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Atrial fibrillation and remodeling

Dominik Linz, R Doug McEvoy, Martin R Cowie, Virend K Somers, Stanley Nattel, Patrick Lévy, Jonathan M Kalman, Prashanthan Sanders
Importance: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common clinically significant breathing abnormality during sleep. It is highly prevalent among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and it promotes arrhythmogenesis and impairs treatment efficacy. Observations: The prevalence of OSA ranges from 3% to 49% in population-based studies and from 21% to 74% in patients with AF. Diagnosis and treatment of OSA in patients with AF requires a close interdisciplinary collaboration between electrophysiologists, cardiologists, and sleep specialists...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Juan Xu, Haiqing Wu, Songwen Chen, Baozhen Qi, Genqing Zhou, Lidong Cai, Liqun Zhao, Yong Wei, Shaowen Liu
Atrial fibrosis serves as an important contributor to atrial fibrillation (AF). Recent data have suggested that microRNA-30c (miR-30c) is involved in fibrotic remodelling and cancer development, but the specific role of miR-30c in atrial fibrosis remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of miR-30c in atrial fibrosis and its underlying mechanisms through in vivo and in vitro experiments. Our results indicate that miR-30c is significantly down-regulated in the rat abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) model and in the cellular model of fibrosis induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Fabian Plank, Christoph Beyer, Guy Friedrich, Markus Stühlinger, Florian Hintringer, Wolfgang Dichtl, Matthias Wildauer, Gudrun Feuchtner
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are associated with increased vascular calcification which may lead to an elevated cardiovascular risk. If the direct anticoagulants (DOACs) have similar negative vascular effects is unknown. We evaluated the influence of different anticoagulation strategies on coronary artery disease (CAD) using coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: Overall 702 consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent CTA for AF ablation planning were enrolled and stratified according to their anticoagulation into VKA, DOAC (all agents) and a control group without oral anticoagulation...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Yu Ki Iwasaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Carlee D Ruediger, Bobby John, Sathesh Kumar, Han S Lim, Geetanjali Rangnekar, Kurt C Roberts-Thomson, Glenn D Young, David Chase, Prashanthan Sanders, Scott R Willoughby
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that ethnicity can make a significant difference to the likelihood of thromboembolic stroke related to atrial fibrillation. Ethnic differences have been shown to alter inflammatory and haemostatic factors; however, this may all be confounded by differences in cardiovascular risk factors between different ethnicity. The impact of different ethnicities on the thrombogenic profile is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in markers of inflammation, endothelial function and tissue remodelling between Caucasian and Indian populations with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)...
January 2018: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
Z D Kobalava, E V Kokhan, G K Kiyakbaev, A A Shavarov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Kardiologiia
Luisa Jungk, Heike Franke, Aida Salameh, Stefan Dhein
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common chronic arrhythmia in elderly people and is accompanied by remodeling processes. While much is known about changes in ionic channels and in extracellular matrix, less is known about possible changes of intracellular structures. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to investigate, whether AF may also affect the structure of the Golgi apparatus and the microtubular network. METHODS: One-hundred fifty-three cardiac surgery patients were investigated [ n = 24 in sinus rhythm (SR) and n = 129 with chronic AF of >1 year duration]...
February 20, 2018: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
María Cristina Saccheri, Tomás Francisco Cianciulli, Wilde Challapa Licidio, Jorge A Lax, Martín A Beck, Luis A Morita, Juan A Gagliardi
BACKGROUND: Fabry disease (FD) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are two diseases with a different pathophysiology, both cause left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and myocardial fibrosis. Although remodeling and systolic dysfunction of the left atrium (LA) are associated with atrial fibrillation and stroke in HCM, changes in the size and function of the LA have not been well studied in FD with LVH. METHODS: The following groups were studied prospectively, and their respective findings compared: 19 patients with non-obstructive HCM (Group I), 20 patients with a diagnosis of Fabry cardiomyopathy (Group II), and 20 normal subjects matched for sex and age (Group III)...
February 19, 2018: Echocardiography
Bernard Iung, Antoine Leenhardt, Fabrice Extramiana
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is frequent in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS). Pressure overload leads to marked structural and electrical remodelling of left atrium. The frequency of persistent AF increases with age and paroxysmal, asymptomatic, AF seems even more frequent. The occurrence of AF worsens the haemodynamic tolerance of MS and markedly increases the risk of thromboembolic events. AF has a negative impact on the natural history of MS and on its outcome after commissurotomy. The respective indications of rhythm and rate control should be adapted to patient characteristics, particularly the consequences of MS, and take into account the high risk of recurrence of AF...
February 16, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Masashi Kamioka, Naoko Hijioka, Yoshiyuki Matsumoto, Minoru Nodera, Takashi Kaneshiro, Hitoshi Suzuki, Yasuchika Takeishi
BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) on left atrial (LA) remodeling and clinical outcome after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: One hundred and one symptomatic paroxysmal AF patients (85 males, 62.2±8.4 year-old) who underwent successful PVI were classified as follows: group 1 (n = 46), no hypertension (HTN); group 2 (n = 36), HTN with controlled BP; and group 3 (n = 19), HTN with uncontrolled BP...
