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Nonverbal learning disorder

E Vaucheret Paz, A López Ballent, C Puga, M J García Basalo, F Baliarda, C Ekonen, R Ilari, G Agosta
INTRODUCTION: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common neurocutaneous syndrome often associated with specific cognitive deficits that are rarely monitored during follow-up of these patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study is two-fold. First, we aimed to describe the cognitive profile of patients with NF1 and detect disorders in higher brain functions associated with the disease. Second, we identified the reasons for consultation associated with school performance in these patients...
April 18, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Simona Raimo, Luigi Trojano, Simona Pappacena, Raffaella Alaia, Daniele Spitaleri, Dario Grossi, Gabriella Santangelo
BACKGROUND: Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to understand and interpret another person's beliefs, intentions (cognitive ToM) and emotions (affective ToM). OBJECTIVE: To explore affective and cognitive ToM and their neuropsychological correlates in patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Forty MS patients and 40 matched control individuals underwent tasks assessing cognitive (the ToM Pictures Sequencing Task and the Advanced Test of ToM) and affective ToM (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task and the Emotion Attribution Task), in both verbal and nonverbal modality, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, and questionnaires for behavioral disorders...
April 13, 2017: Neuropsychology
Gary E Martin, Jamie Barstein, Jane Hornickel, Sara Matherly, Genna Durante, Molly Losh
The ability to indicate a failure to understand a message is a critical pragmatic (social) language skill for managing communication breakdowns and supporting successful communicative exchanges. The current study examined the ability to signal noncomprehension across different types of confusing message conditions in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (FXS), Down syndrome (DS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typical development (TD). Controlling for nonverbal mental age and receptive vocabulary skills, youth with comorbid FXS and ASD and those with DS were less likely than TD controls to signal noncomprehension of confusing messages...
January 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
Robert Keder, Robert Sege, Peter C Raffalli, Marilyn Augustyn
Aiden, a 13-year-old boy in the sixth grade who is relatively new to your practice, is seen for follow-up after his routine physical last month when you noted concerns for possible attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and gave the family Vanderbilt Scales to complete. Aiden has a family history of ADHD, specific learning disabilities, and mood disorder.His mother reports that she is concerned about how Aiden is doing at school; his teachers are complaining that he is not doing his work, and she is worried that he may be kept back in school...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Stacy S Manwaring, Danielle L Mead, Lauren Swineford, Audrey Thurm
BACKGROUND: Nonverbal communication abilities, including gesture use, are impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little is known about how common gestures may influence or be influenced by other areas of development. AIMS: To examine the relationships between gesture, fine motor and language in young children with ASD compared with a comparison group using multiple measures and methods in a structural equation modelling framework. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Participants included 110 children with ASD and a non-ASD comparison group of 87 children (that included children with developmental delays (DD) or typical development (TD)), from 12 to 48 months of age...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
I-Jui Lee, Chien-Hsu Chen, Ling-Yi Lin
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by a reduced ability to understand the emotional expressions on other people's faces. Increasing evidence indicates that children with ASD might not recognize or understand crucial nonverbal behaviors, which likely causes them to ignore nonverbal gestures and social cues, like facial expressions, that usually aid social interaction. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we used software technology to create half-static and dynamic video materials to teach adolescents with ASD how to become aware of six basic facial expressions observed in real situations...
2016: SpringerPlus
Isabelle Rapin
Dyscalculia, like dyslexia, affects some 5% of school-age children but has received much less investigative attention. In two thirds of affected children, dyscalculia is associated with another developmental disorder like dyslexia, attention-deficit disorder, anxiety disorder, visual and spatial disorder, or cultural deprivation. Infants, primates, some birds, and other animals are born with the innate ability, called subitizing, to tell at a glance whether small sets of scattered dots or other items differ by one or more item...
August 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Jamie L Metsala, Tanya M Galway, Galit Ishaik, Veronica E Barton
Nonverbal learning disability is a childhood disorder with basic neuropsychological deficits in visuospatial processing and psychomotor coordination, and secondary impairments in academic and social-emotional functioning. This study examines emotion recognition, understanding, and regulation in a clinic-referred group of young children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD). These processes have been shown to be related to social competence and psychological adjustment in typically developing (TD) children...
July 28, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Jody-Lynn Berg, Natasha M Swan, Sarah J Banks, Justin B Miller
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive set shifting requires flexible application of lower level processes. The Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DKEFS) Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT) is commonly used to clinically assess cognitive set shifting. An atypical pattern of performance has been observed on the CWIT; a subset of individuals perform faster, with equal or fewer errors, on the more difficult inhibition/switching than the inhibition trial. This study seeks to explore the cognitive underpinnings of this atypical pattern...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Carrie E Bearden, Gerhard S Hellemann, Tena Rosser, Caroline Montojo, Rachel Jonas, Nicole Enrique, Laura Pacheco, Shaun A Hussain, Joyce Y Wu, Jennifer S Ho, James J McGough, Catherine A Sugar, Alcino J Silva
OBJECTIVE: Lovastatin has been shown to reverse learning deficits in a mouse model of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1), a common monogenic disorder caused by a mutation in the Ras-MAPK pathway and associated with learning disabilities. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess lovastatin's effects on cognition and behavior in patients with NF1. METHOD: Forty-four NF1 patients (mean age 25.7+/-11.6 years; 64% female) were randomly assigned to 14 weeks of lovastatin (N = 23; maximum dose of 80 mg/day for adult participants and 40 mg/day for children) or placebo (N = 21)...
