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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092772/the-expression-of-endothelin-1-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-is-controlled-by-epigenetic-mechanisms-and-extracellular-stimuli
#1
Silvia Martinelli, Rossana Maffei, Stefania Fiorcari, Chiara Quadrelli, Patrizia Zucchini, Stefania Benatti, Leonardo Potenza, Mario Luppi, Roberto Marasca
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a hormone peptide widely expressed and is involved in several biological processes, important not only for normal cell function but also for tumor development, including cell proliferation, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and osteogenesis. In accordance, ET-1 was already shown to contribute to the growth and progression of many different solid cancers. We recently demonstrated that ET-1 has a role in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) where it is abnormally expressed...
December 30, 2016: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092670/neuropilin-1-is-upregulated-in-the-adaptive-response-of-prostate-tumors-to-androgen-targeted-therapies-and-is-prognostic-of-metastatic-progression-and-patient-mortality
#2
B W C Tse, M Volpert, E Ratther, N Stylianou, M Nouri, K McGowan, M L Lehman, S J McPherson, M Roshan-Moniri, M S Butler, J Caradec, C Y Gregory-Evans, J McGovern, R Das, M Takhar, N Erho, M Alshalafa, E Davicioni, E M Schaeffer, R B Jenkins, A E Ross, R J Karnes, R B Den, L Fazli, P A Gregory, M E Gleave, E D Williams, P S Rennie, R Buttyan, J H Gunter, L A Selth, P J Russell, C C Nelson, B G Hollier
Recent evidence has implicated the transmembrane co-receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP1) in cancer progression. Primarily known as a regulator of neuronal guidance and angiogenesis, NRP1 is also expressed in multiple human malignancies, where it promotes tumor angiogenesis. However, non-angiogenic roles of NRP1 in tumor progression remain poorly characterized. In this study, we define NRP1 as an androgen-repressed gene whose expression is elevated during the adaptation of prostate tumors to androgen-targeted therapies (ATTs), and subsequent progression to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC)...
January 16, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092370/api5-confers-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties-through-the-fgf2-nanog-axis
#3
K-H Song, H Cho, S Kim, H-J Lee, S J Oh, S R Woo, S-O Hong, H S Jang, K H Noh, C H Choi, J-Y Chung, S M Hewitt, J-H Kim, M Son, S-H Kim, B I Lee, H-C Park, Y-K Bae, T W Kim
Immune selection drives the evolution of tumor cells toward an immune-resistant and cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype. We reported that apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API5) acts as an immune escape factor, which has a significant role in controlling immune resistance to antigen-specific T cells, but its functional association with CSC-like properties remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that API5 confers CSC-like properties, including NANOG expression, the frequency of CD44-positive cells and sphere-forming capacity...
January 16, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091986/shift-of-microrna-profile-upon-glioma-cell-migration-using-patient-derived-spheroids-and-serum-free-conditions
#4
Sune Munthe, Bo Halle, Henning B Boldt, Helle Christiansen, Steffen Schmidt, Vivek Kaimal, Jessica Xu, Sonya Zabludoff, Jan Mollenhauer, Frantz R Poulsen, Bjarne W Kristensen
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent malignant primary brain tumor. A major reason for the overall median survival being only 14.6 months is migrating tumor cells left behind after surgery. Another major reason is tumor cells having a so-called cancer stem cell phenotype being therefore resistant towards traditional chemo- and radiotherapy. A group of novel molecular targets are microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs exerting post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in migrating GBM cells using serum-free stem cell conditions...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091841/transumbilical-abdominal-incision-for-laparoscopic-colorectal-surgery-does-not-increase-the-risk-of-postoperative-surgical-site-infection
#5
Mizunori Yaegashi, Koki Otsuka, Toshimoto Kimura, Masanori Hakozaki, Megumu Kamishima, Tomoki Hatanaka, Kei Sato, Hitoshi Fujii, Teppei Matsuo, Akira Sasaki
PURPOSE: Besides antibiotic prophylaxis, antiseptic skin preparation is an important measure to prevent surgical site infection (SSI). No reports have detailed the relationship between SSI and umbilical microflora following laparoscopic colorectal cancer with a transumbilical longitudinal incision. METHODS: Risk factors and the rate of SSI were investigated in 453 patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal resection over a 3-year period. Microbiological samples were collected from the umbilicus and SSI areas...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091645/yogurt-inhibits-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-in-caco-2-cells-by-increasing-tight-junctions
#6
Kelley K Putt, Ruisong Pei, Heather M White, Bradley W Bolling
Chronic inflammation disrupts intestinal barrier function and may contribute to the pathology of obesity and other diseases. The goal of this study was to determine the mechanism by which yogurt improves intestinal barrier function. Caco-2 cells were differentiated on Transwell inserts and used as a model of intestinal barrier permeability. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and flux of 4 kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD) and lucifer yellow (LY) were used as indicators of monolayer integrity and paracellular permeability...
