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Atrial fibrillation and remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641397/myocardial-scar-location-as-detected-by-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-is-associated-with-the-outcome-in-heart-failure-patients-undergoing-surgical-ventricular-reconstruction
#1
Serenella Castelvecchio, Giulia Careri, Federico Ambrogi, Antonia Camporeale, Lorenzo Menicanti, Francesco Secchi, Massimo Lombardi
OBJECTIVES: Post-infarction myocardial scar causes adverse left ventricular remodelling and negatively affects the prognosis. We sought to investigate whether scar extent and location obtained by cardiac magnetic resonance may affect the reverse remodelling and survival of heart failure patients undergoing surgical ventricular reconstruction. METHODS: From January 2011 to December 2015, 151 consecutive patients with previous myocardial infarction and left ventricular remodelling underwent surgical ventricular reconstruction at our Institution, of which 88 (58%) patients had a preoperative protocol-standardized late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)-cardiac magnetic resonance examination during the week before surgery...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639752/eosinophils-in-patients-with-lone-atrial-fibrillation
#2
Peng Chen, Junzhu Chen, Xudong Xie, Junhui Zhu, Liang Xia
BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been evidenced as a critical contributable mechanism for the atrial fibrillation (AF) onset and development. As the consistent inflammatory and oxidative marker, the effects of white blood cell (WBC) and its differential on lone atrial fibrillation (LAF) were investigated in the study. METHODS: 126 patients with paroxysmal LAF who scheduled for rhythm control drug therapy and 120 age- and gender-matched subjects in sinus rhythm were included sequentially...
June 22, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639003/the-crucial-role-of-activin-a-alk4-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-ang-ii-induced-atrial-fibrosis-and-vulnerability-to-atrial-fibrillation
#3
Qian Wang, Ying Yu, Pengpai Zhang, Yihe Chen, Changyi Li, Jie Chen, Yuepeng Wang, Yigang Li
Atrial fibrosis, the hallmark of structural remodeling associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), is characterized by abnormal proliferation of atrial fibroblasts and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5)/Smad2/3/4 pathway has been reported to be involved in the process. Recent studies have implicated both activin A and its specific downstream component activin receptor-like kinase 4 (ALK4) in stimulating fibrosis in non-cardiac organs...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631077/noninvasive-evaluation-of-reverse-atrial-remodeling-after-catheter-ablation-of-atrial-fibrillation-by-p-wave-dispersion
#4
Yuhi Fujimoto, Kenji Yodogawa, Kenta Takahashi, Ippei Tsuboi, Hiroshi Hayashi, Shunsuke Uetake, Yu-Ki Iwasaki, Meiso Hayashi, Yasushi Miyauchi, Wataru Shimizu
Atrial fibrillation (AF) itself creates structural and electrophysiological changes such as atrial enlargement, shortening of refractory period and decrease in conduction velocity, called "atrial remodeling", promoting its persistence. Although the remodeling process is considered to be reversible, it has not been elucidated in detail. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of P wave dispersion in the assessment of reverse atrial remodeling following catheter ablation of AF. Consecutive 126 patients (88 males, age 63...
June 19, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629772/impact-of-the-cardiovascular-system-associated-adipose-tissue-on-atherosclerotic-pathology
#5
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Andrey V Grechko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances...
June 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606607/state-of-the-art-review-atrial-fibrillation-in-athletes
#6
REVIEW
M Darragh Flannery, Jonathan M Kalman, Prashanthan Sanders, André La Gerche
Exercise has substantial health benefits with pleomorphic vascular, metabolic, psychological and anti-neoplastic actions resulting in improved quality of life and longevity. Despite these many benefits, numerous studies have shown that endurance athletes are more likely to develop atrial fibrillation (AF) than non-athletes. The type, intensity and amount of sport appears to influence the risk of developing AF. Several endurance sport activities have been shown to increase the risk of developing AF but an excess in AF has not been shown in non-endurance sports...
June 3, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602671/atrial-fibrillation-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#7
REVIEW
Kaivan Vaidya, Christopher Semsarian, Kim H Chan
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited cardiac disorder with a spectrum of clinical manifestations. Patients with HCM are predisposed to developing atrial fibrillation (AF) due primarily to advanced diastolic dysfunction and left atrial (LA) dilatation and remodelling. Atrial fibrillation causes a progressive symptomatic and functional decline, as well as increased thromboembolic risk and mortality, particularly in the setting of rapid ventricular rates and left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction...
