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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782541/an-unappreciated-role-for-neutrophil-dc-hybrids-in-immunity-to-invasive-fungal-infections
#1
J Scott Fites, Michael Gui, John F Kernien, Paige Negoro, Zeina Dagher, David B Sykes, Jeniel E Nett, Michael K Mansour, Bruce S Klein
Neutrophils are classically defined as terminally differentiated, short-lived cells; however, neutrophils can be long-lived with phenotypic plasticity. During inflammation, a subset of neutrophils transdifferentiate into a population called neutrophil-DC hybrids (PMN-DCs) having properties of both neutrophils and dendritic cells. While these cells ubiquitously appear during inflammation, the role of PMN-DCs in disease remains poorly understood. We observed the differentiation of PMN-DCs in pre-clinical murine models of fungal infection: blastomycosis, aspergillosis and candidiasis...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781185/helper-t-cell-responses-and-pulmonary-fungal-infections
#2
REVIEW
Andrew J McDermott, Bruce S Klein
The mucosal surface of the respiratory tract encounters microbes, such as fungal particles, with every inhaled breath. When pathogenic fungi breach the physical barrier and innate immune system within the lung to establish an infection, adaptive immunity is engaged often in the form of helper CD4 T-cell responses. Type 1 responses, characterized by IFNγ production from CD4 cells, promote clearance of Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Likewise, IL-17A production from Th17 cells promotes immunity to Blastomyces dermatitidis and Coccidiodes species infection by recruiting neutrophils...
May 20, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768566/pulmonary-paracoccidioidomycosis-a-case-report-of-reactivation-in-a-patient-receiving-biological-therapy
#3
Lúcia Carla Polaco Covre, Pâmela Mazzini Hombre, Aloísio Falqueto, Paulo Mendes Peçanha, Valéria Valim
Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic disease in Latin America that is rarely associated with immunosuppression and biological therapy. Herein, we report for the first time a case of pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis reactivation after infliximab treatment. A 47-year-old man from Brazil received infliximab to treat psoriatic spondyloarthropathy and presented with cough, dyspnea, weight loss, and fever. Chest computed tomography revealed a pulmonary nodule and biopsy confirmed paracoccidioidomycosis. Treatment with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was initiated for fungal infection and infliximab was reintroduced two months later...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762927/isolated-pulmonary-valve-fungal-endocarditis-with-candida-parapsilosis-management-considerations-of-a-rare-case
#4
Nirmal Guragai, Upamanyu Rampal, Rahul Vasudev, Dhaval Shah, Hiten Patel, Julius Salamera, Raja Pullatt, Fayez Shamoon
Pulmonary valve infections without the involvement of other valves account for only 1.5- 2% of all infective endocarditis cases. Isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis due to fungus is extremely rare. The case is presented of a 36-year-old male who was found to have isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis caused by a very rare organism, Candida parapsilosis, and that was solely managed with medical therapy. The patient was evaluated for three weeks of lowgrade fever, generalized rash and fatigue, and found to have C...
September 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761588/infection-is-the-chief-cause-of-mortality-and-non-death-censored-graft-loss-in-the-first-year-after-renal-transplantation-in-a-resource-limited-population-a-single-center-study
#5
Vikraman G, Sanjay Kumar Agarwal, Sandeep Agarwal, Sandeep Mahajan, Dipankar Bhowmik, Soumita Bagchi
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the impact of infections after renal transplantation (RTX) in low and middle income countries. This single center study aimed to delineate the profile and impact of infections requiring hospitalisation (IRH) occurring in the first year after RTX in India. METHOD: Patients who underwent RTX between July 2012 and June 2015 were followed up for 12 months after transplantation. RESULTS: 60.2% of the 387 patients studied had atleast one IRH and total 492 infections were diagnosed...
May 14, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760132/a-multimodal-imaging-approach-enables-in-vivo-assessment-of-antifungal-treatment-in-a-mouse-model-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#6
Jennifer Poelmans, Uwe Himmelreich, Liesbeth Vanherp, Luca Zhai, Amy Hillen, Bryan Holvoet, Sarah Belderbos, Matthias Brock, Johan Maertens, Greetje Vande Velde, Katrien Lagrou
Aspergillus fumigatus causes life-threatening lung infections in immunocompromised patients. Mouse models are extensively used in research to assess the in vivo efficacy of antifungals. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of non-invasive imaging techniques to evaluate experimental infections. However, single imaging modalities have limitations concerning the type of information they can provide. In this study, magnetic resonance imaging and bioluminescence imaging were combined to obtain longitudinal information on the extent of developing lesions and fungal load in a leucopenic mouse model of IPA...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754210/invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-current-diagnostic-methodologies-and-a-new-molecular-approach
#7
REVIEW
S Moura, L Cerqueira, A Almeida
The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the main pathogenic agent responsible for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Immunocompromised patients are more likely to develop this pathology due to a decrease in the immune system's defense capacity. Despite of the low occurrence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, this pathology presents high rates of mortality, mostly due to late and unspecific diagnosis. Currently, the diagnostic methods used to detect this fungal infection are conventional mycological examination (direct microscopic examination, histological examination, and culture), imaging, non-culture-based tests for the detection of galactomannan, β(1,3)-glucan and an extracellular glycoprotein, and molecular tests based on PCR...
