databank was explored to search for sequences that were present in the untranslated regions (UTRs) of groups of genes showing similar expression profiles during in vitro differentiation. Using a selectable marker as a reporter gene, flanked by either an intact 3' UTR or a UTR lacking the conserved element, the regulatory role of a CICS was confirmed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837565/leishmania-infection-and-blood-food-sources-of-phlebotomines-in-an-area-of-brazil-endemic-for-visceral-and-tegumentary-leishmaniasis
#16
Antônia Suely Guimarães-E-Silva, Soraia de Oliveira Silva, Rosa Cristina Ribeiro da Silva, Valéria Cristina Soares Pinheiro, José Manuel Macário Rebêlo, Maria Norma Melo
The aims of the study were to determine the blood feeding preferences of sandflies and to identify species of Leishmania that infected phlebotomines in Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil, an area that is highly endemic for leishmaniasis. Sandflies were captured in light traps located in the peridomiciliary environments of randomly selected houses in urban and rural settings between 1800 and 0600 hours on new moon days between March 2013 and February 2015. DNA extracts from 982 engorged female sandflies were submitted to fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify infecting species of Leishmania, and blood sources were identified for 778 of these specimens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831941/leishmania-infection-in-bats-from-a-non-endemic-region-of-leishmaniasis-in-brazil
#17
César Gómez-Hernández, Elaine C Bento, Karine Rezende-Oliveira, Gabriel A N Nascentes, Cecilia G Barbosa, Lara R Batista, Monique G S Tiburcio, André L Pedrosa, Eliane Lages-Silva, Juan D Ramírez, Luis E Ramirez
Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, which can develop in domestic as well as wild animals and humans throughout the world. Currently, this disease is spreading in rural and urban areas of non-endemic regions in Brazil. Recently, bats have gained epidemiological significance in leishmaniasis due to its close relationship with human settlements. In this study, we investigated the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in blood samples from 448 bats belonging to four families representing 20 species that were captured in the Triangulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaiba areas of Minas Gerais State (non-endemic areas for leishmaniasis), Brazil...
August 23, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830073/platelet-activating-factor-increases-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-microbicidal-activity-of-human-macrophages-infected-with-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis
#18
Arissa Felipe Borges, Camila Imai Morato, Rodrigo Saar Gomes, Miriam Leandro Dorta, Milton Adriano Pelli de Oliveira, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by macrophages during inflammation and infections. We evaluated whether PAF is able to modulate the infection of human macrophages by Leishmania braziliensis, the main Leishmania sp. in Brazil. Monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with promastigote forms in absence or presence of exogenous PAF. We observed that the treatment of macrophages with low concentrations of PAF prior to infection increased the phagocytosis of L. braziliensis. More importantly, exogenous PAF reduced the parasitism when it was added before, during or after infection...
September 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807297/cutaneous-leishmaniosis-in-naturally-infected-dogs-in-paran%C3%A3-brazil-and-the-epidemiological-implications-of-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis-detection-in-internal-organs-and-intact-skin
#19
Ellen de Souza Marquez, Edilene Alcântara de Castro, Luciene Biazono Nabut, Magda Clara Vieira da Costa-Ribeiro, Ludmilla Dela Coletta Troiano Araújo, Saloe Bispo Poubel, André Luiz Gonçalves, Mariza Fordellone Rosa Cruz, Ana Paula Millet Evangelista Dos Santos Trad, Rafael Andre Ferreira Dias, Italmar Teodorico Navarro, Vanete Thomaz-Soccol
Environmental changes have occurred over the years, altering the eco-epidemiological pattern of leishmaniosis in the State of Paraná, Brazil, involving the pillars of the cycle (parasite, vectors, reservoir, and environment) and their interaction. Much has been discussed about the dog's role as a reservoir of the Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Vianna, 1911 transmission cycle. However, this question remains unanswered. The purpose of this study was to investigate, using parasitological and molecular methods, different samples in eight naturally infected dogs from an endemic rural locality where only L...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795077/sensitive-molecular-diagnostics-for-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#20
Orli Sagi, Anat Berkowitz, Shlomi Codish, Victor Novack, Aviv Rashti, Fouad Akad, Yonat Shemer-Avni
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and identification of Leishmania species is highly important for the disease management. In Israel, CL is caused mainly by Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica species. METHODS: We established an easy to handle point of care lesion-swabbing, combined with a highly sensitive multiplex real time PCR (multiplex qPCR) for accurate and rapid diagnosis of Leishmania species. RESULTS: Using three probes: one general for: Leishmania species, and two specific for L major, and L tropica, we screened 1783 clinical samples collected during two years...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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