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Martin Schebeck, Lukas Feldkirchner, Belen Marín, Susanne Krumböck, Hannes Schuler, Christian Stauffer
Heritable bacterial endosymbionts can alter the biology of numerous arthropods. They can influence the reproductive outcome of infected hosts, thus affecting the ecology and evolution of various arthropod species. The spruce bark beetle Pityogenes chalcographus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) was reported to express partial, unidirectional crossing incompatibilities among certain European populations. Knowledge on the background of these findings is lacking; however, bacterial endosymbionts have been assumed to manipulate the reproduction of this beetle...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Anne Fünfhaus, Julia Ebeling, Elke Genersch
Pollination is an indispensable ecosystem service provided by many insects, especially by wild and managed bee species. Hence, reports on large scale honey bee colony losses and on population declines of many wild bees were alarming and resulted in increased awareness of the importance of bee health and increased interest in bee pathogens. To serve this interest, this review will give a comprehensive overview on bacterial bee pathogens by covering not only the famous pathogens (Paenibacillus larvae, Melissococcus plutonius), but also the orphan pathogens which have largely been neglected by the scientific community so far (spiroplasmas) and the pathogens which were only recently discovered as being pathogenic to bees (Serratia marcescens, Lysinibacillus sphaericus)...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Xuechuan Xu, Yuhan Liu, Mengyue Tang, Yuye Yan, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
Transferrin, a member of the iron binding superfamily protein, plays an extremely important role in the transport of iron in the biological process of cells. The result of preliminary proteomic study on E. sinensis hemocytes infected Spiroplasma eriocheiris showed the expression of transferrin (EsTF) and ferrin (EsFe) significantly changed. In addition, other reports have confirmed that transferrin, ferritin and iron are involved in the immune response of hosts. In order to validate the immune function of EsTF, the whole length of EsTF was successfully amplified by the gene cloning and RACE technique...
May 9, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Lone Høj, Natalie Levy, Brett K Baillie, Peta L Clode, Raphael C Strohmaier, Nachshon Siboni, Nicole S Webster, Sven Uthicke, David G Bourne
Outbreaks of coral-eating crown-of-thorns sea stars (CoTS; Acanthaster spp. complex) cause substantial coral loss, hence there is considerable interest in developing prevention and control strategies. We characterised the microbiome of captive CoTS and assessed whether dysbiosis was evident in sea stars during a disease event. Most tissue types had a distinct microbiome. The exception was female gonads, which were highly variable amongst individuals. Male gonads were dominated (>97% of reads) by a single Mollicutes -related OTU...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yi-Ming Tsai, Wen-Sui Lo, Pei-Shan Wu, Shu-Ting Cho, Chih-Horng Kuo
Spiroplasma monobiae MQ-1T (ATCC 33825) was isolated from the hemolymph of an adult vespid wasp ( Monobia quadridens ) collected in Maryland. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology and the comparative genomics among Spiroplasma species.
May 3, 2018: Genome Announcements
Toshiyuki Harumoto, Bruno Lemaitre
Several lineages of symbiotic bacteria in insects selfishly manipulate host reproduction to spread in a population 1 , often by distorting host sex ratios. Spiroplasma poulsonii2,3 is a helical and motile, Gram-positive symbiotic bacterium that resides in a wide range of Drosophila species 4 . A notable feature of S. poulsonii is male killing, whereby the sons of infected female hosts are selectively killed during development1,2 . Although male killing caused by S. poulsonii has been studied since the 1950s, its underlying mechanism is unknown...
May 2, 2018: Nature
Mingxiao Ning, Meijun Yuan, Min Liu, Qi Gao, Panpan Wei, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
Cathepsin D (catD) belongs to a lysosomal aspartic protease superfamily. The full-length catD cDNA from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (EscatD) was 2748 bp and contained a 1158-bp ORF encoding a protein of 385 amino acids, including a signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EscatD was clustered into a single group, together with other catD for crustaceans. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that EscatD was expressed mainly in the eyes, hemocytes, intestine and nerve and was expressed weakly in heart, muscle and gills...
