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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793095/sex-hormones-affect-acute-and-chronic-stress-responses-in-sexually-dimorphic-patterns-consequences-for-depression-models
#1
Lei Guo, Yi-Xi Chen, Yu-Ting Hu, Xue-Yan Wu, Yang He, Juan-Li Wu, Man-Li Huang, Matthew Mason, Ai-Min Bao
BACKGROUND: Alterations in peripheral sex hormones may play an important role in sex differences in terms of stress responses and mood disorders. It is not yet known whether and how stress-related brain systems and brain sex steroid levels fluctuate in relation to changes in peripheral sex hormone levels, or whether the different sexes show different patterns. We aimed to investigate systematically, in male and female rats, the effect of decreased circulating sex hormone levels following gonadectomy on acute and chronic stress responses, manifested as changes in plasma and hypothalamic sex steroids and hypothalamic stress-related molecules...
May 21, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792907/electrocortical-reactivity-to-negative-and-positive-facial-expressions-in-individuals-with-a-family-history-of-major-depression
#2
Anna J Watters, Anthony W F Harris, Leanne M Williams
Facial expressions signaling threat and mood-congruent loss have been used to probe abnormal neural reactivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) and may be implicated in genetic vulnerability to MDD. This study investigated electro-cortical reactivity to facial expressions 101 unaffected, adult first degree relatives of probands with MDD and non-relative controls (n = 101). We investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) to five facial expressions of basic emotion: fear, anger, disgust, sadness and happiness under both subliminal (masked) and conscious (unmasked) presentation conditions, and the source localization of group differences...
May 21, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792476/a-mixed-methods-investigation-into-the-perspectives-on-mental-health-and-professional-treatment-among-former-system-youth-with-mood-disorders
#3
Michelle R Munson, Sarah Carter Narendorf, Shelly Ben-David, Andrea Cole
Research has shown that how people think about their health (or illnesses) shapes their help-seeking behavior. In this mixed-methods study, we employed a simultaneous concurrent design to explore the perceptions of mental illness among an understudied population: marginalized young adults. Participants were 60 young adults (ages 18-25) who had experienced mood disorders and used multiple public systems of care during their childhoods. Semistructured interviews were conducted to understand participants' illness and treatment experiences during the transition to adulthood...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792440/looking-at-the-eyes-interferes-with-facial-emotion-recognition-in-alexithymia
#4
Esther Fujiwara
Alexithymia refers to difficulties in identifying, differentiating, and describing feelings. This personality trait is highly prevalent in many psychiatric conditions and may drive associated social-emotional problems, including the ability to decode emotions in faces. This study probed alexithymic problems with identifying clear and ambiguous blends of emotions in faces and their underlying visual attention patterns. Using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, students with high alexithymia (HA, n = 73) or low alexithymia (LA, n = 76) were enrolled in this study...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791629/self-perceived-health-and-clinical-functional-vulnerability-of-the-elderly-in-belo-horizonte-minas-gerais
#5
Edmar Geraldo Ribeiro, Fernanda Penido Matozinhos, Gilberto de Lima Guimarães, Alcimar Marcelo do Couto, Raquel Souza Azevedo, Isabel Yovana Quispe Mendoza
OBJECTIVE: To determine the self-perceived health status and clinical-functional vulnerability of the elderly attended at a Reference Center of Minas Gerais, Brazil and to evaluate the association between these variables through the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index (IVCF-20) instrument. METHOD: This is an epidemiological, retrospective study of 311 medical records. Statistical analyses were performed using the Stata program; the evaluations were by Pearson's Chi-square test and Poisson regression models...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790847/the-development-of-a-short-version-of-temps-a-in-hungarian-non-clinical-samples
#6
Andras Lang, Barbara Papp, Tamas Inancsi, Peter Dome, Xenia Gonda, Zoltan Rihmer, Zsuzsanna Belteczki
BACKGROUND: The Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) is a widely used measure of affective temperaments. Affective temperaments refer to people's prevailing moods and are important precursors of affective disorders. With the two studies presented in this paper, we aimed to develop a short version of the Hungarian TEMPS-A. METHODS: A total number of 1857 university students participated in two studies. The original 110-item version and the newly developed short version of TEMPS-A, the anger, depression, and anxiety scales of the PROMIS Emotional Distress item bank, the Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Well-Being Index were administered to participants...
