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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214332/comparison-of-several-white-matter-tracts-in-feline-and-canine-brain-by-using-magnetic-resonance-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#1
Olivier Jacqmot, Bert Van Thielen, Alex Michotte, Inneke Willekens, Filip Verhelle, Peter Goossens, Filip De Ridder, Jan Pieter Clarys, Anne Vanbinst, Cindy Peleman, Johan de Mey
Recently, we published a first anatomical Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) atlas regarding white matter tracts in the canine brain. The purpose of this study was to show the significance of DTI in the revelation of the white matter fibres in the feline brain (i.e. to obtain an anatomical DTI atlas of images) and to descriptively compare these to previously obtained white matter fibre images of the canine brain. DTI MR Images of 4 cats euthanised for reasons other than neurological disorders were obtained with a 3 T system...
February 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214128/robotic-arch-catheter-placement-reduces-cerebral-embolization-during-thoracic-endovascular-aortic-repair-tevar
#2
A H Perera, C V Riga, L Monzon, R G Gibbs, C D Bicknell, M Hamady
OBJECTIVE: Stroke caused by cerebral embolization constitutes a principal risk during arch manipulation and thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). This study investigates the incidence of cerebral embolization during catheter placement in the aortic arch, and compares robotic and manual techniques. METHODS: Intra-operative transcranial Doppler (TCD) was performed in 11 patients undergoing TEVAR. Wire and catheter placement in the arch was performed by two experienced operators...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213754/low-energy-availability-menstrual-dysfunction-and-low-bone-mineral-density-in-individuals-with-a-disability-implications-for-the-para-athlete-population
#3
REVIEW
Cheri A Blauwet, Emily M Brook, Adam S Tenforde, Elizabeth Broad, Caroline H Hu, Eliza Abdu-Glass, Elizabeth G Matzkin
Low energy availability, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and low bone mineral density are three interrelated conditions described in athletic women. Although described as the female athlete triad (Triad), males experience similar health concerns. The literature suggests that individuals with a disability may experience altered physiology related to these three conditions when compared with the able-bodied population. The goal of this review is to describe the unique implications of low energy availability, low bone mineral density, and, in females, menstrual dysfunction in individuals with a disability and their potential impact on the para athlete population...
February 17, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213478/endovascular-mechanical-thrombectomy-for-cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Adeel Ilyas, Ching-Jen Chen, Daniel M Raper, Dale Ding, Thomas Buell, Panogiotis Mastorakos, Kenneth C Liu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an uncommon form of stroke that, when severe, can be a therapeutic challenge. Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EMT) techniques have significantly evolved over the past decade, but data regarding the efficacy and safety of EMT for CVST are poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the large number of case series on this relatively rare condition and establish trends in the outcomes of EMT for CVST. METHODS: A literature review was performed using PubMed and Medline to identify reports of three or more patients with CVST treated with EMT...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213441/secreted-metalloproteinase-adamts-3-inactivates-reelin
#5
Himari Ogino, Arisa Hisanaga, Takao Kohno, Yuta Kondo, Kyoko Okumura, Takana Kamei, Tempei Sato, Hiroshi Asahara, Hitomi Tsuiji, Masaki Fukata, Mitsuharu Hattori
The secreted glycoprotein Reelin regulates embryonic brain development and adult brain functions. It has been suggested that reduced Reelin activity contributes to the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease; however, non-invasive methods that can upregulate Reelin activity in vivo have yet to be developed. We previously found that the proteolytic cleavage of Reelin within Reelin repeat 3 (N-t site) abolishes Reelin activity in vitro, but it remains controversial as to whether this effect occurs in vivo Here we partially purified the enzyme that mediates the N-t cleavage of Reelin from the culture supernatant of cerebral cortical neurons...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213293/relations-between-personality-changes-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology
#6
D Tautvydaitė, J P Antonietti, H Henry, A von Gunten, J Popp
Specific changes in personality profiles may represent early non-cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evaluating the subject's personality changes may add significant clinical information, as well as help to better understand the interaction between personality change, cognitive decline, and cerebral pathology. With this study we aimed to describe the relationship between personality changes and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of AD pathology at early clinical stages of the disease. One hundred and ten subjects, of whom 66 cognitively impaired patients (57 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 9 with mild dementia) and 44 healthy controls, had neuropsychological examination as well as lumbar puncture to determine concentrations of CSF biomarkers of AD pathology (amyloid beta1-42 (Aβ1-42), phosphorylated tau (ptau-181), and total-tau (tau))...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213195/blunt-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-a-role-for-ct-angiography-of-the-head-to-evaluate-non-traumatic-etiologies
#7
REVIEW
Ha Nguyen, Ninh Doan, Michael Gelsomino, Saman Shabani
BACKGROUND: In the setting of trauma, the etiology of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is frequently attributed to the physical, traumatic event. Caution should still be directed towards non-traumatic (or spontaneous) etiologies responsible for the trauma, such as hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, aneurysms, vascular malformation, and hemorrhagic infarcts. The role for immediate CT angiography (CTA) remains controversial to evaluate for non-traumatic etiologies. METHODS: A systematic review of the available literature in Medline PubMed database...