May 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737102/-galactomannan-tests-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-for-diagnosing-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#8
Jin Deng, Si-Ying Wu, Ya Liu, Ying Ma, Yi Xie, Zhi-Xing Chen, Zhong-Qiu Dai, Jie-Lun Deng, Mei Kang
OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of galactomannan (GM) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for diagnosing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. METHODS: According to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer / Invasive Fungal Infection Group (EORTC / IFICG) and the American Mycosis Research Group (MSG),and the American College of Infectious Diseases (IDSA) guidelines,295 patients with pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and high risk of invasive infections were divided into four groups: IPA group (42 cases),clinically diagnosed group (68 cases),suspected group (61 cases),and non-IPA group (124 cases)...
January 2018: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712993/development-of-a-quantitative-pcr-detecting-cunninghamella-bertholletiae-to-help-in-diagnosing-this-rare-and-aggressive-mucormycosis
#9
Anne-Pauline Bellanger, Ana Berceanu, Steffi Rocchi, Benoit Valot, Jean Fontan, Adrien Chauchet, Nicolas Belin, Emeline Scherer, Eric Deconinck, Jean-Christophe Navellou, Laurence Millon
Mucormycosis is an invasive mold infection, frequently fatal in immunocompromised patients. We report the case of a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia admitted to the hematology unit for febrile aplasia. Pulmonary lesions suggesting a fungal infection expanded/increased despite a combination of posaconazole and liposomal amphotericin B. The fungal biomarkers performed repeatedly were negative. At D65 after chemotherapy a bronchial biopsy was positive for Cunninghamella bertholletiae. The patient died despite appropriate antifungal management...
April 30, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705393/diagnostic-scoring-system-for-tuberculous-meningitis-among-adult-patients-with-non-suppurative-and-non-bacterial-meningitis
#10
Sarunyou Chusri, Thanaporn Hortiwakul, Natthaka Sathaporn, Boonsri Charernmak, Manthana Phengmak, Walailuk Jitpiboon, Alan Frederick Geater
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. The definite diagnosis of this disease is difficult and can result in delayed treatment. Conventional culture yields low sensitivity while high-sensitivity diagnostic techniques are costly and unpractical. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is used to diagnose several settings of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis but it is limited in TBM especially among HIV-infected patients. We retrospectively reviewed the data of patients with non-suppurative meningitis and compared the patient data with TBM and other causes including carcinomatous, lymphomatous, lymphocytic and fungal meningitis...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695056/burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-argentina
#11
Fernando O Riera, Juan P Caeiro, David W Denning
The number of fungal infections at any given time in Argentina is not known. Here we estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Argentina for the first time. Specific population statistics were searched from multiple sources, local literature was identified, and estimates made. Some additional data were sourced from the Ministry of Health, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) program, and national haematology and transplant societies. Argentina has a population of 43.8 million, with 25% of this total being children under 15 years...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686661/molecular-imaging-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-using-immunopet-mri-the-future-looks-bright
#12
REVIEW
Christopher R Thornton
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening lung disease of immuno-compromised humans caused by the ubiquitous environmental mold Aspergillus . Biomarker tests for the disease lack sensitivity and specificity, and culture of the fungus from invasive lung biopsy is slow, insensitive, and undesirable in critically ill patients. A computed tomogram (CT) of the chest offers a simple non-intrusive diagnostic procedure for rapid decision making, and so is used in many hematology units to drive antifungal treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684106/urine-antigen-detection-as-an-aid-to-diagnose-invasive-aspergillosis
#13
Kieren A Marr, Kausik Datta, Seema Mehta, Darin B Ostrander, Michelle Rock, Jesse Francis, Marta Feldmesser
Background: Establishing rapid diagnoses of invasive aspergillosis (IA) is priority, given poor outcomes of late therapy. Non-culture based tests that detect galactomannan and β-D glucan are available, but are technically cumbersome and rely on invasive sampling (blood or bronchoalveolar lavage). Methods: We optimized a lateral flow dipstick assay using the galactofuranose -specific monoclonal antibody (mAb476), which was previously shown to recognize urine antigens after Aspergillus fumigatus pulmonary infection in an`imals...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679436/fungal-infections-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-children-at-a-pediatric-children-s-hospital-in-argentina
#14
Sergio Miguel Gomez, Miguela Caniza, Alicira Fynn, Cecilia Vescina, Claudia Ruiz, Daniela Iglesias, Fernanda Sosa, Lillian Sung
Our primary objective was to describe the incidence of proven or probable invasive fungal infections (IFIs), a devastating complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), in HCST in a middle-income country. Secondary objectives were to describe factors associated with IFIs and outcomes. In this single center retrospective study, pediatric patients who underwent a first allogeneic or autologous HSCT from 1998 to 2016 were included. Of the 251 HSCT recipients: 143 transplants were allogeneic and 108 were autologous...
