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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155968/novel-spiroplasma-spp-cultured-from-brains-and-lymph-nodes-from-ruminants-affected-with-transmissible-spongiform-encephalopathy
#1
Frank O Bastian, James Lynch, Sue Hagius, Xiaochu Wu, Greg McCormick, Donald G Luther, Philip H Elzer
Spiroplasma spp., tiny filterable wall-less bacteria, are consistently associated with the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). Spiral forms have been transiently isolated from TSE-affected brain tissues in SP4 growth media designed for isolation of Spiroplasma spp., but the isolate could not be propagated in SP4 media. A bacterium must grow in vitro in cell-free cultures to allow full characterization of a suspect pathogen. Here, a novel Spiroplasma sp. was isolated from scrapie- and chronic wasting disease (CWD)-affected brains and lymph nodes...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152597/identification-of-spiroplasmainsolitum-symbionts-in-anopheles-gambiae
#2
Sharon T Chepkemoi, Enock Mararo, Hellen Butungi, Juan Paredes, Daniel Masiga, Steven P Sinkins, Jeremy K Herren
Background: Insect symbionts have the potential to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases by their hosts. The advancement of a symbiont-based transmission blocking strategy for malaria requires the identification and study of Anopheles symbionts. Methods: High throughput 16S amplicon sequencing was used to profile the bacteria associated with Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and identify potential symbionts. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers were subsequently used to monitor symbiont prevalence in field populations, as well as symbiont transmission patterns...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150322/sex-ratios-of-the-tick-ixodes-arboricola-are-strongly-female-biased-but-there-are-no-indications-of-sex-distorting-bacteria
#3
A Raoul Van Oosten, Olivier Duron, Dieter J A Heylen
Studies on sex ratio are of fundamental importance for understanding the biology of populations and biological control of pests and pathogens. In most Ixodes tick species, only females feed in the adult stage and, hence, contribute to pathogen transmission. The tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola infests cavity-nesting birds and has limited dispersal possibilities. It plays an important role in the maintenance of zoonotic disease cycles. Here, we quantified the sex ratio of 718 adult I. arboricola ticks obtained from a laboratory stock at nine distinct periods (cohorts) from 2008 to 2015...
November 11, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072824/introduction-of-a-putative-biocontrol-agent-into-a-range-of-phytoplasma-and-liberibacter-susceptible-crop-plants
#4
Ofir Lidor, Orit Dror, Dor Hamershlak, Nofar Shoshana, Eduard Belausov, Tirtza Zahavi, Netta Mozes-Daube, Vered Naor, Einat Zchori-Fein, Lilach Iasur-Kruh, Ofir Bahar
BACKGROUND: Phytoplasma, the causative agent of bois-noir disease of grapevines, are vectored by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). A Dyella-like bacterium (DLB) isolated from H. obsoletus inhibits the growth of Spiroplasma melliferum, a cultivable relative of phytoplasma. Additional evidence suggests that DLB can reduce the symptoms of yellows disease in grapevine plantlets. The present aim was to test whether DLB could colonize a range of Phytoplasma- and Liberibacter-sensitive crop plants, and thus assess its potential agricultural use...
October 26, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071168/bacterial-community-of-a-spider-marpiss-magister-salticidae
#5
Lihua Zhang, Guimin Zhang, Yueli Yun, Yu Peng
Arthropods are associated with various microorganisms which confer benefits to their hosts. Recently, research has been conducted on bacterial communities of insects to provide an insight into the potential interactions of the symbiotic bacteria and their hosts. Spiders are interesting to study as they are perceived to be natural enemies of pests. The effect of endosymbionts on spiders has been reported, but little is known about the overall bacterial communities present in spiders. Here, we report on the characterization of bacterial communities present in the whole body of the spider Marpiss magister using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054873/the-enigmatic-genome-of-an-obligate-ancient-spiroplasma-symbiont-in-a-hadal-holothurian
#6
Li-Sheng He, Pei-Wei Zhang, Jiao-Mei Huang, Fang-Chao Zhu, Antoine Danchin, Yong Wang
Protective symbiosis has been reported in many organisms, but the molecular mechanisms of the mutualistic interactions between the symbionts and their host are unclear. Here, we sequenced the 424-Kbp genome of "Candidatus Spiroplasma holothuricola" that dominated the hindgut microbiome of a sea cucumber, a major scavenger captured in the Mariana trench (6140m depth). Phylogenetic relationships indicated that the dominant bacterium in the hindgut was derived from a basal group of Spiroplasma sp. In this organism, the genes responsible for biosynthesis of amino acids, glycolysis and sugar transporters were lost, strongly suggesting endosymbiosis...
October 20, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021316/maternally-transmitted-non-bacterial-male-killer-in-drosophila-biauraria
#7
Daisuke Kageyama, Kanamu Yoshimura, Takafumi N Sugimoto, Takehiro K Katoh, Masayoshi Watada
A maternally inherited, all-female trait is widely found among arthropods, which is caused by bacterial endosymbionts such as Wolbachia, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma and Cardinium We discovered a single female of Drosophila biauraria, collected from Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Japan, that produced all-female offspring. This all-female trait was maternally inherited in the iso-female line (SP12F) by backcrossing with males of a normal line (SP11-20) with a 1 : 1 sex ratio derived from the same population. The all-female trait was not affected by tetracycline treatment performed for two consecutive generations...