February 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213112/laminar-imaging-of-positive-and-negative-bold-in-human-visual-cortex-at-7t
#8
Alessio Fracasso, Peter R Luijten, Serge O Dumoulin, Natalia Petridou
Deciphering the direction of information flow is critical to understand the brain. Data from non-human primate histology shows that connections between lower to higher areas (e.g. retina→V1), and between higher to lower areas (e.g. V1←V2) can be dissociated based upon the distribution of afferent synapses at the laminar level. Ultra-high field scanners opened up the possibility to image brain structure and function at an unprecedented level of detail. Taking advantage of the increased spatial resolution available, it could theoretically be possible to disentangle activity from different cortical depths from human cerebral cortex, separately studying different compartments across depth...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212920/neonatal-lupus-follow-up-in-infants-with-anti-ssa-ro-antibodies-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Antonio Alberto Zuppa, Riccardo Riccardi, Simonetta Frezza, Francesca Gallini, Rita Maria Paola Luciano, Giovanni Alighieri, Costantino Romagnoli, Sara De Carolis
Neonatal Lupus Syndrome (NLS) is a distinct clinical entity caused by transplacental passage of maternal anti-SSA/Ro antibodies (Ab). Mothers may have systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, or other connective tissue disease, or may be completely healthy at the time of giving birth. NLS includes several clinical manifestations: complete congenital heart block (CCHB) and cutaneous lupus are the most common, while hepatobiliary disease, hematological manifestations and central nervous system involvement may occur...
February 14, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212873/temperament-and-character-personality-dimensions-in-nitrate-tilt-induced-vasovagal-syncope-patients
#10
Vincenzo Russo, Ahmed AlTurki, Anna Rago, Riccardo Proietti, Guillaume Chaussé, Alessio Maria Monteleone, Pasquale Scognamiglio, Palmiero Monteleone, Gerardo Nigro
INTRODUCTION: Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by transient loss of consciousness and postural tone that is due to a temporary and spontaneously self-terminating global cerebral hypoperfusion. It is known that personality modulates the individual's sensitivity to stressors, and emotional arousal and psychologic uncertainty are conditions contributing to vasodepressor syncope. Therefore it is postulated that personality characteristics of VVS patients could have a role in the pathophysiology of VVS...
February 14, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212814/human-striatal-dopaminergic-and-regional-serotonergic-synaptic-degeneration-with-lewy-body-disease-and-inheritance-of-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54
#11
Nadia Postupna, Caitlin S Latimer, Eric B Larson, Emily Sherfield, Julie Paladin, Carol A Shively, Matthew J Jorgensen, Rachel N Andrews, Jay R Kaplan, Paul K Crane, Kathleen S Montine, Suzanne Craft, C Dirk Keene, Thomas J Montine
Cognitive impairment in older individuals is a complex trait that in population-based studies most commonly derives from an individually varying mixture of Alzheimer disease, Lewy body disease, and vascular brain injury. We investigated the molecular composition of synaptic particles from three sources: consecutive rapid autopsy brains from the adult changes in thought study, a population-based cohort; four aged nonhuman primate brains optimally processed for molecular investigation; and targeted replacement transgenic mice homozygous for APOE ε4...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212801/notch-signaling-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#12
J T Baeten, B Lilly
The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved pathway involved in cell fate determination in embryonic development and also functions in the regulation of physiological processes in several systems. It plays an especially important role in vascular development and physiology by influencing angiogenesis, vessel patterning, arterial/venous specification, and vascular smooth muscle biology. Aberrant or dysregulated Notch signaling is the cause of or a contributing factor to many vascular disorders, including inherited vascular diseases, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, associated with degeneration of the smooth muscle layer in cerebral arteries...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212690/insomnia-and-multimorbidity-in-the-community-elderly-in-china
#13
Yu-Mei Wang, Mei Song, Ran Wang, Le Shi, Jia He, Teng-Teng Fan, Wen-Hao Chen, Lan Wang, Lu-Lu Yu, Yuan-Yuan Gao, Xiao-Chuang Zhao, Na Li, Ying Han, Mei-Yan Liu, Lin Lu, Xue-Yi Wang
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the comorbidity between insomnia and medical problems. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in community adults, aged 60 y or older, who resided in one of four major cities in northern China. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected simultaneously. A total of 3,176 elderly adults (1,292 male, 70.2 ± 6.8 y; 1,884 female, 68.8 ± 6.7 y) were interviewed. RESULTS: The prevalence of specific medical conditions in both people with insomnia and people without insomnia was detected...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212538/sevoflurane-preconditioning-induced-endogenous-neurogenesis-against-ischemic-brain-injury-by-promoting-microglial-activation
#14
Li Li, Hexige Saiyin, Jingmo Xie, Lixiang Ma, Lei Xue, Wei Wang, Weimin Liang, Qiong Yu
Brain ischemia causes irreversible damage to functional neurons in cases of infarct. Promoting endogenous neurogenesis to replace necrotic neurons is a promising therapeutic strategy for ischemia patients. The neuroprotective role of sevoflurane preconditioning implies that it might also enhance endogenous neurogenesis and functional restoration in the infarct region. By using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model, we discovered that endogenous neurogenesis was enhanced by sevoflurane preconditioning...