March 2018: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790107/the-role-of-pharmacogenomics-in-bipolar-disorder-moving-towards-precision-medicine
#7
REVIEW
Claudia Pisanu, Urs Heilbronner, Alessio Squassina
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and disabling psychiatric condition with a severe socioeconomic impact. BD is treated with mood stabilizers, among which lithium represents the first-line treatment. Lithium alone or in combination is effective in 60% of chronically treated patients, but response remains heterogenous and a large number of patients require a change in therapy after several weeks or months. Many studies have so far tried to identify molecular and genetic markers that could help us to predict response to mood stabilizers or the risk for adverse drug reactions...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789269/anterior-cingulate-cortex-glutamatergic-metabolites-and-mood-stabilizers-in-euthymic-bipolar-i-disorder-patients-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#8
Marcio Gerhardt Soeiro-de-Souza, Maria Concepcion Garcia Otaduy, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Ricardo Alberto Moreno, Fabiano G Nery, Claudia Leite, Beny Lafer
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is a chronic and recurrent illness characterized by depressive and manic episodes. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) studies have demonstrated glutamate (Glu) system abnormalities in BD, but it is unclear how Glu varies among mood states and how medications modulate it. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of mood stabilizers on anterior cingulate cortex Glu levels using 1 H-MRS during euthymia. METHODS: One hundred twenty-eight bipolar I disorder (BDI) euthymic subjects and 80 healthy control subjects underwent 3T brain 1 H-MRS imaging examination including acquisition of an anterior cingulate cortex single voxel (8 cm3 ) 1 H-MRS, based on a point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence with an echo time of 80 ms and a repetition time of 1500 ms (BIPUSP MRS study)...
March 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789032/neuropsychological-correlates-of-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-in-neurocognitive-disorders-a-possible-role-for-executive-dysfunction-and-mood-changes
#9
Martina Amanzio, Sara Palermo, Milena Zucca, Rosalba Rosato, Elisa Rubino, Daniela Leotta, Massimo Bartoli, Innocenzo Rainero
ABSTRACTSince baseline executive dysfunction predicts worsening Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (i-ADL) over time and progression to Alzheimer's Disease (AD), we aimed to analyze the role of neuropsychological variables to outline which factors can contribute to functional impairment. Specific attention to executive functions (EFs) has been given.A total of 144 subjects complaining of different cognitive deficits - ranging from "MCI likely due to AD" to "mild AD patients" - underwent an overall neuropsychological assessment...
May 23, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788489/contribution-of-mental-and-physical-disorders-to-disability-in-military-personnel
#10
P J H Beliveau, D Boulos, M A Zamorski
Background: Combat operations in Southwest Asia have exposed millions of military personnel to risk of mental disorders and physical injuries, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). The contribution of specific disorders to disability is, however, uncertain. Aims: To estimate the contributions of mental and physical health conditions to disability in military personnel. Methods: The sample consisted of military personnel who participated in the cross-sectional 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey...
May 19, 2018: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785673/the-impact-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-on-bipolar-depression-mania-and-euthymia-a-systematic-review-of-preliminary-data
#11
Clément Dondé, Nicholas H Neufeld, Pierre A Geoffroy
The neurobiological basis of bipolar disorders (BD) has received increased attention and several brain regions and brain circuits have been correlated with clinical symptoms. These brain regions and circuits may represent targets for neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). We systematically reviewed the literature to explore the risks and benefits of tDCS in BD and examined all mood states. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature search using several databases was performed from April 2002 to June 2017...
May 21, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785336/targeting-the-microbiota-from-irritable-bowel-syndrome-to-mood-disorders-focus-on-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#12
M M Pusceddu, K Murray, M G Gareau
Purpose of review: The crosstalk between the gut and the brain has revealed a complex communication system responsible for maintaining a proper gastrointestinal homeostasis as well as affect emotional mood and cognitive functions. Recent research has revealed that beneficial manipulation of the microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics represent an emerging and novel strategy for the treatment of a large spectrum of diseases ranging from visceral pain to mood disorders. The review critically evaluates current knowledge of the effects exerted by both probiotics and prebiotics in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and mood disorders such as anxiety and depression...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785227/alterations-in-the-three-components-of-selfhood-in-persons-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-a-pilot-qeeg-neuroimaging-study
#13
Andrew A Fingelkurts, Alexander A Fingelkurts
Background and Objective: Understanding how trauma impacts the self-structure of individuals suffering from the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms is a complex matter and despite several attempts to explain the relationship between trauma and the "Self", this issue still lacks clarity. Therefore, adopting a new theoretical perspective may help understand PTSD deeper and to shed light on the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms. Methods: In this study, we employed the "three-dimensional construct model of the experiential selfhood" where three major components of selfhood (phenomenal first-person agency, embodiment, and reflection/narration) are related to three Operational Modules (OMs) of the self-referential brain network...
