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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913648/cd36-mediated-uptake-of-surfactant-lipids-by-human-macrophages-promotes-intracellular-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Claire E Dodd, Charlie J Pyle, Rebecca Glowinski, Murugesan V S Rajaram, Larry S Schlesinger
Mycobacterium tuberculosis imposes a large global health burden as the airborne agent of tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been flourishing in human populations for millennia and is therefore highly adapted to the lung environment. Alveolar macrophages, a major host cell niche for M. tuberculosis, are not only phagocytose inhaled microbes and particulate matter but are also crucial in catabolizing lung surfactant, a lipid-protein complex that lines the alveolar spaces. Because macrophage host defense properties can be regulated by surfactant and M...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907070/modulation-by-ethanol-of-cigarette-smoke-clastogenicity-in-cells-of-adult-mice-and-of-transplacentally-exposed-fetuses
#2
Roumen Balansky, Sebastiano La Maestra, Rosanna T Micale, Marietta Iltcheva, Krassimir Kirov, Silvio De Flora
Cigarette smoke (CS) and ethanol (EtOH) are known to synergize in the causation of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract and of the liver. Little is known about possible interactions between these agents in other organs. These premises prompted us to evaluate the clastogenic effects resulting from the inhalation for 3 weeks of mainstream CS and oral administration of EtOH, which were tested either individually or in combination in cells of adult BDF1 mice and their fetuses. CS exerted clastogenic effects in haematopoietic cells of adult male mice by increasing the frequency of micronucleated erythroid cells both in bone marrow and in peripheral blood as well as the frequency of micronucleated and polynucleated pulmonary alveolar macrophages...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906108/heme-oxygenase-and-carbon-monoxide-protect-from-muscle-dystrophy
#3
Mun Chun Chan, Olivia Ziegler, Laura Liu, Glenn C Rowe, Saumya Das, Leo E Otterbein, Zoltan Arany
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscle dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common lethal genetic diseases of children worldwide and is 100% fatal. Steroids, the only therapy currently available, are marred by poor efficacy and a high side-effect profile. New therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. METHODS: Here, we leverage PGC-1α, a powerful transcriptional coactivator known to protect against dystrophy in the mdx murine model of DMD, to search for novel mechanisms of protection against dystrophy...
November 28, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903664/practical-considerations-for-therapies-targeting-the-prostacyclin-pathway
#4
REVIEW
Harrison W Farber, Wendy Gin-Sing
Therapies that target the prostacyclin pathway play a key role in the treatment of both early- and late-stage pulmonary arterial hypertension, and provide significant clinical benefits for patients. A number of agents have been approved, which are administered via intravenous, subcutaneous, inhaled or oral routes. The use of these therapies is associated with practical challenges, relating to the need for up-titration and their routes of administration. We discuss here a number of measures that can be taken to support patients and healthcare professionals in order to address the complexities of using these therapies and to encourage compliance...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885204/genetic-interactions-between-adrb2-and-ptger4-on-responses-to-salmeterol-or-montelukast-in-japanese-patients-with-mild-persistent-asthma
#5
Hideyasu Yamada, Hironori Masuko, Toshihide Inui, Jun Kanazawa, Yohei Yatagai, Tohru Sakamoto, Hiroaki Iijima, Satoshi Konno, Kaoruko Shimizu, Hironi Makita, Masaharu Nishimura, Fumio Kokubu, Takefumi Saito, Takeo Endo, Hiroki Ninomiya, Norihiro Kaneko, Nobuyuki Hizawa
BACKGROUND: Long-acting β2-agonists (LABA) and leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) are two principal agents that can be added to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for patients with asthma that is not adequately controlled by ICS alone. In our previous study, the Gly16Arg genotype of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene did not influence the differential bronchodilator effect of salmeterol versus montelukast as an add-on therapy to ICS within 16 weeks of follow-up (the J-Blossom study)...
2016: Arerugī, [Allergy]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885203/examination-of-the-effectiveness-of-slow-and-deep-inhalation-of-fp-fm-pmdi-for-the-small-airways-dysfunction-of-adult-onset-asthma
#6
Shoji Hashimoto
BACKGROUNDS: To date adult-onset asthmatic patients who lack a clear stridor and show prolonged coughs and chest discomfort caused by small-airways dysfunction have increased. We examined the small-airways function of these cases and the effectiveness of slow and deep inhalation of FP/FM-pMDI. METHODS: 62 adult-onset asthmatic patients who had prolonged coughs and chest discomfort with the middle or high dose of ICS/LABA combination agents under well technique (32 of BUD/FM-DPI group and 30 of FP/SM-pMDI group) were included into this study...