February 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212525/ablation-of-ferroptosis-regulator-glutathione-peroxidase-4-in-forebrain-neurons-promotes-cognitive-impairment-and-neurodegeneration
#15
William Sealy Hambright, Rene Solano Fonseca, Liuji Chen, Ren Na, Qitao Ran
Synaptic loss and neuron death are the underlying cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the modalities of cell death in those diseases remain unclear. Ferroptosis, a newly identified oxidative cell death mechanism triggered by massive lipid peroxidation, is implicated in the degeneration of neurons populations such as spinal motor neurons and midbrain neurons. Here, we investigated whether neurons in forebrain regions (cerebral cortex and hippocampus) that are severely afflicted in AD patients might be vulnerable to ferroptosis...
February 1, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212354/the-effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-oxidative-stress-response-following-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats-and-the-expression-of-intracellular-adhesion-molecule-1-icam-1-and-s100b
#16
Yanwen Li, Shikun Liu
BACKGROUND Ischemia-reperfusion injury of whole brain involves a complicated pathophysiology mechanism. Dexmedetomidine (Dex) has been shown to have neuro protective functions. This study observed the effect of Dex on serum S100B and cerebral intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS Healthy Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (males, 7 weeks old) were randomly divided into sham, model, and Dex groups (n=20 each). A cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model was prepared by clipping of the bilateral common carotid artery combined with hypotension...
February 17, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212237/response-to-use-of-cerebral-oximetry-during-cardiac-arrest
#17
Yvonne Price, Sibtain Anwar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212190/endothelial-cell-disease-emerging-knowledge-from-cerebral-cavernous-malformations
#18
Maria Grazia Lampugnani, Matteo Malinverno, Elisabetta Dejana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endothelial cells dysfunctions are crucial determinants of several human diseases. We review here the most recent reports on endothelial cell defects in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), particularly focusing on adherens junctions. CCM is a vascular disease that affects specifically the venous microvessels of the central nervous system and which is caused by loss-of-function mutation in any one of the three CCM genes (CCM1, 2 or 3) in endothelial cells. The phenotypic result of these mutations are focal vascular malformations that are permeable and fragile causing neurological symptoms and occasionally haemorrhagic stroke...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212113/age-and-gender-dependency-of-physiological-networks-in-sleep
#19
Dagmar Krefting, Christoph Jansen, Thomas Penzel, Fang Han, Jan Kantelhardt
Recently, time delay stability analysis of biosignals has been successfully applied as a multivariate time series analysis method to assess the human physiological network in young adults. The degree of connectivity between different network nodes is described by the so-called link strength. Based on polysomnographic recordings (PSGs), it could be shown that the network changes with the sleep stage. Here, we apply the method to a large set of healthy controls spanning six decades of age. As it is well known, that the overall sleep architecture is dependent both on age and on gender, we particularly address the question, if these changes are also found in the network dynamics...
February 17, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211999/platform-to-enable-combined-measurement-of-dopamine-and-neural-activity
#20
Kate L Parent, Daniel F Hill, Lindsey M Crown, Jean-Paul Wiegand, Kathleen F Gies, Michael A Miller, Christopher W Atcherley, Michael L Heien, Stephen L Cowen
Complex behaviors depend on the coordination of the activities of ensembles of neurons and the release of neuromodulators such as dopamine. The mechanisms underlying such coordination are not well-understood due to a lack of instrumentation for combined and real-time monitoring of neuromodulator release and the activities of large ensembles of neurons. Here we describe a measurement platform that allows for the combined monitoring of electrophysiology from a high-density electrode array and dopamine dynamics from a carbon-fiber microelectrode...
February 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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