April 23, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Julian Roth, Matthias D Koch, Alexander Rohrbach
The wall-less, helical bacterial genus Spiroplasma has a unique propulsion system; it is not driven by propeller-like flagella but by a membrane-bound, cytoplasmic, linear motor that consists of a contractile chain of identical proteins spanning the entire cell length. By a coordinated spread of conformational changes of the proteins, kinks propagate in pairs along the cell body. However, the mechanisms for the initiation or delay of kinks and their coordinated spread remain unclear. Here, we show how we manipulate the initiation of kinks, their propagation velocities, and the time between two kinks for a single cell trapped in an optical line potential...
April 24, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Yi-Ming Tsai, Pei-Shan Wu, Wen-Sui Lo, Chih-Horng Kuo
Spiroplasma floricola 23-6T (ATCC 29989) was isolated from the flower surface of a tulip tree ( Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology and the comparative genomics among Spiroplasma species.
April 19, 2018: Genome Announcements
Masayuki Hayashi, Masashi Nomura, Daisuke Kageyama
Evolutionary theory predicts that the spread of cytoplasmic sex ratio distorters leads to the evolution of host nuclear suppressors, although there are extremely few empirical observations of this phenomenon. Here, we demonstrate that a nuclear suppressor of a cytoplasmic male killer has spread rapidly in a population of the green lacewing Mallada desjardinsi An M. desjardinsi population, which was strongly female-biased in 2011 because of a high prevalence of the male-killing Spiroplasma endosymbiont, had a sex ratio near parity in 2016, despite a consistent Spiroplasma prevalence...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Murir Mawassi, Orit Dror, Moshe Bar-Joseph, Alon Piasetzky, Jennifer Sjölund, Naama Levitzky, Nofar Shoshana, Ludmila Meslenin, Sabrina Haviv, Carmel Porat, Leron Katsir, Svetlana Kontsedalov, Murad Ghanim, Einat Zelinge-Reichert, Yvonne M Arnsdorf, Abed A Gera, Ofir Bahar
Carrot yellows disease has been associated for many years with the Gram-positive, insect-vectored bacteria, Candidatus Phytoplasma and Spiroplasma citri. However, reports in the last decade link carrot yellows symptoms also with a different, Gram-negative, insect-vectored bacterium - 'Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum'. Our study shows that to date 'Ca. L. solanacearum' is tightly associated with carrot yellows symptoms across Israel. The genetic variant found in Israel is most similar to haplotype ,D found around the Mediterranean basin...
April 17, 2018: Phytopathology
Yinbin Xu, Wenjing Hao, Tao Xiang, Haifeng Zhou, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng, Zhengfeng Ding
As a new-found aquaculture pathogen, Spiroplasma eriocheiris, has resulted in inconceivable economic losses in aquaculture. In the infection of S. eriocheiris, the Procambarus clakii hemocytes have indicated to be major target cells. What was designed to examine in our study is the hemocytes' immune response at the protein levels. Before the pathogen was injected and after 192 h of post-injection, the differential proteomes of the crayfish hemocytes were analyzed immediately by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantization (iTRAQ) labeling, followed by liquid chromatogramphytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
April 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Toshiyuki Harumoto, Takema Fukatsu, Bruno Lemaitre
Male killing is a selfish reproductive manipulation caused by symbiotic bacteria, where male offspring of infected hosts are selectively killed. The underlying mechanisms and the process of their evolution are of great interest not only in terms of fundamental biology, but also their potential applications. The two bacterial Drosophila symbionts, Wolbachia and Spiroplasma , have independently evolved male-killing ability. This raises the question whether the underlying mechanisms share some similarities or are specific to each bacterial species...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Florent Masson, Sandra Calderon Copete, Fanny Schüpfer, Gonzalo Garcia-Arraez, Bruno Lemaitre
Endosymbiotic bacteria associated with eukaryotic hosts are omnipresent in nature, particularly in insects. Studying the bacterial side of host-symbiont interactions is, however, often limited by the unculturability and genetic intractability of the symbionts. Spiroplasma poulsonii is a maternally transmitted bacterial endosymbiont that is naturally associated with several Drosophila species. S. poulsonii strongly affects its host's physiology, for example by causing male killing or by protecting it against various parasites...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Radhey S Gupta, Sahil Sawnani, Mobolaji Adeolu, Seema Alnajar, Aharon Oren
The genus Mycoplasma, including species earlier classified in the genera Eperythrozoon and Haemobartonella, contains ~ 120 species and constitutes an extensively polyphyletic assemblage of bacteria within the phylum Tenericutes. Due to their small genome sizes and lack of unique characteristics, the relationships among the mycoplasmas/Tenericutes are not reliably discerned. Using genome sequences for 140 Tenericutes, their evolutionary relationships were examined using multiple independent approaches. Phylogenomic trees were constructed for 63 conserved proteins, 45 ribosomal proteins, three main subunits of RNA polymerase and 16S rRNA gene sequences...