2016: Arerugī, [Allergy]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883240/diagnosing-occupational-asthma
#7
Olivier Vandenplas, Hille Suojalehto, Paul Cullinan
Making an accurate diagnosis of occupational asthma (OA) is, generally, important. The condition has not only significant health consequences for affected workers, but also substantial socio-economic impacts for workers, their employers and wider society. Missing a diagnosis of OA may lead to continued exposure to a causative agent and progressive worsening of disease; conversely, diagnosing OA when it is not present may lead to inappropriate removal from exposure and unnecessary financial and social consequences...
November 24, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882039/pediatric-tooth-extractions-under-sedoanalgesia
#8
Ayse Hande Arpaci, Berrin Isik
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to evaluate intravenous ketamine and inhalation sedation in children, their unwanted side-effects and surgeon satisfaction. METHODS: In this study, data of 922 children aged between 1-18 who underwent tooth extraction under sedoanalgesia in our department between September 2015-January 2016 were gathered and anesthesia approaches, unwanted side effects and surgical satisfaction was investigated. Postoperative recovery emergence agitation or delirium was evaluated with Watcha Behavior Scale (WBS)...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882023/effects-of-bisoprolol-in-combination-with-trimetazidine-on-the-treatment-of-heart-failure-and-concomitant-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Yuanyuan Ke, Dingli Xu, Minxiong Li, Zenglong Wu, Yongpeng Huang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of bisoprolol combined with trimetazidine on the treatment of heart failure patients having concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); in comparison with control group treated with standard therapy only. METHODS: A total of 120 heart failure patients having concomitant COPD were selected and randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group according to different treatment methods (n=60). The control group was given continuous low flow oxygen inhalation and inotropic agents, and their cardiac stress was also reduced...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875341/occupational-asthma-diagnostic-challenges-and-management-dilemmas
#10
Vrinda Trivedi, Dinesh R Apala, Vivek N Iyer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work-related asthma encompasses both sensitizer-induced and irritant-induced occupational asthma as well as work-exacerbated asthma. This review summarizes current diagnostic and management strategies for occupational asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Occupational asthma is the most common occupational lung disease in the industrialized world. Over 400 agents have been described to cause occupational asthma. Specific inhalation challenge is often considered the reference method for diagnosis of occupational asthma but specific inhalation challenge as well as other diagnostic tests all generate false positive or false negative results...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871572/the-effects-of-sevoflurane-and-desflurane-on-the-hemodynamics-and-respiratory-functions-in-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy
#11
Hatice Kaya Ozdogan, Suleyman Cetinkunar, Faruk Karateke, Sibel Cetinalp, Muge Celik, Sefa Ozyazici
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleeve gastrectomy has been one of the most commonly performed bariatric surgery methods. The study aimed to compare the effects of 2 most commonly used inhalation anesthetics, sevoflurane and desflurane, on the peroperative hemodynamic alterations and postoperative respiratory functions in morbidly obese patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy. DESIGN: Nonrandomized cohort. SETTINGS: Operating room, postoperative period. PATIENTS: Eighty-four morbidly obese patients with a body mass index greater than 40 kg/m(2) who had scheduled to undergo sleeve gastrectomy operation were prospectively included in the study...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871538/does-dexmedetomidine-cause-less-airway-collapse-than-propofol-when-used-for-deep-sedation
#12
Stacey Watt, Sassan Sabouri, Rafeek Hegazy, Puneet Gupta, Christopher Heard
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The risk of airway collapse in patients undergoing deep sedation is a major concern. In this study, we compared the airway patency of deep sedation provided by propofol with the airway patency of deep sedation provided by dexmedetomidine in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures. This comparison was done using MRI static and dynamic images and comparing these images to baseline after sevoflurane induction. DESIGN: After institutional review board approval, children who were scheduled for MRI procedures were given an inhalation induction, had intravenous access established, and were randomized to receive either dexmedetomidine 1-μg/kg load followed by 1-μg/(kg h) infusion or propofol infusion at 300 μg/(kg min) reduced to 250-μg/(kg min) infusion...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869548/evaluation-of-a-sprinkler-cooling-system-on-inhalable-dust-and-ammonia-concentrations-in-broiler-chicken-production
#13
S Williams Ischer, M B Farnell, G T Tabler, M Moreira, P T O'Shaughnessy, M W Nonnenmann
Workers are exposed to dust in broiler chicken production during daily work activities. Poultry dust may contain inflammatory agents (e.g., endotoxin) and inhalation exposure has been associated with pulmonary symptoms. Current practice to reduce worker exposure to poultry dust is the use of respiratory protection (e.g., elastomeric face-piece respirator with a P100 and ammonia chemical cartridge). Limited research has been conducted to evaluate engineering controls to reduce dust and ammonia concentrations in broiler chicken production; therefore, the purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a water sprinkling system to reduce inhalable dust and ammonia concentrations in a broiler chicken house...
