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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327534/gastric-angioinvasive-mucormycosis-in-immunocompetent-adult-a-rare-occurrence
#1
Mukesh Nasa, Zubin Sharma, Lipika Lipi, Randhir Sud
Mucormycosis is a rare, opportunistic fungal infection that occurs almost exclusively in immunocompromised hosts such as patients with diabetes mellitus, leukemia, lymphoma, renal disease, septicemia, burns, malnutrition, and following long-term treatment with steroids and antibiotics. Based on the clinical presentation and involvement, mucormycosis is classified as six major forms, namely, rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous, gastrointestinal (GI), disseminated and miscellaneous, with rhinocerebral and pulmonary being the common forms...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326340/rare-cause-of-pulmonary-cavitation-in-a-75-year-old-man
#2
Jaffar Al-Sheikhli, Hussein Taqi, John Drake, Ayaaz Habib
A 75-year-old man of Asian descent presented to the acute medical unit with signs and symptoms suggestive of a community-acquired pneumonia. He had multiple comorbidities and was relatively immunocompromised as a result. Initial investigations supported the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia complicated by a cavitating lung lesion, and the patient was treated as per hospital guidelines. He continued to deteriorate despite appropriate therapy and developed a hydropneumothorax, requiring the insertion of a chest drain...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323188/a-tet-off-gene-expression-system-for-validation-of-antifungal-drug-targets-in-a-murine-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-model
#3
Yutian Peng, Hua Zhang, Min Xu, Man-Wah Tan
Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the major causes of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Novel antifungal therapy is in urgent need due to emerging resistance and adverse toxicity of current antifungal drugs. Gene products that are essential for Aspergillus viability during infection are attractive drug targets. To characterize these genes in vivo we developed a Tet-Off gene expression system in A. fumigatus, whereby the administration of doxycycline resulted in down regulation of the gene whose expression is under the control of the Tet-Off promoter...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319040/refractory-bronchovascular-pleuropulmonary-mucormycosis-case-report-and-difficulties-in-management
#4
M Manjunath, Deepak Prajapat, Rahul Kumar Sharma, Deepak Talwar
Pulmonary mucormycosis is a life-threatening opportunistic fungal infection. It is considered as a disease of immunocompromised state and is rarely seen in immunocompetent patients. We here report a case of refractory bronchovascular pleuropulmonary mucormycosis, who despite early detection, optimal management with liposomal amphotericin B, and posaconazole therapy followed by surgery, progressed further and led to a fatal outcome. Dual antifungal therapy combined with surgery is the only definitive treatment option available in the literature...
January 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303885/candida-endophthalmitis-after-descemet-stripping-automated-endothelial-keratoplasty-with-grafts-from-both-eyes-of-a-donor-with-possible-systemic-candidiasis
#5
Sotiria Palioura, Kavitha Sivaraman, Madhura Joag, Adam Sise, Juan F Batlle, Darlene Miller, Edgar M Espana, Guillermo Amescua, Sonia H Yoo, Anat Galor, Carol L Karp
PURPOSE: To report 2 cases with late postoperative Candida albicans interface keratitis and endophthalmitis after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) with corneal grafts originating from a single donor with a history of presumed pulmonary candidiasis. METHODS: Two patients underwent uncomplicated DSAEK by 2 corneal surgeons at different surgery centers but with tissue from the same donor and were referred to the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute with multifocal infiltrates at the graft-host cornea interface 6 to 8 weeks later, and anterior chamber cultures that were positive for the same genetic strain of C...
January 4, 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300314/fungi-in-bronchiectasis-a-concise-review
#6
REVIEW
Luis Máiz, Rosa Nieto, Rafael Cantón, Elia Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Miguel Ángel Martinez-García
Although the spectrum of fungal pathology has been studied extensively in immunosuppressed patients, little is known about the epidemiology, risk factors, and management of fungal infections in chronic pulmonary diseases like bronchiectasis. In bronchiectasis patients, deteriorated mucociliary clearance-generally due to prior colonization by bacterial pathogens-and thick mucosity propitiate, the persistence of fungal spores in the respiratory tract. The most prevalent fungi in these patients are Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus; these are almost always isolated with bacterial pathogens like Haemophillus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, making very difficult to define their clinical significance...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290576/leukotriene-b4-mediated-neutrophil-recruitment-causes-pulmonary-capillaritis-during-lethal-fungal-sepsis
#7
Esther K S Lee, Mark R Gillrie, Lu Li, Jason W Arnason, Jung Hwan Kim, Liane Babes, Yuefei Lou, Amir Sanati-Nezhad, Stephen K Kyei, Margaret M Kelly, Christopher H Mody, May Ho, Bryan G Yipp
Candida albicans bloodstream infection causes fungal septicaemia and death in over half of afflicted patients. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) mediate defense against invasive candidiasis, but their role in protection versus tissue injury and sepsis is unclear. We observe PMN intravascular swarming and subsequent clustering in response to C. albicans yeast in a lethal septic mouse and human pulmonary circulation model. Live C. albicans sequester to the endothelium and are immediately captured by complement-dependent PMN chemotaxis, which is required for host survival...
