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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698604/honeybee-apis-mellifera-associated-bacterial-community-affected-by-american-foulbrood-detection-of-paenibacillus-larvae-via-microbiome-analysis
#1
Tomas Erban, Ondrej Ledvinka, Martin Kamler, Marta Nesvorna, Bronislava Hortova, Jan Tyl, Dalibor Titera, Martin Markovic, Jan Hubert
Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) workers act as passive vectors of Paenibacillus larvae spores, which cause the quarantine disease American foulbrood (AFB). We assessed the relative proportions of P. larvae within the honeybee microbiome using metabarcoding analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene. The microbiome was analyzed in workers outside of the AFB zone (control - AFB0), in workers from asymptomatic colonies in an AFB apiary (AFB1), and in workers from colonies exhibiting clinical AFB symptoms (AFB2). The microbiome was processed for the entire community and for a cut-off microbiome comprising pathogenic/environmental bacteria following the removal of core bacterial sequences; varroosis levels were considered in the statistical analysis...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683136/generality-of-toxins-in-defensive-symbiosis-ribosome-inactivating-proteins-and-defense-against-parasitic-wasps-in-drosophila
#2
Matthew J Ballinger, Steve J Perlman
While it has become increasingly clear that multicellular organisms often harbor microbial symbionts that protect their hosts against natural enemies, the mechanistic underpinnings underlying most defensive symbioses are largely unknown. Spiroplasma bacteria are widespread associates of terrestrial arthropods, and include strains that protect diverse Drosophila flies against parasitic wasps and nematodes. Recent work implicated a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) encoded by Spiroplasma, and related to Shiga-like toxins in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, in defense against a virulent parasitic nematode in the woodland fly, Drosophila neotestacea...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680117/challenging-the-wigglesworthia-sodalis-wolbachia-symbiosis-dogma-in-tsetse-flies-spiroplasma-is-present-in-both-laboratory-and-natural-populations
#3
V Doudoumis, F Blow, A Saridaki, A Augustinos, N A Dyer, I Goodhead, P Solano, J-B Rayaisse, P Takac, S Mekonnen, A G Parker, A M M Abd-Alla, A Darby, K Bourtzis, G Tsiamis
Profiling of wild and laboratory tsetse populations using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing allowed us to examine whether the "Wigglesworthia-Sodalis-Wolbachia dogma" operates across species and populations. The most abundant taxa, in wild and laboratory populations, were Wigglesworthia (the primary endosymbiont), Sodalis and Wolbachia as previously characterized. The species richness of the microbiota was greater in wild than laboratory populations. Spiroplasma was identified as a new symbiont exclusively in Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and G...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646859/comparison-of-different-nat-assays-for-the-detection-of-microorganisms-belonging-to-the-class-mollicutes
#4
O Vega-Orellana, J B Poveda, R S Rosales, J M Bradbury, C G Poveda, L E Mederos-Iriarte, M M Tavío, A S Ramírez
BACKGROUND: Mollicutes detection can be cumbersome due to their slow growth in vitro. For this reason, the use of DNA based on generic molecular tests represents an alternative for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of these microorganism. For this reason, six previously described nucleic acid testing assays were compared to evaluate their ability to detect microorganisms belonging to the class Mollicutes. METHODS: A panel of 61 mollicutes, including representatives from the Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, Mesoplasma, Spiroplasma and Ureaplasma genus, were selected to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of these assays...
June 24, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631828/development-of-a-colloidal-gold-immunochromatographic-assay-gica-for-the-rapid-detection-of-spiroplasma-eriocheiris-in-commercially-exploited-crustaceans-from-china
#5
H Liu, Y Xiu, Y Xu, M Tang, S Li, W Gu, Q Meng, W Wang
Spiroplasma eriocheiris is an emerging pathogen in freshwater crustaceans. In recent years, Eriocheir sinensis, Procambarus clarkii, Litopenaeus vannamei, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Macrobrachium nipponense had been infected by this pathogen in China. An immunochromatographic strip test using gold nanoparticles was developed for rapidly detecting this pathogen. The strip test based on the principle of sandwich immunoassay by the specific combination between the pathogen and polyclonal antibody on a nitrocellulose membrane...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620748/diversity-of-the-most-commonly-reported-facultative-symbionts-in-two-closely-related-aphids-with-different-host-ranges
#6
A S Guidolin, F L Cônsoli
Richness and abundance of facultative symbionts vary strongly with aphid species and genotype, symbiont strain, host plant, biogeography, and a number of abiotic factors. Despite indications that aphids in the same ecological niche show similar levels of facultative symbiont richness, existing reports do not consider the potential role of host plants on aphid microbial community. Little is known about how oligophagy and polyphagy may be influenced by secondary symbiont distribution, mainly because studies on secondary symbiont diversity are biased towards polyphagous aphids from the Northern Hemisphere...