October 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987622/immune-responses-in-the-haemolymph-and-antimicrobial-peptide-expression-in-the-abdomen-of-apis-mellifera-challenged-with-spiroplasma-melliferum-ch-1
#8
Donghang Yang, Guodong Zha, Xia Li, Han Gao, Hanshou Yu
Spiroplasma melliferum generally parasitizes honeybees and is one of main pathogens causing 'bee creeping disease' in China. Spiroplasma melliferum can be spread through honeybee pollination, which causes severe economic losses to apiculture. The design of this study was based on previous studies that utilized an in vitro bioassay to investigate the effects of S. melliferum CH-1 infection. We identified invasive S. melliferum CH-1 within Apis mellifera using transmission electron microscopy and investigated the immune response of honeybees infected with S...
October 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935600/identification-and-function-analysis-of-ras-related-nuclear-protein-from-macrobrachium-rosenbergii-involved-in-spiroplasma-eriocheiris-infection
#9
Mingxiao Ning, Yunji Xiu, Meijun Yuan, Jingxiu Bi, Min Liu, Panpan Wei, Yuye Yan, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
A ras-related nuclear protein (Ran) protein was obtained from Macrobrachium rosenbergii, named MrRan. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that MrRan was clustered in one group together with other crustaceans. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that MrRan was expressed mainly in gill, intestine and stomach, and expressed weakly in muscle. The MrRan expression levels in gill and hemocyte of prawns were significantly up-regulated after challenged by Spiroplasma eriocheiris. The copy number of S. eriocheiris in MrRan dsRNA injection group was significantly less than control groups during infection...
September 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912320/complete-genome-sequence-of-spiroplasma-corruscae-ec-1-t-dsm-19793-a-bacterium-isolated-from-a-lampyrid-beetle-ellychnia-corrusca
#10
Yi-Ming Tsai, Wen-Sui Lo, Chih-Horng Kuo
Spiroplasma corruscae EC-1(T) (DSM 19793) was isolated from the gut of a lampryid beetle (Ellychnia corrusca) collected in Beltsville, MD, USA, in 1983. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology and the comparative genomics among Spiroplasma species.
September 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910375/application-of-droplet-digital-pcr-for-quantitative-detection-of-spiroplasma-citri-in-comparison-with-real-time-pcr
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yogita Maheshwari, Vijayanandraj Selvaraj, Subhas Hajeri, Raymond Yokomi
Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a method for performing digital PCR that is based on water-oil emulsion droplet technology. It is a unique approach to measure the absolute copy number of nucleic acid targets without the need of external standards. This study evaluated the applicability of ddPCR as a quantitative detection tool for the Spiroplasma citri, causal agent of citrus stubborn disease (CSD) in citrus. Two sets of primers, SP1, based on the spiral in housekeeping gene, and a multicopy prophage gene, SpV1 ORF1, were used to evaluate ddPCR in comparison with real time (quantitative) PCR (qPCR) for S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889064/spiroplasma-eriocheiris-induces-mouse-3t6-swiss-albino-cell-apoptosis-that-associated-with-the-infection-mechanism
#12
Libo Hou, Wei Gu, Huanxi Zhu, Wei Yao, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
Spiroplasma eriocheiris is a novel pathogen similar to the Spiroplasma mirum and also had an ability to infect the newborn mice and caused cataract. Our study was designed to study how S. eriocheiris infects mouse 3T6-Swiss albino cells and to elucidate the cellular molecular pathogenesis of Spiroplasma. FCM analysis and MTT analysis clearly shown that S. eriocheiris could induce 3T6 cell apoptosis and cause cell viability decreased seriously. Immunofluorescence experiments and TEM analysis shown that S. eriocheiris can invade 3T6 cells and form typical inclusion bodies and exhibit vacuolization in vitro...
November 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889017/mycoplasmas-brain-invaders
#13
REVIEW
Rubén S Rosales, Roberto Puleio, Guido R Loria, Salvatore Catania, Robin A J Nicholas
Mycoplasmas of humans and animals are usually associated with respiratory, autoimmune, genital and joint diseases. Human mycoplasmas have also been known to affect the brain. Severe central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as encephalitis, have been linked to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and ureaplasma infections. Less well known is the sheep and goat pathogen, Mycoplasma agalactiae, which has been found in large quantities in the brain where it may be responsible for non-purulent encephalitis as well as ataxia in young animals...