January 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090373/hgbp-1-expression-predicts-shorter-progression-free-survival-in-ovarian-cancers-while-contributing-to-paclitaxel-resistance
#7
Suzan Wadi, Aaron R Tipton, Jill A Trendel, Sadik A Khuder, Deborah J Vestal
Ovarian cancer is the gynecological cancer with the poorest prognosis. One significant reason is the development of resistance to the chemotherapeutic drugs used in its treatment. The large GTPase, hGBP-1, has been implicated in paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cell lines. Forced expression of hGBP-1 in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells protects them from paclitaxel-induced cell death. However, prior to this study, nothing was known about whether hGBP-1 was expressed in ovarian tumors and whether its expression correlated with paclitaxel resistance...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090074/targeting-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-by-anthelmintic-drug-pyrvinium-enhances-sensitivity-of-ovarian-cancer-cells-to-chemotherapy
#8
Chongyuan Zhang, Zhenge Zhang, Shuirong Zhang, Wenrong Wang, Ping Hu
BACKGROUND Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin has been shown to promote ovarian cancer proliferation and chemoresistance. Pyrvinium, an FDA-approved anthelmintic drug, has been identified as a potent Wnt inhibitor. Pyrvinium may sensitize ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS The effect of pyrvinium alone and its combination with paclitaxel in ovarian cancer was investigated using an in vitro culture system and in vivo xenograft models. The mechanisms of its action were also analyzed, focusing on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway...
January 16, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089915/dendrimers-as-nanocarriers-for-nucleoside-analogues
#9
REVIEW
Michał Gorzkiewicz, Barbara Klajnert-Maculewicz
Dendrimers constitute a class of hyperbranched macromolecules with several potential applications due to their unique properties such as a well-defined structure, multivalency and biocompatibility. These polymers became one of the most promising drug nanocarriers, providing improved solubility of therapeutics, high loading capacity and controllable biodistribution pattern. In addition, the use of dendrimers as drug delivery devices in cancer therapies may help to overcome the resistance mechanisms by transporting activated drug molecules directly to cancer cells...
January 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089829/resveratrol-and-capsaicin-used-together-as-food-complements-reduce-tumor-growth-and-rescue-full-efficiency-of-low-dose-gemcitabine-in-a-pancreatic-cancer-model
#10
Véronique Vendrely, Evelyne Peuchant, Etienne Buscail, Isabelle Moranvillier, Benoit Rousseau, Aurélie Bedel, Aurélia Brillac, Hubert de Verneuil, François Moreau-Gaudry, Sandrine Dabernat
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, highly resistant to all current anti-cancer treatments, necessitates new approaches promoting cell death. We hypothesized that combined actions of several Bioactive Food Components (BFCs) might provide specific lethal effect towards tumor cells, sparing healthy cells. Human tumor pancreatic cell lines were tested in vitro for sensitivity to resveratrol, capsaicin, piceatannol, and sulforaphane cytotoxic effects. Combination of two or three components showed striking synergetic effect with gemcitabine in vitro...