June 15, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609446/are-sex-ratio-distorting-endosymbionts-responsible-for-mating-system-variation-among-dance-flies-diptera-empidinae
#7
Rosalind L Murray, Elizabeth J Herridge, Rob W Ness, Luc F Bussière
Maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts are common in many arthropod species. Some endosymbionts cause female-biased sex ratio distortion in their hosts that can result in profound changes to a host's mating behaviour and reproductive biology. Dance flies (Diptera: Empidinae) are well known for their unusual reproductive biology, including species with female-specific ornamentation and female-biased lek-like swarming behaviour. The cause of the repeated evolution of female ornaments in these flies remains unknown, but is probably associated with female-biased sex ratios in individual species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542979/consequences-of-symbiont-co-infections-for-insect-host-phenotypes
#8
Ailsa H C McLean, Benjamin J Parker, Jan Hrček, James Kavanagh, Peter A D Wellham, H Charles J Godfray
1.Most animals host communities of symbiotic bacteria. In insects, these symbionts may have particularly intimate interactions with their hosts: many are intracellular and can play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including protection against natural enemies. 2.We investigated how interactions between different species or strains of endosymbiotic bacteria within an aphid host influence the outcome of symbiosis for both symbiont and host. 3.We first asked whether different combinations of facultative symbiont species or strains can exist in stable co-infections...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534089/comparison-of-microbiomes-between-red-poultry-mite-populations-dermanyssus-gallinae-predominance-of-bartonella-like-bacteria
#9
Jan Hubert, Tomas Erban, Jan Kopecky, Bruno Sopko, Marta Nesvorna, Martina Lichovnikova, Sabine Schicht, Christina Strube, Olivier Sparagano
Blood feeding red poultry mites (RPM) serve as vectors of pathogenic bacteria and viruses among vertebrate hosts including wild birds, poultry hens, mammals, and humans. The microbiome of RPM has not yet been studied by high-throughput sequencing. RPM eggs, larvae, and engorged adult/nymph samples obtained in four poultry houses in Czechia were used for microbiome analyses by Illumina amplicon sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V4 region. A laboratory RPM population was used as positive control for transcriptome analysis by pyrosequencing with identification of sequences originating from bacteria...
May 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505369/identification-of-an-early-male-killing-agent-in-the-oriental-tea-tortrix-homona-magnanima
#10
Yusuke Tsugeno, Hironori Koyama, Takumi Takamatsu, Madoka Nakai, Yasuhisa Kunimi, Maki N Inoue
Arthropods are frequently infected with inherited symbionts, which sometimes confer fitness benefits on female hosts or manipulate host reproduction. Early male killing, in which infected males die during embryogenesis, is induced by some bacteria, such as Wolbachia and Spiroplasma. A female-biased sex ratio has been found in Homona magnanima, collected from a tea plantation in Japan. Here, we examined the male-killing trait in H. magnanima and identified the agent that induces early male killing. The sex-ratio distortion (SR) strain produced only females and no males, and its egg hatch rate was significantly lower than that of the normal (N) strain...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501585/proteolytic-post-translational-processing-of-adhesins-in-a-pathogenic-bacterium
#11
Marie-Pierre Dubrana, Julia Guéguéniat, Clothilde Bertin, Sybille Duret, Nathalie Arricau-Bouvery, Stéphane Claverol, Carole Lartigue, Alain Blanchard, Joël Renaudin, Laure Béven
Mollicutes, including mycoplasmas and spiroplasmas, have been considered as good representatives of the « minimal cell » concept: these wall-less bacteria are small in size and possess a minimal genome and restricted metabolic capacities. However, the recent discovery of the presence of post-translational modifications unknown so far, such as the targeted processing of membrane proteins of mycoplasma pathogens for human and swine, revealed a part of the hidden complexity of these microorganisms. In this study, we show that in the phytopathogen, insect-vectored Spiroplasma citri GII-3 adhesion-related protein (ScARP) adhesins are post-translationally processed through an ATP-dependent targeted cleavage...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428304/complete-genome-sequence-of-spiroplasma-citri-strain-r8-a2-t-causal-agent-of-stubborn-disease-in-citrus-species
#12
Robert E Davis, Jonathan Shao, Yan Zhao, Gail E Gasparich, Brady J Gaynor, Nicole Donofrio
Spiroplasma citri causes stubborn disease in Citrus spp. and diseases in other plants. Here, we report the nucleotide sequence of the 1,599,709-bp circular chromosome and two plasmids of S. citri strain R8-A2(T) This information will facilitate analyses to understand spiroplasmal pathogenicity and evolutionary adaptations to lifestyles in plants and arthropod hosts.
