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Cristiana Garofalo, Andrea Osimani, Vesna Milanović, Manuela Taccari, Federica Cardinali, Lucia Aquilanti, Paola Riolo, Sara Ruschioni, Nunzio Isidoro, Francesca Clementi
Entomophagy has been linked to nutritional, economic, social and ecological benefits. However, scientific studies on the potential safety risks in eating edible insects need to be carried out for legislators, markets and consumers. In this context, the microbiota of edible insects deserves to be deeply investigated. The aim of this study was to elucidate the microbial species occurring in some processed marketed edible insects, namely powdered small crickets, whole dried small crickets (Acheta domesticus), whole dried locusts (Locusta migratoria), and whole dried mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor), through culture-dependent (classical microbiological analyses) and -independent methods (pyrosequencing)...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
Eleanor R Heyworth, Julia Ferrari
Many insects carry facultative bacterial symbionts, which provide benefits including resistance to natural enemies and abiotic stresses. Little is known about how these beneficial phenotypes are affected when biotic or abiotic threats occur simultaneously. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) can host several well-characterized symbiont species. The symbiont known as X-type can protect against both parasitoid wasps and heat stress. Here, we used three pea aphid genotypes that were naturally infected with X-type and the symbiont Spiroplasma sp...
2016: PloS One
Konstantin M Boyko, Tatiana V Rakitina, Dmitry A Korzhenevskiy, Anna V Vlaskina, Yuliya K Agapova, Dmitry E Kamashev, Sergey Y Kleymenov, Vladimir O Popov
The three-dimensional structure of the histone-like HU protein from the mycoplasma Spiroplasma melliferum KC3 (HUSpm) was determined at 1.4 Å resolution, and the thermal stability of the protein was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry. A detailed analysis revealed that the three-dimensional structure of the HUSpm dimer is similar to that of its bacterial homologues but is characterized by stronger hydrophobic interactions at the dimer interface. This HUSpm dimer interface lacks salt bridges but is stabilized by a larger number of hydrogen bonds...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wei-Yi Shen, Wen-Sui Lo, Yi-Ching Lai, Chih-Horng Kuo
Spiroplasma helicoides TABS-2(T) (DSM 22551) was isolated from the gut of a horsefly (Tabanus abactor) collected near Ardmore, Oklahoma, USA, in 1987. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology and the comparative genomics among Spiroplasma species.
October 20, 2016: Genome Announcements
Yann Desfougères, Jean-Michel Poitou, Henri Wróblewski, Laure Béven
Spiralin is the most abundant protein of several species of spiroplasmas, helical, motile bacteria pathogenic for arthropods and plants. This amphiphilic protein is anchored to the outer face of the plasma membrane by a lipoylated N-terminal cysteine. Although spiroplasma pathogenicity in mammals is controversial, it was shown that spiralin is highly immunogenic and endowed with immunomodulatory activity. In this paper, we describe a high performance method for the purification of Spiroplasma melliferum spiralin under non-denaturing conditions...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Wen-Sui Lo, Gail E Gasparich, Chih-Horng Kuo
Spiroplasma turonicum Tab4c(T) was isolated from a horse fly (Haematopota sp.; probably Haematopota pluvialis) collected at Champchevrier, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France, in 1991. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology and the comparative genomics among Spiroplasma spp.
2016: Genome Announcements
Toshiyuki Harumoto, Hisashi Anbutsu, Bruno Lemaitre, Takema Fukatsu
Some symbiotic bacteria are capable of interfering with host reproduction in selfish ways. How such bacteria can manipulate host's sex-related mechanisms is of fundamental interest encompassing cell, developmental and evolutionary biology. Here, we uncover the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying Spiroplasma-induced embryonic male lethality in Drosophila melanogaster. Transcriptomic analysis reveals that many genes related to DNA damage and apoptosis are up-regulated specifically in infected male embryos...