March 20, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Michael Turelli, Brandon S Cooper, Kelly M Richardson, Paul S Ginsberg, Brooke Peckenpaugh, Chenling X Antelope, Kevin J Kim, Michael R May, Antoine Abrieux, Derek A Wilson, Michael J Bronski, Brian R Moore, Jian-Jun Gao, Michael B Eisen, Joanna C Chiu, William R Conner, Ary A Hoffmann
Maternally transmitted Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, and Cardinium bacteria are common in insects [1], but their interspecific spread is poorly understood. Endosymbionts can spread rapidly within host species by manipulating host reproduction, as typified by the global spread of wRi Wolbachia observed in Drosophila simulans [2, 3]. However, because Wolbachia cannot survive outside host cells, spread between distantly related host species requires horizontal transfers that are presumably rare [4-7]. Here, we document spread of wRi-like Wolbachia among eight highly diverged Drosophila hosts (10-50 million years) over only about 14,000 years (5,000-27,000)...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Andrea Osimani, Vesna Milanović, Federica Cardinali, Cristiana Garofalo, Francesca Clementi, Marina Pasquini, Paola Riolo, Sara Ruschioni, Nunzio Isidoro, Nino Loreto, Elena Franciosi, Kieran Tuohy, Annalisa Petruzzelli, Martina Foglini, Claudia Gabucci, Franco Tonucci, Lucia Aquilanti
Tenebrio molitor represents one of the most popular species used for the large-scale conversion of plant biomass into protein and is characterized by high nutritional value. In the present laboratory study, the bacterial biota characterizing a pilot production chain of fresh T. molitor larvae was investigated. To this end, different batches of fresh mealworm larvae, their feeding substrate (wheatmeal) and frass were analyzed by viable microbial counts, PCR-DGGE and Illumina sequencing. Moreover, the occurrence of Coxiella burnetii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shiga toxin-producing E...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Meijun Yuan, Mingxiao Ning, Panpan Wei, Wenjing Hao, Yunting Jing, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
Serpin families classified serine protease inhibitors regulate various physiological processes. However, there is not study on the role of serpin in immune responses against Spiroplasma eriocheiris as a novel causative pathogen in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. In our study, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the mRNA transcripts of Esserpin-2 were ubiquitous in every tissue, relative higher expression in hepatopancreas, gill and hemocytes, while the intestine, muscle, heart and nerve showed relative lower expression...
May 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shruti Yadav, Joanna Frazer, Ashima Banga, Katherine Pruitt, Sneh Harsh, John Jaenike, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and their hosts represent a complex ecosystem within organisms ranging from humans to protozoa. Drosophila species are known to naturally harbor Wolbachia and Spiroplasma endosymbionts, which play a protective role against certain microbial infections. Here, we investigated whether the presence or absence of endosymbionts affects the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster larvae to infection by Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes carrying or lacking their mutualistic Gram-negative bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila (symbiotic or axenic nematodes, respectively)...
2018: PloS One
Yan-Kai Zhang, Kun Yang, Yu-Xi Zhu, Xiao-Yue Hong
Double infections of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma are frequent in natural populations of Tetranychus truncatus , a polyphagous mite species that has been a dominant species in China since 2009. However, little is known about the causes and ecological importance of such coexistences. In this study, we established T. truncatus strains with different infection types and then inferred the impact of the two endosymbionts on host reproduction and fitness. Double infection induced cytoplasmic incompatibility, which was demonstrated by reduction in egg hatchability of incompatible crosses...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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