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Marta Izura Gómez, Maite Misis Del Campo, Paloma Puyalto de Pablo, Carlos Castaño Duque
We report the use of mechanical venous thrombectomy in 2 cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in which the usual first-choice treatment with systemic anticoagulants was contraindicated. Our aim is to present this treatment as an alternative to consider when anticoagulants therapy is too risky or is contraindicated in critically ill patients.
2018: Emergencias: revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Chenguang Zhou, Yuanhong He, Xiangying Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neurology India
Dharmesh Bhalodiya, Chaturbhuj Rathore, Varun Gupta, Sanjay Prakash, Kamal Pathak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neurology India
Parkinson Soubam, Shashwat Mishra, Ashish Suri, Renu Dhingra, Sankat Mochan, Sanjeev Lalwani, T S Roy, Ashok K Mahapatra
A surgeon's understanding of the surgical anatomy can be greatly enhanced by the dissection of preserved cadaveric specimens. A reliable and inexpensive biological model for testing and standardization of dye injection concentrations is proposed utilizing the goat's head as a biological model. The first phase was concerned with standardization of the dye by titrating its concentration and injecting various amounts into cerebral vessels of a goat's head until an optimal concentration had been ascertained. In the second phase, this optimum concentration of the dye was injected into four human cadaveric heads following the same technique standardized using the goat's head...
March 2018: Neurology India
Vinayak Narayan, Hima Pendharkar, Bhagavatula Indira Devi, Dhananjaya I Bhat, Dhaval P Shukla
Background: The conventional medical management of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with uncertainty of outcome and complications. Aims and Objectives: To examine the effect of direct intra-arterial nimodipine therapy on outcome in patients with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Settings and Design: The retrospective observational study was conducted at a single neurosurgical unit and interventional neuroradiolgy suite of a center managing SAH...
March 2018: Neurology India
Levente Molnár, Béla Fülesdi, Norbert Németh, Csilla Molnár
Sepsis is a leading cause of death in medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs). Disturbance of consciousness of varying severity is an early warning sign of developing sepsis in the majority of cases. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is the most frequent type of encephalopathy in the ICU and is defined as a state of diffuse cerebral dysfunction caused by the inflammatory response of the body to various infections, where the inflammatory process does not affect the central nervous system (CNS) directly and the primary symptom is a disturbed level of consciousness...
March 2018: Neurology India
Kalyan B Bhattacharyya
Walter Edward Dandy did pioneering work in Neurosurgery in the early part of the 19th century. He worked all his life at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in USA and contributed extensively to research in hydrocephalus, the physiology of the cerebrospinal fluid and devised the technique of pneumoencephalography, apart from performing the first clipping operation in cerebral aneurysm and the division of the trigeminal nerve in neuralgic pain. This article summarizes his immense contributions in the field of Neurosurgery...
March 2018: Neurology India
Afroditi Despina Lalou, Marek Czosnyka, Joseph Donnelly, John D Pickard, FMedSci, Eva Nabbanja, Nicole C Keong, Matthew Garnett, Zofia H Czosnyka
OBJECTIVE Normal pressure hydrocephalus is not simply the result of a disturbance in CSF circulation, but often includes cardiovascular comorbidity and abnormalities within the cerebral mantle. In this study, the authors have examined the relationship between the global autoregulation pressure reactivity index (PRx), the profile of disturbed CSF circulation and pressure-volume compensation, and their possible effects on outcome after surgery. METHODS The authors studied a cohort of 131 patients in whom a clinical suspicion of normal pressure hydrocephalus was investigated...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Takuma Ohmichi, Masaki Kondo, Masahiro Itsukage, Hidetaka Koizumi, Shigenori Matsushima, Nagato Kuriyama, Kazunari Ishii, Etsuro Mori, Kei Yamada, Toshiki Mizuno, Takahiko Tokuda
OBJECTIVE The gold standard for the diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is the CSF removal test. For elderly patients, however, a less invasive diagnostic method is required. On MRI, high-convexity tightness was reported to be an important finding for the diagnosis of iNPH. On SPECT, patients with iNPH often show hyperperfusion of the high-convexity area. The authors tested 2 hypotheses regarding the SPECT finding: 1) it is relative hyperperfusion reflecting the increased gray matter density of the convexity, and 2) it is useful for the diagnosis of iNPH...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Valerie Jeanneret, Juan P Ospina, Ariel Diaz, Luis G Manrique, Paola Merino, Laura Gutierrez, Enrique Torre, Fang Wu, Lihong Cheng, Manuel Yepes
Cerebral ischemia causes the presynaptic release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). The postsynaptic density (PSD) is a postsynaptic structure that provides a matrix where signaling transduction of excitatory synapses takes place. The postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) is the most abundant scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD), where it modulates the postsynaptic response to the presynaptic release of glutamate by regulating the anchoring of glutamate receptors to the PSD. We found that tPA induces the local translation of PSD-95 mRNA and the subsequent recruitment of PSD-95 protein to the PSD, via plasminogen-independent activation of TrkB receptors...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Varinder Singh, Pawan Krishan, Richa Shri
Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke. Strategies using antioxidants to improve neurological functions after stroke have, thus, gained significant attention. Ocimum basilicum L. is used traditionally to treat CNS disorders. Its antioxidant capacity is well established. Our laboratory has reported protective effects of pre-treatment with O. basilicum in experimental stroke, but its curative (post-treatment) effects in ischemic stroke have not been documented. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of O...