2018: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785199/physical-exercise-for-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Alessandro Oliveira de Carvalho, Alberto Souza Sá Filho, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, Nuno Barbosa Rocha, Mauro Giovanni Carta, Sergio Machado
Background: National projections about the increase in the elderly population over 60 years bring with it an increase in the number of people affected by Parkinson's Disease (PD), making it an important public health problem. Therefore, the establishment of effective strategies for intervention in people with PD needs to be more clearly investigated. Objective: The study aimed to report the effectiveness of exercise on functional capacity and neurobiological mechanisms in people with PD...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785112/treatment-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementias-with-psychopharmaceuticals-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Jiří Masopust, Dita Protopopová, Martin Vališ, Zbyšek Pavelek, Blanka Klímová
Behavioral and psychological symptoms represent common complications in patients with different types of dementia. Predominantly, they comprise psychosis, agitation and mood disorders, disinhibited behavior, impairment of the sleep and wakefulness rhythm, wandering, perseveration, pathological collecting, or shouting. Their appearance is related to more rapid progression of the disease, earlier institutionalization, use of physical restraints, and higher risk of mortality. Consequently, appearance of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia leads to higher costs of care provided and greater distress for caregivers...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782076/effect-of-insomnia-treatments-on-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Marie Anne Gebara, Nalyn Siripong, Elizabeth A DiNapoli, Rachel D Maree, Anne Germain, Charles F Reynolds, John W Kasckow, Patricia M Weiss, Jordan F Karp
BACKGROUND: Insomnia is frequently co-morbid with depression, with a bidirectional relationship between these disorders. There is evidence that insomnia-specific interventions, such as cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, may lead to improvements in depression. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine whether treatment of insomnia leads to improved depression outcomes in individuals with both insomnia and depression. METHODS: We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the effect of treatment for insomnia disorder on depression in patients with both disorders...
May 21, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781372/chinese-perspectives-on-primary-care-for-common-mental-disorders-barriers-and-policy-implications
#17
Kai Sing Sun, Tai Pong Lam, Dan Wu
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for integration of mental health into primary care for a decade. In Western countries, around 15% to 25% of patients with common mental disorders including mood and anxiety disorders seek help from primary care physicians (PCPs). The rate is only about 5% in China. AIMS: This article reviews the Chinese findings on the barriers to primary care for common mental disorders and how they compared with Western findings...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781314/is-social-media-bad-for-mental-health-and-wellbeing-exploring-the-perspectives-of-adolescents
#18
Michelle O'Reilly, Nisha Dogra, Natasha Whiteman, Jason Hughes, Seyda Eruyar, Paul Reilly
Despite growing evidence of the effects of social media on the mental health of adolescents, there is still a dearth of empirical research into how adolescents themselves perceive social media, especially as knowledge resource, or how they draw upon the wider social and media discourses to express a viewpoint. Accordingly, this article contributes to this scarce literature. Six focus groups took place over 3 months with 54 adolescents aged 11-18 years, recruited from schools in Leicester and London (UK)...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778071/anxious-distress-in-depressed-outpatients-prevalence-comorbidity-and-incremental-validity
#19
Anthony J Rosellini, Michelle L Bourgeois, Jeannette Correa, Esther S Tung, Svetlana Goncharenko, Timothy A Brown
The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier (AD) among depressed outpatients, to examine associations of AD with comorbid diagnoses, and to test the incremental validity of AD over comorbidity in predicting functional impairment and severity of anxiety and depression symptoms. The sample was 237 outpatients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) or persistent depressive disorder (PDD), with and without AD, using the Anxiety and Related Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-5...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778054/at-risk-symptoms-of-bipolar-disorder-in-a-university-student-cohort
#20
Ida S Haussleiter, Sandra Lorek, Eike Zeschel, Svenja Mattausch, Milena Meyers, Georg Juckel
To assess the occurrence and frequency of bipolar at-risk symptoms in a large sample of previously undiagnosed students using the new screening tool Bochumer Screeningbogen Bipolar (BSB). 2329 students of the Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany completed online demographic data as well as various self-rating questionnaires (BSB; Hypomania Checklist 32; Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale; Beck Depression Inventory). Within the student cohort (64.4% female, mean age 24.3 years) every fifth student currently suffered from moderate to severe depressive symptoms; every sixth student had already thought about suicide and every other student reported a history of mood swings...
May 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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