May 23, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596994/recurrent-post-ablation-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-shares-substrates-with-persistent-atrial-fibrillation-an-11-center-study
#8
Junaid A B Zaman, Tina Baykaner, Paul Clopton, Vijay Swarup, Robert C Kowal, James P Daubert, John D Day, John Hummel, Amir A Schricker, David E Krummen, Moussa Mansour, Gery F Tomassoni, Kevin R Wheelan, Mohan Vishwanathan, Shirley Park, Paul J Wang, Sanjiv M Narayan, John M Miller
INTRODUCTION: The role of atrial fibrillation (AF) substrates is unclear in patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF) that recurs after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). We hypothesized that patients with recurrent post-ablation (redo) PAF despite PVI have electrical substrates marked by rotors and focal sources, and structural substrates that resemble persistent AF more than patients with (de novo) PAF at first ablation. METHODS: In 175 patients at 11 centers, we compared AF substrates in both atria using 64 pole-basket catheters and phase mapping, and indices of anatomical remodeling between patients with de novo or redo PAF and first ablation for persistent AF...
April 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592962/how-to-detect-atrial-fibrosis
#9
REVIEW
Juan Lacalzada-Almeida, Javier García-Niebla
In the last twenty years, new imaging techniques to assess atrial function and to predict the risk of recurrence of atrial fibrillation after treatment have been developed. The present review deals with the role of these techniques in the detection of structural and functional changes of the atrium and diagnosis of atrial remodeling, particularly atrial fibrosis. Echocardiography allows the detection of anatomical, functional changes and deformation of the atrial wall during the phases of the cardiac cycle...
March 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588491/therapeutic-effects-of-breviscapine-in-cardiovascular-diseases-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Jialiang Gao, Guang Chen, Haoqiang He, Chao Liu, Xingjiang Xiong, Jun Li, Jie Wang
Breviscapine is a crude extract of several flavonoids of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz., containing more than 85% of scutellarin, which has been traditionally used in China as an activating blood circulation medicine to improve cerebral blood supply. Accumulating evidence from various in vivo and in vitro studies has shown that breviscapine exerts a broad range of cardiovascular pharmacological effects, including vasodilation, protection against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R), anti-inflammation, anticoagulation, antithrombosis, endothelial protection, myocardial protection, reduction of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, anticardiac remodeling, antiarrhythmia, blood lipid reduction, and improvement of erectile dysfunction...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587741/plasma-level-of-big-endothelin-1-predicts-the-prognosis-in-patients-with-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#11
Yilu Wang, Yida Tang, Yubao Zou, Dong Wang, Ling Zhu, Tao Tian, Jizheng Wang, Jingru Bao, Rutai Hui, Lianming Kang, Lei Song, Ji Wang
BACKGROUND: Cardiac remodeling is one of major pathological process in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Endothelin-1 has been linked to cardiac remodeling. Big endothelin-1 is the precursor of endothelin-1. METHODS: A total of 245 patients with HCM were enrolled from 1999 to 2011 and partitioned to low, middle and high level groups according to their plasma big endothelin-1 levels. RESULTS: At baseline, significant associations were found between high level of big endothelin-1 and left atrium size, heart function and atrial fibrillation...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578429/a-potential-role-of-esophageal-cancer-related-gene-4-for-atrial-fibrillation
#12
Li Huang, Hua Yu, Xinrong Fan, Xue Li, Liang Mao, Jun Cheng, Xiaorong Zeng, Xitong Dang
Epidemiological studies have shown a strong correlation between tumor and AF. However, the molecular link between tumor and AF remains unknown. ECRG4, a tumor suppressor gene that is expressed in the A-V node and in sporadic ventricular myocytes, inhibits tumorigenesis and monitors tissue homeostasis by functioning as a 'sentinel' molecule gauging inflammatory and cell proliferative responses. To explore the potential physiological function of Ecrg4 in heart, we evaluated its distribution in heart, analyzed its expression in patients with persistent AF and in a canine AF model, and dissected the molecular events downstream of Ecrg4...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576589/early-changes-in-atrial-conduction-times-in-hypertensive-patients-with-elevated-pulse-pressure
#13
Tolga Çimen, Hamza Sunman, Tolga Han Efe, Ahmet Akyel, Kadriye Yayla, Haluk Furkan Şahan, Murat Bilgin, Lale Dinç Asarcıklı, Ali Nallbani, Mehmet Doğan, Sadık Açıkel, Ekrem Yeter
OBJECTIVE: Pulse pressure (PP) is the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and is an independent predictor of atrial fibrillation (AF). In this study we investigated the relationship between PP and atrial conduction times. METHODS: The study included 157 patients with essential hypertension. PP of 60 mmHg or more was regarded as elevated (n=56). Atrial electromechanical delay (EMD) was assessed with tissue Doppler echocardiography and P-wave dispersion (Pd) was calculated from the electrocardiogram...