March 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Carla Cristina Zeppenfeld, Sharine Descovi, Aleksandro S da Silva, Bernardo Baldisserotto
The phosphotransfer network system, through the enzymes creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), and pyruvate kinase (PK), contributes to efficient intracellular energetic communication between cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) consumption and production in tissues with high energetic demand, such as cerebral tissue. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) intoxication in diet negatively affects the cerebral phosphotransfer network related to impairment of cerebral ATP levels in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)...
March 15, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Chenhui Mao, Jing Gao, Liri Jin, Bin Peng, Yupu Guo
Neurosyphilis occurs in the late stage of systemic syphilis infection; early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to the prognosis. We review 3 autopsy cases with different subtypes of neurosyphilis, that is cases with meningovascular, general paresis, and a combination of the 2, respectively. We investigated the gross morphology and leptomeninges, vessels, cerebral cortex, white matter, brainstem, cerebellum, olfactory bulb and spinal cord microscopically. We found that meningovascular inflammation exists in both early and late phases of neurosyphilis, not only in the meningovascular subtype...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Frantisek Nehaj, Juraj Sokol, Michal Mokan, Veronika Jankovicova, Frantisek Kovar, Marianna Kubaskova, Stanislav Mizera, Marian Mokan
The patient database at the First Department of Internal Medicine in Martin, the Central Slovak Institute for Cardiac and Vascular Diseases in Banska Bystrica, and the National Slovak Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases in Bratislava was searched to identify patients with benign tumors of the heart seen during the 5-year period between 2011 and 2016. Forty-one patients with primary cardiac myxomas were identified and their medical records were reviewed for details pertaining to presenting symptoms, staging modalities, treatment approaches, and outcomes...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jinbing Zhao, Hongyi Liu, Yuanjie Zou, Wenbin Zhang, Shengxue He
The present retrospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical outcome, as well as post-operative collateral formation and revascularization patterns in combined bypass. Surgical revascularization has been the mainstay of treatment for moyamoya patients. A total of 76 hemispheres from 64 moyamoya patients undergoing combined superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis and encephalo-duro-myo-synangiosis (EDMS) were retrospectively reviewed. Computed tomography perfusion and DSA were routinely performed...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Chiaki Yoshioka, Yoshimasa Ito, Noriaki Nagai
Cilostazol (CLZ), an anti-platelet agent, is primarily used following the onset of cerebral infarction. However, as CLZ is only marginally soluble in water, a strategy for patients with serious secondary conditions, such as impaired consciousness or aphagia, is required. In the present study, topical formulations containing CLZ nanocrystals (CLZnano ) were designed to enhance percutaneous absorption. In addition, the mechanism of penetration of CLZnano through rat skin was investigated. A topical formulation containing CLZ nanoparticles (CLZnano gel patch) was prepared using a combination of recrystallization and ball milling of an aqueous gel...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yo-Han Uhm, Dae-Jung Yang
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of computerized postural control training using whole body vibration on lower limb muscle activity and cerebral cortical activation in acute stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients participated and were divided into groups of 10, a group of the computerized postural control training using whole body vibration (Group I), the computerized postural control training combined with aero step (Group II) and computerized postural control training (Group III)...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Mayumi Matsuda, Yuki Mataki, Hirotaka Mutsuzaki, Kenichi Yoshikawa, Kazushi Takahashi, Keiko Enomoto, Kumiko Sano, Masafumi Mizukami, Kazuhide Tomita, Haruka Ohguro, Nobuaki Iwasaki
[Purpose] Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) using Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL, CYBERDYNE) was previously reported beneficial for stroke and spinal cord injury patients. Here, we investigate the immediate effect of a single session of RAGT using HAL on gait function for cerebral palsy (CP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve patients (average age: 16.2 ± 7.3 years) with CP received a single session of RAGT using HAL. Gait speed, step length, cadence, single-leg support per gait cycle, hip and knee joint angle in stance, and swing phase per gait cycle were assessed before, during, and immediately after HAL intervention...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Yamaan S Saadeh, Luis E Savastano, Julian L Gendreau, Aditya S Pandey
Optimal management of patients with stroke due to symptomatic carotid artery disease coexistent with bacterial endocarditis is still not well established. We report the case of a patient who presented with multifocal left middle cerebral artery stroke in the setting of Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis and was found to have near-occlusive ipsilateral carotid artery stenosis in stroke workup. Carotid artery endarterectomy was performed, and atheroma material demonstrated complicated plaque with cultures positive for E...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Jun Zhang, Xiao Zhang, Jin-Ping Zhang, Ju Han
The optimal treatment for patients with chronic symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) total occlusion is not well established. In addition to medical therapy, vessel recanalisation with stenting has shown much promise, especially for patients with recurrent ischemic symptoms. Nevertheless, the incidence of symptomatic in-stent restenosis (ISR) is high, and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Drug coated balloons (DCBs) have been proven to be effective in treating and preventing ISR. However, the feasibility of DCBs for de novo intracranial atherothrombotic stenosis has not been previously described, especially for total occlusion lesions...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
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