September 21, 2016: Nature Communications
Lilach Iasur-Kruh, Vered Naor, Tirtza Zahavi, Matthew J Ballinger, Rakefet Sharon, Wyatt E Robinson, Steve J Perlman, Einat Zchori-Fein
The planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) is an important vector of phytoplasma diseases in grapevine. In the current study, the bacterial community compositions of symbionts of this insect were examined. Two dominant bacterial lineages were identified by mass sequencing: the obligate symbiont Candidatus Sulcia, and a facultative symbiont that is closely related to Pectobacterium sp. and to BEV, a cultivable symbiont of another phytoplasma vector, the leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus. In addition, one bacterium was successfully isolated in this study - a member of the family Xanthomonadaceae that is most closely related to the genus Dyella...
September 4, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Laura M Perilla-Henao, Clare L Casteel
Hemipteran insects are devastating pests of crops due to their wide host range, rapid reproduction, and ability to transmit numerous plant-infecting pathogens as vectors. While the field of plant-virus-vector interactions has flourished in recent years, plant-bacteria-vector interactions remain poorly understood. Leafhoppers and psyllids are by far the most important vectors of bacterial pathogens, yet there are still significant gaps in our understanding of their feeding behavior, salivary secretions, and plant responses as compared to important viral vectors, such as whiteflies and aphids...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wen-Sui Lo, Ya-Yi Huang, Chih-Horng Kuo
Symbiosis between organisms is an important driving force in evolution. Among the diverse relationships described, extensive progress has been made in insect-bacteria symbiosis, which improved our understanding of the genome evolution in host-associated bacteria. Particularly, investigations on several obligate mutualists have pushed the limits of what we know about the minimal genomes for sustaining cellular life. To bridge the gap between those obligate symbionts with extremely reduced genomes and their non-host-restricted ancestors, this review focuses on the recent progress in genome characterization of facultative insect symbionts...
August 12, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Qingguo Meng, Peng Liu, Jian Wang, Yinghui Wang, Libo Hou, Wei Gu, Wen Wang
UNLABELLED: Post-translational modifications such as acetylation are an essential regulatory mechanism of protein function. Spiroplasma eriocheiris, with no cell wall and a helical structure, is a novel pathogen of freshwater crustacean. There is no other evidence of acylation (such as succinylation and propionylation) except acetylation genes in S. eriocheiris concise genome. So the acetylation may play an important role in S. eriocheiris. Here, we conducted the first lysine acetylome in S...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Fabien Labroussaa, Anne Lebaudy, Vincent Baby, Géraldine Gourgues, Dominick Matteau, Sanjay Vashee, Pascal Sirand-Pugnet, Sébastien Rodrigue, Carole Lartigue
Genome transplantation (GT) allows the installation of purified chromosomes into recipient cells, causing the resulting organisms to adopt the genotype and the phenotype conferred by the donor cells. This key process remains a bottleneck in synthetic biology, especially for genome engineering strategies of intractable and economically important microbial species. So far, this process has only been reported using two closely related bacteria, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp...
September 30, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Elodie Ramond, Catherine Maclachlan, Stéphanie Clerc-Rosset, Graham W Knott, Bruno Lemaitre
UNLABELLED: Spiroplasma bacteria are highly motile bacteria with no cell wall and a helical morphology. This clade includes many vertically transmitted insect endosymbionts, including Spiroplasma poulsonii, a natural endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster S. poulsonii bacteria are mainly found in the hemolymph of infected female flies and exhibit efficient vertical transmission from mother to offspring. As is the case for many facultative endosymbionts, S. poulsonii can manipulate the reproduction of its host; in particular, S...
2016: MBio
Tamar Lahav, Einat Zchori-Fein, Vered Naor, Shiri Freilich, Lilach Iasur-Kruh
We report here the draft genome sequence of a Dyella-like bacterium (DLB) isolated from Hyalesthes obsoletus, the insect vector of the uncultivable mollicute bacterium "Candidatus Phytoplasma." This isolate inhibits Spiroplasma melliferum, a cultivable mollicute. The draft genome of DLB consists of 4,196,214 bp, with a 68.6% G+C content, and 3,757 genes were predicted.