April 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Erin E McDermott, Jennifer L Smart, Julie A Boiano, Lisa E Bragg, Tiffany N Colon, Elizabeth M Hanson, Diana C Emanuel, Andrea S Kelly
BACKGROUND: Large discrepancies exist in the literature regarding definition, diagnostic criteria, and appropriate assessment for auditory processing disorder (APD). Therefore, a battery of tests with normative data is needed. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to collect normative data on a variety of tests for APD on children aged 7-12 yr, and to examine effects of outside factors on test performance. RESEARCH DESIGN: Children aged 7-12 yr with normal hearing, speech and language abilities, cognition, and attention were recruited for participation in this normative data collection...
February 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Stephen J Blumberg, Benjamin Zablotsky, Rosa M Avila, Lisa J Colpe, Beverly A Pringle, Michael D Kogan
Autism spectrum disorder diagnoses sometimes change due to misdiagnosis, maturation, or treatment. This study uses a probability-based national survey-the Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services-to compare currently diagnosed (n = 1420) and previously diagnosed (n = 187) children aged 6-17 years based on retrospective parental reports of early concerns about their children's development, responses to those concerns by doctors and other healthcare providers, the type of provider who made the first autism spectrum disorder diagnosis, and the autism spectrum disorder subtype diagnoses received (if any)...
October 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Meghan Miller, Ana-Maria Iosif, Gregory S Young, Monique Hill, Elise Phelps Hanzel, Ted Hutman, Scott Johnson, Sally Ozonoff
Studies of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proliferated, but few of these samples have been followed longer-term. We conducted a follow-up study, at age 5.5-9 years, of younger siblings of children with ASD (high-risk group, n = 79) or typical development (low-risk group, n = 60), originally recruited as infants. Children with ASD were excluded because of the focus on understanding the range of non-ASD outcomes among high-risk siblings. Using examiner ratings, parent ratings, and standardized assessments, we evaluated differences in clinical outcomes, psychopathology symptoms, autism symptoms, language skills, and nonverbal cognitive abilities...
June 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Courtney E Venker, Daniel M Bolt, Allison Meyer, Heidi Sindberg, Susan Ellis Weismer, Helen Tager-Flusberg
PURPOSE: There is considerable controversy regarding whether to use telegraphic or grammatical input when speaking to young children with language delays, including children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined telegraphic speech use in parents of preschoolers with ASD and associations with children's spoken language 1 year later. METHOD: Parent-child dyads (n = 55) participated when children were, on average, 3 (Time 1) and 4 years old (Time 2)...
December 2015: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Chiara Luoni, Umberto Balottin, Laura Rosana, Enrico Savelli, Silvia Salini, Cristiano Termine
BACKGROUND: Confrontation naming tasks are useful in the assessment of children with learning and language disorders. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were (1) providing longitudinal data on confrontation naming; (2) investigating the role of socioeconomic status (SES), intelligence, age, and gender in confrontation naming; (3) identifying relationship between confrontation naming and reading abilities (fluency, accuracy, and comprehension). METHOD: A five-year longitudinal investigation of confrontation naming (i...
2015: Behavioural Neurology
Carole Samango-Sprouse, Colleen Keen, Francie Mitchell, Teresa Sadeghin, Andrea Gropman
Fourty eight, XXXX is a rare chromosomal aneuploidy associated with neurocognitive deficits, speech and language disorders and executive dysfunction but the scarcity and variability of reported cases limit our understanding of the 48, XXXX phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the neurodevelopmental profile of three young females with 48, XXXX. Patient 1 (age = 11.0), Patient 2 (age = 10.9), and Patient 3 (age = 6.4) were evaluated using comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessments...
October 2015: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Pamela Rosenthal Rollins, Michelle Campbell, Renee Thibodeau Hoffman, Kayli Self
This study examined Pathways Early Autism Intervention, a community-based, parent-mediated, intensive behavioral and developmental intervention program for children with autism spectrum disorders that could be used as a model for state-funded early intervention programs. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, across-participants design was used. Four boys with autism spectrum disorder and their mothers participated. Interventionists made weekly home visits and worked with caregivers to establish and maintain face-to-face reciprocal social interaction and eye contact...
February 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Jessie Ricketts, Julie E Dockrell, Nita Patel, Tony Charman, Geoff Lindsay
This experiment investigated whether children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and typically developing children benefit from the incidental presence of orthography when learning new oral vocabulary items. Children with SLI, children with ASD, and typically developing children (n=27 per group) between 8 and 13 years of age were matched in triplets for age and nonverbal reasoning. Participants were taught 12 mappings between novel phonological strings and referents; half of these mappings were trained with orthography present and half were trained with orthography absent...
June 2015: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Jodene Goldenring Fine, Jesse Bledsoe
Social perception is an important underlying foundation for emotional development and overall adaptation. The majority of studies with children with High Functioning Autism (HFA) or nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) evaluating social functioning have used measures of parent and/or teacher ratings. The present study utilized parent and teacher ratings of behavior as well as executive functioning in addition to direct measures of social perception. Three groups participated in this study (control [n = 38] HFA [n = 36], NLD [n = 31])...
2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
David P Benjamin, Andrea S McDuffie, Angela J Thurman, Sara T Kover, Ann M Mastergeorge, Randi J Hagerman, Leonard Abbeduto
PURPOSE: This study examined use of a speaker's direction of gaze during word learning by boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), boys with nonsyndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typically developing (TD) boys. METHOD: A fast-mapping task with follow-in and discrepant labeling conditions was administered. We expected that the use of speaker gaze would lead to participants selecting as the referent of the novel label the object to which they attended in follow-in trials and the object to which the examiner attended in the discrepant labeling trials...
April 2015: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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