January 12, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089756/glycan-alteration-imparts-cellular-resistance-to-a-membrane-lytic-anticancer-peptide
#11
Ken Ishikawa, Scott H Medina, Joel P Schneider, Amar J S Klar
Although resistance toward small-molecule chemotherapeutics has been well studied, the potential of tumor cells to avoid destruction by membrane-lytic compounds remains unexplored. Anticancer peptides (ACPs) are a class of such agents that disrupt tumor cell membranes through rapid and non-stereospecific mechanisms, encouraging the perception that cellular resistance toward ACPs is unlikely to occur. We demonstrate that eukaryotic cells can, indeed, develop resistance to the model oncolytic peptide SVS-1, which preferentially disrupts the membranes of cancer cells...
January 9, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089377/phase-ii-trial-of-albumin-bound-paclitaxel-and-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-as-an-immune-modulator-in-recurrent-platinum-resistant-ovarian-cancer
#12
John B Liao, Ron E Swensen, Kelsie J Ovenell, Katie M Hitchcock-Bernhardt, Jessica L Reichow, Minjun C Apodaca, Leonard D'Amico, Jennifer S Childs, Doreen M Higgins, Barbara J Buening, Barbara A Goff, Mary L Disis
BACKGROUND: Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulates immunity via recruitment of antigen presenting cells and tumor specific T-cell stimulation. Albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) followed by GM-CSF may enhance antitumor responses and prolong remissions in ovarian cancer. Immune phenotypes present before treatment may identify responders to chemo-immunotherapy. METHODS: Recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer patients received nab-paclitaxel, 100mg/m(2) days 1, 8, 15 followed by GM-CSF 250μg days 16-26 every 28days for 6 planned cycles...
January 12, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088788/dual-syk-jak-inhibition-overcomes-ibrutinib-resistance-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-cerdulatinib-but-not-ibrutinib-induces-apoptosis-of-tumor-cells-protected-by-the-microenvironment
#13
Ailin Guo, Pin Lu, Greg Coffey, Pamela Conley, Anjali Pandey, Y Lynn Wang
Ibrutinib (BTK inhibitor) has generated remarkable responses in CLL. However, the drug, to a large extent, does not cause cell death directly and does not eradicate CLL malignant clones. Inability to eradicate CLL has fostered resistance generation. Once patients become resistant, they do poorly with a median survival of 3-4 months. Novel therapeutic strategies are needed to prevent resistance, improve treatment outcome and ultimately cure the disease. Herein, we explore dual targeting of the BCR and JAK-STAT pathways with a novel single agent, cerdulatinib, which selectively inhibits both SYK (a BCR component) and JAK kinases...
January 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088627/the-telomere-binding-protein-trf2-is-required-for-metronomic-therapeutic-effects-of-gemcitabine-and-capecitabine
#14
Wei-Ping Lee, Keng-Hsin Lan, Chung-Pin Li, Yee Chao, Ming-Chih Hou, Han-Chieh Lin, Shou-Dong Lee
Gemcitabine and capecitabine are two effective anticancer agents against solid tumors. The pharmacological mechanisms have been known as incorporation into DNA and thereby inhibition of DNA synthesis. When used as metronomic chemotherapy, they may inhibit angiogenesis and induce immunity. In our previous study, we showed that low-dose gemcitabine caused telomere shortening by stabilizing TRF2 that was required for XPF-dependent telomere loss. In this report, we established a SKOV3.ip1 ascites cell model. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with low-dose gemcitabine (GEM) or capecitabine (CAP)...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088622/reactive-oxygen-species-and-cancer-paradox-to-promote-or-to-suppress
#15
REVIEW
Sehamuddin Galadari, Anees Rahman, Siraj Pallichankandy, Faisal Thayyullathil
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a group of highly reactive ions and molecules, are increasingly being appreciated as powerful signaling molecules involved in the regulation of a variety of biological processes. Indeed, their role is continuously being delineated in a variety of pathophysiological conditions. For instance, cancer cells are shown to have increased ROS levels in comparison to their normal counterparts. This is partly due to an enhanced metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells. The escalated ROS generation in cancer cells contributes to the biochemical and molecular changes necessary for the tumor initiation, promotion and progression, as well as, tumor resistance to chemotherapy...