2016: Genome Announcements
David A S Smith, Ian J Gordon, Walther Traut, Jeremy Herren, Steve Collins, Dino J Martins, Kennedy Saitoti, Piera Ireri, Richard Ffrench-Constant
Sexually antagonistic selection can drive both the evolution of sex chromosomes and speciation itself. The tropical butterfly the African Queen, Danaus chrysippus, shows two such sexually antagonistic phenotypes, the first being sex-linked colour pattern, the second, susceptibility to a male-killing, maternally inherited mollicute, Spiroplasma ixodeti, which causes approximately 100% mortality in male eggs and first instar larvae. Importantly, this mortality is not affected by the infection status of the male parent and the horizontal transmission of Spiroplasma is unknown...
July 27, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Juan C Paredes, Jeremy K Herren, Fanny Schüpfer, Bruno Lemaitre
UNLABELLED: Insects commonly harbor facultative bacterial endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia and Spiroplasma species, that are vertically transmitted from mothers to their offspring. These endosymbiontic bacteria increase their propagation by manipulating host reproduction or by protecting their hosts against natural enemies. While an increasing number of studies have reported endosymbiont-mediated protection, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this protection. Here, we analyze the mechanisms underlying protection from parasitoid wasps in Drosophila melanogaster mediated by its facultative endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii Our results indicate that S...
2016: MBio
Masayuki Hayashi, Masaya Watanabe, Fumiko Yukuhiro, Masashi Nomura, Daisuke Kageyama
For maternally transmitted microbes, a female-biased host sex ratio is of reproductive advantage. Here we found a strong female bias in a field population of the green lacewing, Mallada desjardinsi (Insecta; Neuroptera). This bias was attributed to the predominance of individuals harboring a maternally inherited male-killing bacterium that was phylogenetically closely related to the plant-pathogenic Spiroplasma phoeniceum and Spiroplasma kunkelii. Among 35 laboratory-reared broods produced by wild-caught females, 21 broods (60%)-all infected with Spiroplasma-consisted of only females (940 individuals)...
2016: PloS One
Yan-Kai Zhang, Ya-Ting Chen, Kun Yang, Ge-Xia Qiao, Xiao-Yue Hong
Reproductive endosymbionts have been shown to have wide-ranging effects on many aspects of their hosts' biology. A first step to understanding how these endosymbionts interact with their hosts is to determine their incidences. Here, we screened for four reproductive endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia) in 28 populations of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) representing 12 species. Each of the four endosymbionts were identified in at least some of the tested specimens, and their infection patterns showed variations at the species-level and population-level, suggesting their distributions can be correlated with both the phylogeny and ecology of the hosts...
2016: Scientific Reports
Orlando Yañez, Laurent Gauthier, Panuwan Chantawannakul, Peter Neumann
Intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria are common and can play a crucial role for insect pathology. Therefore, such bacteria could be a potential key to our understanding of major losses of Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) colonies. However, the transmission and potential effects of endosymbiotic bacteria in A. mellifera and other Apis spp. are poorly understood. Here, we explore the prevalence and transmission of the genera Arsenophonus, Wolbachia, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia in Apis spp. Colonies of A. mellifera (N = 33, with 20 eggs from worker brood cells and 100 adult workers each) as well as mated honey bee queens of A...
July 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Mikaël Bili, Anne Marie Cortesero, Christophe Mougel, Jean Pierre Gauthier, Gwennola Ermel, Jean Christophe Simon, Yannick Outreman, Sébastien Terrat, Frédérique Mahéo, Denis Poinsot
All animals are infected by microbial partners that can be passengers or residents and influence many biological traits of their hosts. Even if important factors that structure the composition and abundance of microbial communities within and among host individuals have been recently described, such as diet, developmental stage or phylogeny, few studies have conducted cross-taxonomic comparisons, especially on host species related by trophic relationships. Here, we describe and compare the microbial communities associated with the cabbage root fly Delia radicum and its three major parasitoids: the two staphylinid beetles Aleochara bilineata and A...
2016: PloS One
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