February 15, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Jinqiu Wei, Yujiao Zhang, Zhan Li, Ximin Wang, Linlin Chen, Juanjuan Du, Jing Liu, Ju Liu, Yinglong Hou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiac autonomic nerve remodeling (ANR) is an important mechanism of atrial fibrillation (AF).GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH-1), encoded by GCH1, is the rate-limiting enzyme in de novosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Previous studies reported that increased BH4 and NO content negatively regulated nerve regeneration. This study investigated effects of GCH1on ANR via BH4 pathway, regulated by microRNA-206 (miR-206)...
February 13, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Dominik Linz, Mathias Hohl, Adrian D Elliott, Dennis H Lau, Felix Mahfoud, Murray D Esler, Prashanthan Sanders, Michael Böhm
Renal afferent and efferent sympathetic nerves are involved in the regulation of blood pressure and have a pathophysiological role in hypertension. Additionally, several conditions that frequently coexist with hypertension, such as heart failure, obstructive sleep apnea, atrial fibrillation, renal dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome, demonstrate enhanced sympathetic activity. Renal denervation (RDN) is an approach to reduce renal and whole body sympathetic activation. Experimental models indicate that RDN has the potential to lower blood pressure and prevent cardio-renal remodeling in chronic diseases associated with enhanced sympathetic activation...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Lilei Yu, Guannan Meng, Bing Huang, Xiaoya Zhou, Stavros Stavrakis, Menglong Wang, Xuefei Li, Liping Zhou, Yuhong Wang, Meng Wang, Zhenya Wang, Jielin Deng, Sunny S Po, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates gut microbes and their products could activate the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which plays important roles in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite derived from gut microbes, is associated with cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the role of TMAO in the progression of AF. METHODS: In part 1: TMAO or saline was locally injected into 4 major atrial ganglionated plexi (GP) to clarify its effect on cardiac ANS and AF inducibility in normal canines...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Bente Morseth, Maja-Lisa Løchen, Inger Ariansen, Marius Myrstad, Dag S Thelle
Although commonly associated with cardiovascular disease or other medical conditions, atrial fibrillation may also occur in individuals without any known underlying conditions. This manifestation of atrial fibrillation has been linked to extensive and long-term exercise, as prolonged endurance exercise has shown to increase prevalence and risk of atrial fibrillation. In contrast, more modest physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of atrial fibrillation, and current research indicates a J-shaped association between atrial fibrillation and the broad range of physical activity and exercise...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
K Terziyski, A Draganova
Characterized by periodic crescendo-decrescendo pattern of breathing alternating with central apneas, Central sleep apnea (CSA) with Cheyne-Stokes Breathing represents a highly prevalent, yet underdiagnosed comorbidity in chronic heart failure (CHF). A diverse body of evidence demonstrates increased morbidity and mortality in the presence of CSB. CSB has been described in both CHF patients with preserved and reduced ejection fraction, regardless of drug treatment. Risk factors for CSB are older age, male gender, high BMI, atrial fibrillation and hypocapnia...
February 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xin Cao, Megumi Aimoto, Marie Fukumoto, Yoshinobu Nagasawa, Hikaru Tanaka, Akira Takahara
Whereas molecular mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF) have been widely investigated, there is limited information regarding interrelation between chronic volume overload and parasympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of AF. In this study, we investigated the influence of abdominal aorto-venocaval shunt (AVS)-induced atrial remodeling on electrophysiological responses to cholinergic receptor stimulation in the isolated rat atria. Interstitial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and atrial enlargement, known as structural arrhythmogenic substrates for AF, took place after one month of AVS operation...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Adam Wojtaszczyk, Guido Caluori, Martin Pešl, Katarina Melajova, Zdeněk Stárek
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most important problems in modern cardiology. Thermal ablation therapies, especially radiofrequency ablation (RF), are currently "gold standard" to treat symptomatic AF by localized tissue necrosis. Despite the improvements in reestablishing sinus rhythm using available methods, both success rate and safety are limited by the thermal nature of procedures. Thus, while keeping the technique in clinical practice, safer and more versatile methods of removing abnormal tissue are being investigated...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Alexander Klesen, Dorothee Jakob, Ramona Emig, Peter Kohl, Ursula Ravens, Rémi Peyronnet
Fibrotic areas in cardiac muscle-be it in ventricular or atrial tissue-are considered as obstacles for conduction of the excitatory wave and can therefore facilitate re-entry, which may contribute to the sustenance of cardiac arrhythmias. Persistence of one of the most frequent arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation (AF), is accompanied by enhanced atrial fibrosis. Any kind of myocardial perturbation, whether via mechanical stress or ischemic damage, inflammation, or irregular and high-frequency electrical activity, activates fibroblasts...
February 1, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
Weiding Wang, Kai Zhang, Xiongfeng Li, Zuowang Ma, Yue Zhang, Meng Yuan, Ya Suo, Xue Liang, Gary Tse, Christos A Goudis, Tong Liu, Guangping Li
INTRODUCTION: Atrial structural remodeling in the form of fibrosis contributes to the arrhythmic substrate in atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of doxycycline on chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced atrial fibrosis and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying such changes. METHODS: A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: Control group, CIH group, CIH with doxycycline treatment (CIH-D) group...
January 29, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Xuewen Wang, Guangping Li
INTRODUCTION: Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in atrial electrical remodeling (AER). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of irbesartan on cardiac sodium current (INa) in a canine model of atrial fibrillation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen dogs were randomized into sham, pacing or pacing+irbesartan groups ( n = 6 in each group). The dogs in the pacing and irbesartan group were paced at 500 bpm for two weeks...
January 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
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