September 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881263/metagenetic-analysis-of-the-bacterial-communities-of-edible-insects-from-diverse-production-cycles-at-industrial-rearing-companies
#14
D Vandeweyer, S Crauwels, B Lievens, L Van Campenhout
Despite the continuing development of new insect-derived food products, microbial research on edible insects and insect-based foods is still very limited. The goal of this study was to increase the knowledge on the microbial quality of edible insects by comparing the bacterial community composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domesticus and Gryllodes sigillatus) from several production cycles and rearing companies. Remarkable differences in the bacterial community composition were found between different mealworm rearing companies and mealworm production cycles from the same company...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858364/shaping-helical-electrospun-filaments-a-review
#15
REVIEW
P E S Silva, F Vistulo de Abreu, M H Godinho
Nature abounds with helical filaments designed for specific tasks. For instance, some plants use tendrils to coil and attach to the surroundings, while Spiroplasma, a helical bacterium, moves by inverting the helical handedness along the filament axis. Therefore, developing methods to shape filaments on demand to exhibit a diversity of physical properties and shapes could be of interest to many fields, such as the textile industry, biomedicine or nanotechnology. Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique that allows the production of micro and nanofibres with many different helical shapes...
October 4, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792419/interaction-of-heat-shock-protein-60-hsp60-with-microrna-in-chinese-mitten-crab-during-spiroplasma-eriocheiris-infection
#16
Ming-Xiao Ning, Yun-Ji Xiu, Jing-Xiu Bi, Yu-Han Liu, Li-Bo Hou, Zheng-Feng Ding, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qing-Guo Meng
Heat shock protein 60 from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (EsHSP60) was previously identified in relation to Spiroplasma eriocheiris infection by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labelling followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In the present study, to validate the immune function of this protein, the cDNA of the EsHSP60 gene was cloned. Various crab tissues were assessed using real-time PCR, which showed that EsHSP60 transcription occurred in all tissues examined...
August 9, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763106/identification-of-proteome-antigen-protein-and-antigen-membrane-protein-from-spiroplasma-eriocheiris
#17
Y Liu, Y Xu, S Li, X Xu, Q Gao, M Yuan, W Gu, W Wang, Q Meng
Spiroplasma eriocheiris, which causes tremor disease in Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis, has led to huge economic losses in aquaculture. Immunoproteomics, a new scientific technique combining proteomics and immunological analytical methods, provided the direction of our research on S. eriocheiris. The aim of our study was to identify the proteome, antigen proteins and antigen membrane proteins of S. eriocheiris. A total of 780 S. eriocheiris proteins were identified by the LC-MS/MS technique. Based on immunoproteomics, 51 proteins and 7 proteins in S...
August 1, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734969/integrated-analysis-of-mrna-seq-in-the-haemocytes-of-eriocheir-sinensis-in-response-to-spiroplasma-eriocheiris-infection
#18
Yinghui Wang, Yunji Xiu, Keran Bi, Jiangtao Ou, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis is an important economic crustacean that has been exposed to various diseases. Spiroplasma eriocheiris, isolated from tremor-diseased E. sinensis, was first identified as a lethal pathogen of freshwater crustaceans. To understand the pathogenesis of S. eriocheiris to E. sinensis, the transcriptomic profiles of haemocytes in the experimental and control groups at 1 d and 7 d post-injection were obtained using Illumina HiSeq 2500. These results showed that 40,358,724, 44,462,112, 45,516,576 and 37,713,728 paired-end clean reads were obtained from the cDNA libraries of DZ1 (the control group at 1 d), DZ7 (the control group at 7 d), SY1 (the experimental group at 1 d) and SY7 (the experimental group at 7 d), respectively...
July 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698604/honeybee-apis-mellifera-associated-bacterial-community-affected-by-american-foulbrood-detection-of-paenibacillus-larvae-via-microbiome-analysis
#19
Tomas Erban, Ondrej Ledvinka, Martin Kamler, Marta Nesvorna, Bronislava Hortova, Jan Tyl, Dalibor Titera, Martin Markovic, Jan Hubert
Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) workers act as passive vectors of Paenibacillus larvae spores, which cause the quarantine disease American foulbrood (AFB). We assessed the relative proportions of P. larvae within the honeybee microbiome using metabarcoding analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene. The microbiome was analyzed in workers outside of the AFB zone (control - AFB0), in workers from asymptomatic colonies in an AFB apiary (AFB1), and in workers from colonies exhibiting clinical AFB symptoms (AFB2). The microbiome was processed for the entire community and for a cut-off microbiome comprising pathogenic/environmental bacteria following the removal of core bacterial sequences; varroosis levels were considered in the statistical analysis...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683136/generality-of-toxins-in-defensive-symbiosis-ribosome-inactivating-proteins-and-defense-against-parasitic-wasps-in-drosophila
#20
Matthew J Ballinger, Steve J Perlman
While it has become increasingly clear that multicellular organisms often harbor microbial symbionts that protect their hosts against natural enemies, the mechanistic underpinnings underlying most defensive symbioses are largely unknown. Spiroplasma bacteria are widespread associates of terrestrial arthropods, and include strains that protect diverse Drosophila flies against parasitic wasps and nematodes. Recent work implicated a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) encoded by Spiroplasma, and related to Shiga-like toxins in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, in defense against a virulent parasitic nematode in the woodland fly, Drosophila neotestacea...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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