April 20, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677399/outcomes-of-cryptococcosis-in-renal-transplant-recipients-in-a-less-resourced-health-care-system
#15
Vinicius Ponzio, Luis F A Camargo, José O Medina-Pestana, John R Perfect, Arnaldo L Colombo
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is the second most common cause of invasive fungal infections in renal transplant recipients in many countries, and data on graft outcome after treatment for this infection is lacking in less-resourced health care settings. METHODS: Data from 47 renal transplant recipients were retrospectively collected at a single institution during a period of 13 years. Graft dysfunction, graft loss and mortality rates were evaluated. Predictors of mortality and graft loss were estimated...
April 20, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670779/pulmonary-mucormycosis-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-and-neutropenia
#16
Izza Mir, Sijan Basnet, David Ellsworth, Elan Mohanty
Pulmonary mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening fungal infection associated with high mortality. We present the case of a 61-year-old man with history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia who presented with fever and cough, eventually diagnosed with pulmonary mucormycosis after right lung video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B and right lung pneumonectomy; however, he later died from left lung pneumonia.
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669313/role-of-fna-and-special-stains-in-rapid-cytopathological-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-nocardiosis
#17
Ridhi Sood, Ruchita Tyagi, Pavneet Kaur Selhi, Gursheen Kaur, Harpreet Kaur, Akashdeep Singh
BACKGROUND: Nocardia, a gram-positive aerobic bacillus of the Actinomycetales family, is a significant opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Clinical and radiological features of pulmonary nocardiosis are nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as tuberculosis, pneumocystis, staphylococcal or fungal infections, or as malignancy. Aspiration cytology with special stains is a quick and effective approach for accurate diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present 7 cases of pulmonary nocardiosis, admitted to the pathology department in a tertiary-care hospital in Punjab...
April 18, 2018: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668825/cryptococcal-pathogenic-mechanisms-a-dangerous-trip-from-the-environment-to-the-brain
#18
Shannon K Esher, Oscar Zaragoza, James Andrew Alspaugh
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that causes serious infections, most commonly of the central nervous system (CNS). C. neoformans is mainly found in the environment and acquired by inhalation. It could be metaphorically imagined that cryptococcal disease is a "journey" for the microorganism that starts in the environment, where this yeast loads its suitcase with virulence traits. C. neoformans first encounters the infected mammalian host in the lungs, a site in which it must choose the right elements from its "virulence suitcase" to survive the pulmonary immune response...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661466/endobronchial-topical-amphotericin-b-instillation-for-pulmonary-chromomycosis-after-lung-transplantation-a-case-report
#19
H Mitomo, A Sakurada, Y Matsuda, H Notsuda, T Watanabe, H Oishi, H Niikawa, S Maeda, M Noda, T Sado, T Amemiya, Y Yoshida, T Kikuchi, K Kamei, Y Okada
We report a very rare case of pulmonary chromomycosis caused by Scedosporium prolificans that developed after lung transplantation and was successfully treated with endobronchial topical amphotericin B instillation. The subject was a woman in her 50s with a history of bilateral lobar lung transplantation from living donors for idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Eight years after the lung transplantation, chest radiography X-ray and computed tomography showed an abnormal shadow in the right lung. Bronchoscopic findings showed obstruction by a fungal component at the laterobasal bronchus B9...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642408/mucormycosis-battle-with-the-deadly-enemy-over-a-five-year-period-in-india
#20
Jagdish Chander, Mandeep Kaur, Nidhi Singla, R P S Punia, Surinder K Singhal, Ashok K Attri, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Alberto M Stchigel, Jose F Cano-Lira, Josep Guarro
Mucormycosis is an emerging opportunistic fungal infection. Increasing immunocompromization, widespread use of antibacterial and antifungal agents (such as voriconazole prophylaxis), carcinomas, transplantation and lifestyle diseases such as diabetes are the main contributors to this situation. The predominant clinical manifestations of mucormycosis vary from host to host, with rhino-orbital-cerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous, and gastrointestinal infections being the most common. In India, the prevalence of mucormycosis is approximately 0...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
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