December 28, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285049/innate-immune-evasion-strategies-against-cryptococcal-meningitis-caused-by-cryptococcus-neoformans
#8
Cheng-Liang Yang, Jun Wang, Li-Li Zou
As an infectious fungus that affects the respiratory tract, Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) commonly causes asymptomatic pulmonary infection. C. neoformans may target the brain instead of the lungs and cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the early phase of infection; however, this is dependent on successful evasion of the host innate immune system. During the initial stage of fungal infection, a complex network of innate immune factors are activated. C. neoformans utilizes a number of strategies to overcome the anti-fungal mechanisms of the host innate immune system and cross the BBB...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276680/oropharyngeal-histoplasmosis-the-diagnosis-lies-in-the-biopsy
#9
Claudia Miranda, Michael A Jaker, Valerie A Fitzhugh-Kull, Lisa L Dever
Histoplasma capsulatum, a dimorphic fungus found world-wide, is endemic to regions of the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys and portions of Central and South America. Initial infection can present with acute pulmonary symptoms or remain clinically asymptomatic, with disease course generally guided by degree of inoculum and underlying immunosuppression. A chronic, progressive course of weight loss, oral ulceration, and fatigue has been associated with elderly males. We present a 79-year-old man with a chronic, progressive course of oral lesions, odynophagia, and weight loss who was found to have histoplasmosis on oral biopsy performed for suspicions of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma...
2018: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242744/lung-talaromyces-marneffei-infection-in-an-indonesian-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-patient
#10
Surya Darma, Yusrizal Djam'an Saleh, Tri Wibawa
Talaromycosis, a disseminated and progressive infection caused by Talaromyces marneffei, is highly endemic in the tropical region of Asia. However, accumulated data show very low incidence in Indonesia. Here, we report a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma with pulmonary T. marneffei infection. Screening of T. marneffei in this immunocompromised Indonesian patient is recommended even though the reported incidence of this particular fungal infection in Indonesia is low.
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237521/-clinical-features-of-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-complicated-by-pulmonary-infection-after-chemotherapy
#11
Pei-Fen Zhang, Xiao-Qin Feng, Cui-Ling Wu, Yu-Ming Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical features of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) complicated by pulmonary infection after chemotherapy. METHODS: The clinical data of 108 ALL children (115 case-times) with post-chemotherapy pulmonary infection were retrospectively reviewed. The risk factors for pulmonary infection and the relationship between pathogens and chest CT findings were evaluated. RESULTS: The highest incidence (77.4% ) of pulmonary infection occurred during remission induction, peaking at 31-60 days after chemotherapy...
December 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234587/pulmonary-papillary-adenocarcinoma-with-aspergillus-versicolor-infection-in-a-dog
#12
Rathiymaler Maniam, Gayathri Thevi Selvarajah, Mazlina Mazlan, Leslie Thian Lung Than
Papillary adenocarcinoma of the lungs is the most common primary lung adenocarcinoma, with the feature of papillary-like structure formation by cells. A dog was presented with the primary complaint of vomiting, hyporexia and increased respiratory effort. Thoracic radiography revealed increased soft tissue radiopacity of the right cranial lung lobe suggestive of possible consolidation or collapsed lung lobe, with generalised miliary nodular pattern throughout the other lung fields. The dog was euthanized humanely and necropsy was performed...
March 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229641/hyperbaric-oxygen-reduces-aspergillus-fumigatus-proliferation-in-vitro-and-influences-in-vivo-disease-outcomes
#13
Sourabh Dhingra, Jay C Buckey, Robert A Cramer
Recent estimates suggest that more than 3 million people have chronic or invasive fungal infections, causing more than 600,000 deaths every year. Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with compromised immune systems and is a primary contributor to increases in human fungal infections. Thus, developing new clinical modalities as standalone or adjunctive therapy for improving IPA patient outcomes is critically needed. Here we test the in vitro and in vivo impact of hyperbaric oxygen (100% oxygen, >1 ATA) (HBO) on A...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225987/daptomycin-induced-acute-eosinophilic-pneumonia-late-onset-and-quick-recovery
#14
Mohamad Rachid, Khansa Ahmad, Meghan Saunders-Kurban, Aelia Fatima, Aditya Shah, Anas Nahhas
Background: Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that provides great coverage for gram positive cocci. From the early years of daptomycin use, concerns were raised regarding the pulmonary side effects of daptomycin and potential development of acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) secondary to daptomycin therapy. Discussion: AEP could be idiopathic or induced by drugs or toxins. It is a distinct entity from atopic diseases and autoimmune, parasitic, or fungal infections that can also cause pulmonary eosinophilia...