January 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088556/regulation-of-docetaxel-sensitivity-in-prostate-cancer-cells-by-hsa-mir-125a-3p-via-modulation-of-mta1-signaling
#16
Jian-Zhou Liu, Feng-Yan Yin, Chang-You Yan, Hui Wang, Xiao-Hui Luo
OBJECTIVE: To identify the potential down-stream targets of hsa-miR-125a-3p, a mature form of miR-125a, during the pathogenesis of chemoresistance in prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: Expression levels of hsa-miR-125a-3p was assessed in chemoresistant PCa tissues and experimentally-established chemoresistant cells using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The effect of hsa-miR-125a-3p knockdown or hsa-miR-125a-3p overexpression on the Dox-induced cell death was evaluated using apoptosis ELISA in chemosensitive PC-3 cells or in chemoresistant PC-3 cells (PC-3R)...
January 11, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088511/brief-report-egfr-l858m-l861q-cis-mutations-confer-selective-sensitivity-to-afatinib
#17
Jamie A Saxon, Lynette M Sholl, Pasi A Jänne
INTRODUCTION: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed to treat patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant lung cancers. However, the therapeutic efficacy of TKIs in patients with uncommon EGFR mutations remains unclear. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing was performed on a patient's lung adenocarcinoma tumor sample, revealing rare combined in cis (on the same allele) EGFR mutations. Stable Ba/F3 and NIH-3T3 cell lines harboring the mutations were established to investigate the effect of first, second, and third generation EGFR TKIs on cell proliferation by MTS assay and EGFR phosphorylation by Western blotting...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088378/antimicrobial-coated-implants-in-trauma-and-orthopaedics-a-clinical-review-and-risk-benefit-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Volker Alt
Implant-associated infections remain a major issue in orthopaedics and antimicrobial functionalization of the implant surface by antibiotics or other anti-infective agents have gained interest. The goal of this article is to identify antimicrobial coatings, for which clinical data are available and to review their clinical need, safety profile, and their efficacy to reduce infection rates. PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine was searched for clinical studies on antimicrobial coated implants for internal fracture fixation devices and endoprostheses for bone surgery, for which study design, level of evidence, biocompatibility, development of resistance, and effectiveness to reduce infection rates were analyzed...
December 21, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088229/clinicopathologic-significance-of-trap1-expression-in-colorectal-cancer-a-large-scale-study-of-human-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-tissues
#19
Min Gyoung Pak, Hyong Jong Koh, Mee Sook Roh
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the major cause of cancer mortality, despite development of therapeutic strategies. The novel marker tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) is a mitochondrial heat shock protein that has been related to drug resistance and protection from apoptosis in colorectal cancer. This study aims to delineate the clinicopathologic significance of TRAP1 expression in colorectal cancer. METHODS: Seven-hundred and fourteen FFPE tissues were collected from colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgery from February 2002 to July 2011 at Dong-A University Medical Center, Busan, South Korea...
January 14, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088112/a-current-perspective-on-the-oncopreventive-and-oncolytic-properties-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors
#20
REVIEW
Daniel P Radin, Parth Patel
Current cancer research strongly focuses on identifying novel pathways that can be selectively exploited in the clinic and identifying drugs capable of exploiting cancer vulnerabilities. Occasionally, drugs identified to exploit a cancer-specific vulnerability are on the market for clinical indications in another disease area. Rebranding them as anti-cancer drugs is a process commonly referred to as drug repurposing and is typically a faster method than bringing a novel drug to market. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are primarily used for treating several types of depression, but over the past two decades mounting evidence suggests that drugs in this class have oncolytic properties and reduce the risk of certain cancers...
January 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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