April 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419691/the-low-diverse-gastric-microbiome-of-the-jellyfish-cotylorhiza-tuberculata-is-dominated-by-four-novel-taxa
#13
Tomeu Viver, Luis H Orellana, Janet K Hatt, Mercedes Urdiain, Sara Díaz, Michael Richter, Josefa Antón, Massimo Avian, Rudolf Amann, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis, Ramon Rosselló-Móra
Cotylorhiza tuberculata is an important scyphozoan jellyfish producing population blooms in the Mediterranean probably due to pelagic ecosystem's decay. Its gastric cavity can serve as a simple model of microbial-animal digestive associations, yet poorly characterized. Using state-of-the-art metagenomic population binning and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), we show that only four novel clonal phylotypes were consistently associated with multiple jellyfish adults...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363870/transformation-of-crustacean-pathogenic-bacterium-spiroplasma-eriocheiris-and-expression-of-yellow-fluorescent-protein
#14
Natsuho Terahara, Isil Tulum, Makoto Miyata
Spiroplasma eriocheiris, the cause of crab trembling disease, is a wall-less bacterium, related to Mycoplasmas, measuring 2.0-10.0 μm long. It features a helical cell shape and a unique swimming mechanism that does not use flagella; instead, it moves by switching the cell helicity at a kink traveling from the front to the tail. S. eriocheiris seems to use a novel chemotactic system that is based on the frequency of reversal swimming behaviors rather than the conventional two-component system, which is generally essential for bacterial chemotaxis...
June 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280009/complete-genome-sequence-of-spiroplasma-sp-nbrc-100390
#15
Mindia Haryono, Wen-Sui Lo, Gail E Gasparich, Chih-Horng Kuo
Spiroplasma sp. NBRC 100390 was initially described as a duplicate of S. atrichopogonis GNAT3597(T) (=ATCC BAA-520(T)) but later found to be different in the 16S rDNA sequences. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to establish its identity and to facilitate future investigation.
March 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217108/chemotaxis-without-conventional-two-component-system-based-on-cell-polarity-and-aerobic-conditions-in-helicity-switching-swimming-of-spiroplasma-eriocheiris
#16
Peng Liu, Huajun Zheng, Qingguo Meng, Natsuho Terahara, Wei Gu, Shengyue Wang, Guoping Zhao, Daisuke Nakane, Wen Wang, Makoto Miyata
Spiroplasma eriocheiris is a pathogen that causes mass mortality in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. S. eriocheiris causes tremor disease and infects almost all of the artificial breeding crustaceans, resulting in disastrous effects on the aquaculture economy in China. S. eriocheiris is a wall-less helical bacterium, measuring 2.0 to 10.0 μm long, and can swim up to 5 μm per second in a viscous medium without flagella by switching the cell helicity at a kink traveling from the front to the tail. In this study, we showed that S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184355/spiroplasma-eriocheiris-adhesin-like-protein-alp-interacts-with-epidermal-growth-factor-egf-domain-proteins-to-facilitate-infection
#17
Libo Hou, Yuhan Liu, Qi Gao, Xuechuan Xu, Mingxiao Ning, Jingxiu Bi, Hui Liu, Min Liu, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
Spiroplasma eriocheiris is a novel pathogen found in recent years, causing the tremor disease (TD) of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Like Spiroplasma mirum, S. eriocheiris infects the newborn mouse (adult mice are not infected) and can cause cataract. Adhesion-related protein is an important protein involved in the interaction between pathogen and host. In this study, the Adhesin-like Protein (ALP) of S. eriocheiris was detected on its outer membrane by using immune electron microscopy, and was found to be involved in the bacterium's infection of mouse embryo fibroblasts (3T6-Swiss albino)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115382/development-of-oric-based-plasmids-for-mesoplasma-florum
#18
Dominick Matteau, Marie-Eve Pepin, Vincent Baby, Samuel Gauthier, Mélissa Arango Giraldo, Thomas F Knight, Sébastien Rodrigue
The near-minimal bacterium Mesoplasma florum constitutes an attractive model for systems biology and for the development of a simplified cell chassis in synthetic biology. However, the lack of genetic engineering tools for this microorganism has limited our capacity to understand its basic biology and modify its genome. To address this issue, we have evaluated the susceptibility of M. florum to common antibiotics and developed the first generation of artificial plasmids able to replicate in this bacterium. Selected regions of the predicted M...
April 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059790/combined-creutzfeldt-jakob-alzheimer-s-disease-cases-are-important-in-search-for-microbes-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Frank O Bastian
The question whether Alzheimer's disease is infectious as brought up in the recent editorial published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease is complicated by the controversy whether the causal agent is a microbe or a misfolded host protein (amyloid). The replicating amyloid (prion) theory, based upon data from studies of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), has been challenged since the prion can be separated from TSE infectivity, and spiroplasma, a wall-less bacterium, has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of CJD...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999573/reconstruction-of-transcription-control-networks-in-mollicutes-by-high-throughput-identification-of-promoters
#20
Gleb Y Fisunov, Irina A Garanina, Daria V Evsyutina, Tatiana A Semashko, Anastasia S Nikitina, Vadim M Govorun
Bacteria of the class Mollicutes have significantly reduced genomes and gene expression control systems. They are also efficient pathogens that can colonize a broad range of hosts including plants and animals. Despite their simplicity, Mollicutes demonstrate complex transcriptional responses to various conditions, which contradicts their reduction in gene expression regulation mechanisms. We analyzed the conservation and distribution of transcription regulators across the 50 Mollicutes species. The majority of the transcription factors regulate transport and metabolism, and there are four transcription factors that demonstrate significant conservation across the analyzed bacteria...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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