2017: Case Reports in Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222107/il-33-promotes-the-egress-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-from-the-bone-marrow
#15
Matthew T Stier, Jian Zhang, Kasia Goleniewska, Jacqueline Y Cephus, Mark Rusznak, Lan Wu, Luc Van Kaer, Baohua Zhou, Dawn C Newcomb, R Stokes Peebles
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are effector cells within the mucosa and key participants in type 2 immune responses in the context of allergic inflammation and infection. ILC2s develop in the bone marrow from common lymphoid progenitor cells, but little is known about how ILC2s egress from the bone marrow for hematogenous trafficking. In this study, we identified a critical role for IL-33, a hallmark peripheral ILC2-activating cytokine, in promoting the egress of ILC2 lineage cells from the bone marrow...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221882/effective-inhibition-of-cbf-14-against-cryptococcus-neoformans-infection-in-mice-and-its-related-anti-inflammatory-activity
#16
Changzhong Yu, Shanshan Wei, Xiaorong Han, Hanhan Liu, Mengxiao Wang, Meiling Jiang, Min Guo, Jie Dou, Changlin Zhou, Lingman Ma
Cbf-14 (RLLRKFFRKLKKSV), a designed peptide derived from cathelicidin family AMP, has proven to be potent against drug-resistant bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cryptococcal activity of Cbf-14 in vitro and in a pulmonary infection mouse model. Sensitivity test indicated that Cbf-14 possessed effective antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an MIC of 4-16 µg/ml, and killing experiments showed that fungicidal activity was achieved after only 4 h treatment with Cbf-14 at 4× MIC concentrations in vitro...
December 5, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214455/cryptococcus-gattii-infection-presenting-as-an-aggressive-lung-mass
#17
Shuwei Zheng, Thuan Tong Tan, Jaime Mei Fong Chien
Cryptococcus gattii is an endemic fungus predominantly isolated in the tropical and subtropical regions, causing predominantly pulmonary disease with a predilection for the central nervous system. Herein, we report a case of rapidly progressing C. gattii pneumonia in an immune-deficient but virologically suppressed host with underlying human immunodeficiency viral (HIV) infection, exhibiting various fungal morphologies from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytological specimens. A 51-year-old Chinese male with known HIV disease was admitted to the Singapore General Hospital for evaluation of functional decline, febrile episodes, and a left hilar mass on chest radiograph...
December 6, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213115/modulation-of-immune-signaling-and-metabolism-highlights-host-and-fungal-transcriptional-responses-in-mouse-models-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#18
Shiv D Kale, Tariq Ayubi, Dawoon Chung, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Andrew Leber, Ha X Dang, Saikumar Karyala, Raquel Hontecillas, Christopher B Lawrence, Robert A Cramer, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
Incidences of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, an infection caused predominantly by Aspergillus fumigatus, have increased due to the growing number of immunocompromised individuals. While A. fumigatus is reliant upon deficiencies in the host to facilitate invasive disease, the distinct mechanisms that govern the host-pathogen interaction remain enigmatic, particularly in the context of distinct immune modulating therapies. To gain insights into these mechanisms, RNA-Seq technology was utilized to sequence RNA derived from lungs of 2 clinically relevant, but immunologically distinct murine models of IPA on days 2 and 3 post inoculation when infection is established and active disease present...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203547/regulated-release-of-cryptococcal-polysaccharide-drives-virulence-and-suppresses-immune-infiltration-into-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Steven T Denham, Surbhi Verma, Raymond C Reynolds, Colleen L Worne, Joshua M Daugherty, Thomas E Lane, Jessica C S Brown
Cryptococcus neoformans is a common environmental yeast and opportunistic pathogen responsible for 15% of AIDS-related deaths worldwide. Mortality primarily results from meningoencephalitis, which occurs when fungal cells disseminate to the brain from the initial pulmonary infection site. A key C. neoformans virulence trait is the polysaccharide capsule. Capsule shields C. neoformans from immune-mediated recognition and destruction. The main capsule component, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), is found both attached to the cell surface and free in the extracellular space (as exo-GXM)...
December 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201223/application-of-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-ground-glass-nodules
#20
Lili Hu, Yuanwei Pan, Zhigang Zhou, Jianbo Gao
The aim of the present study was to investigate the value of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in the clinical diagnosis of pulmonary ground-glass nodule. In total, 54 patients with pulmonary GGN that were identified by PET-CT examination were selected and confirmed by pathology and clinical diagnosis in hospital between April 2014 and April 2015. The association between PET-CT findings and pathology, and the value of PET-CT were then evaluated. In the 54 patients, solitary pulmonary GGN with a nodule diameter of between 0...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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