May 30, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546098/altered-long-non-coding-rna-expression-profile-in-rabbit-atria-with-atrial-fibrillation-tcons_00075467-modulates-atrial-electrical-remodeling-by-sponging-mir-328-to-regulate-cacna1c
#14
Zhan Li, Ximin Wang, Weizong Wang, Juanjuan Du, Jinqiu Wei, Yong Zhang, Jiangrong Wang, Yinglong Hou
Electrical remodeling has been reported to play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been increasingly recognized as contributors to the pathology of heart diseases. However, the roles and mechanisms of lncRNAs in electrical remodeling during AF remain unknown. In this study, the lncRNA expression profiles of right atria were investigated in AF and non-AF rabbit models by using RNA sequencing technique and validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546006/atrial-myofibroblast-activation-and-connective-tissue-formation-in-a-porcine-model-of-atrial-fibrillation-and-reduced-left-ventricular-function
#15
Patrick Lugenbiel, Fabian Wenz, Katharina Govorov, Pascal Syren, Hugo A Katus, Dierk Thomas
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with fibrosis that slows electrical conduction and causes perpetuation of the arrhythmia. The molecular characterization of AF pathophysiology may provide novel therapeutic options. This study was designed to elucidate profibrotic signaling and myofibroblast activation in a porcine model of atrial tachypacing-induced AF and reduced left ventricular function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten domestic pigs were randomized to sinus rhythm (SR) or AF groups...
July 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534025/atrial-fibrillation-dynamics-and-ionic-block-effects-in-six-heterogeneous-human-3d-virtual-atria-with-distinct-repolarization-dynamics
#16
Carlos Sánchez, Alfonso Bueno-Orovio, Esther Pueyo, Blanca Rodríguez
Atrial fibrillation (AF) usually manifests as reentrant circuits propagating through the whole atria creating chaotic activation patterns. Little is yet known about how differences in electrophysiological and ionic properties between patients modulate reentrant patterns in AF. The goal of this study is to quantify how variability in action potential duration (APD) at different stages of repolarization determines AF dynamics and their modulation by ionic block using a set of virtual whole-atria human models...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526353/stretch-activated-two-pore-domain-k2p-potassium-channels-in-the-heart-focus-on-atrial-fibrillation-and-heart-failure
#17
Constanze Schmidt, Felix Wiedmann, Stefan M Kallenberger, Antonius Ratte, Jan S Schulte, Beatrix Scholz, Frank Ulrich Müller, Niels Voigt, Maria-Patapia Zafeiriou, Joachim R Ehrlich, Ursula Tochtermann, Gábor Veres, Arjang Ruhparwar, Matthias Karck, Hugo A Katus, Dierk Thomas
Two-pore-domain potassium (K2P) channels modulate cellular excitability. The significance of stretch-activated cardiac K2P channels (K2P2.1, TREK-1, KCNK2; K2P4.1, TRAAK, KCNK4; K2P10.1, TREK-2, KCNK10) in heart disease has not been elucidated in detail. The aim of this work was to assess expression and remodeling of mechanosensitive K2P channels in atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) patients in comparison to murine models. Cardiac K2P channel levels were quantified in atrial (A) and ventricular (V) tissue obtained from patients undergoing open heart surgery...
May 16, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525549/the-change-in-circulating-galectin-3-predicts-absence-of-atrial-fibrillation-after-thoracoscopic-surgical-ablation
#18
Wouter R Berger, Benoît Jagu, Nicoline W E van den Berg, Dean R P P Chan Pin Yin, Jan P van Straalen, Onno J de Boer, Antoine H G Driessen, Jolien Neefs, Sébastien P J Krul, WimJan P van Boven, Allard C van der Wal, Joris R de Groot
Aims: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is an important mediator of cardiac fibrosis, particularly in heart failure. Increased Gal-3 concentration (Gal-3), associated with increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF), may reflect atrial fibrotic remodelling underlying AF progression. We aimed to investigate whether the change in serum Gal-3 reflects alterations of the arrhythmogenic atrial substrate following thoracoscopic AF surgery, and predicts absence of AF. Methods and results: Consecutive patients undergoing thoracoscopic AF surgery were included...
May 19, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515003/reverse-atrial-electrical-remodeling-induced-by-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy
#19
Bryce Alexander, Fariha Sadiq, Kousha Azimi, Benedict Glover, Pavel Antiperovitch, Wilma M Hopman, Zardasht Jaff, Adrian Baranchuk
PURPOSE: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to improve left atrial function; however the effect on reverse electrical remodeling has been poorly evaluated. We hypothesized that CRT might induce reverse atrial electrical remodeling manifesting in the surface ECG as a shortening in P-wave duration. METHODS: Patients with CRT and more than 92% biventricular pacing at minimum follow-up of 1 year were included in the analysis. Those with prior history of atrial fibrillation (AF) were excluded...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510575/electro-mechanical-dynamics-of-spiral-waves-in-a-discrete-2d-model-of-human-atrial-tissue
#20
Paul Brocklehurst, Haibo Ni, Henggui Zhang, Jianqiao Ye
We investigate the effect of mechano-electrical feedback and atrial fibrillation induced electrical remodelling (AFER) of cellular ion channel properties on the dynamics of spiral waves in a discrete 2D model of human atrial tissue. The tissue electro-mechanics are modelled using the discrete element method (DEM). Millions of bonded DEM particles form a network of coupled atrial cells representing 2D cardiac tissue, allowing simulations of the dynamic behaviour of electrical excitation waves and mechanical contraction in the tissue...
2017: PloS One
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