January 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869443/-post-mortem-investigation-of-alveolar-air-in-forensic-practice
#14
Miroslav Bauer, Jiřina Bauerová, Ján Šikuta, Jozef Šidlo
Exhaled air from biological materials is used for the purpose of toxicologico-chemical analysis particularly in detecting of alcohol influence in traffic or within a working process. Similarly, still a more and more actual requirement seems to be a necessity to analyse alveolar air from necroptic material. This necessity is emphasised not only by the fact, that inhalant intoxications in the form of poisoning represent their substantial part, but also a demand to evidence exactly a noxious agent both specifically and also in at least two materials...
2016: Soudní Lékarství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864676/anti-ige-and-biologic-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-asthma
#15
Patrick D Mitchell, Amani I El-Gammal, Paul M O'Byrne
Current asthma treatments are effective for the majority of patients with mild-to-moderate disease. However, in those with more severe refractory asthma, agents other than inhaled corticosteroids and beta-agonists are needed both to better manage this group of patients and to avoid the side effects of high-dose corticosteroids and the social and personal hardship endured. Several biological pathways have been targeted over the last 20 years, and this research has resulted in pharmacological approaches to attempt to better treat patients with severe refractory asthma...
November 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863663/preparation-of-theophylline-inhalable-microcomposite-particles-by-wet-milling-and-spray-drying-the-influence-of-mannitol-as-a-co-milling-agent
#16
Maria Malamatari, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Kyriakos Kachrimanis, Mark Bloxham, Kevin M G Taylor, Graham Buckton
Inhalable theophylline particles with various amounts of mannitol were prepared by combining wet milling in isopropanol followed by spray drying. The effect of mannitol as a co-milling agent on the micromeritic properties, solid state and aerosol performance of the engineered particles was investigated. Crystal morphology modelling and geometric lattice matching calculations were employed to gain insight into the intermolecular interactions that may influence the mechanical properties of theophylline and mannitol...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858407/preclinical-imaging-anesthesia-in-rodents
#17
Giancarlo Vesce, Fabiana Micieli, Ludovica Chiavaccini
Despite the outstanding progress achieved by preclinical imaging science, laboratory animal anesthesia remains quite stationary. Ninety percent of preclinical imaging studies are carried on small rodents (mice and rats) anesthetized by outdated injectable and/or inhalation agents. A need for imaging awake (conscious) animals is questionably registered mainly for brain research, for phMRI and for accomplishing pain and analgesia studies. A need for improving current rodent anesthesia protocols and for enforcing the 3Rs paradigm is sought...
November 18, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857962/functional-analysis-of-ryr1-variants-linked-to-malignant-hyperthermia
#18
Jeremy Stephens, Anja H Schiemann, Cornelia Roesl, Dorota Miller, Sean Massey, Neil Pollock, Terasa Bulger, Kathryn Stowell
Malignant hyperthermia manifests as a rapid and sustained rise in temperature in response to pharmacological triggering agents, e.g. inhalational anesthetics and the muscle relaxant suxamethonium. Other clinical signs include an increase in end-tidal CO2, increased O2 consumption, as well as tachycardia, and if untreated a malignant hyperthermia episode can result in death. The metabolic changes are caused by dysregulation of skeletal muscle Ca(2+) homeostasis, resulting from a defective ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) channel, which resides in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and controls the flux of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores to the cytoplasm...
April 2016: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856137/therapeutic-hypothermia-and-inhalation-anesthesia-in-a-patient-with-severe-pneumococcal-meningitis-and-secondary-cardiac-arrest
#19
Nejc Bukovnik, Andrej Markota, Tomaž Velnar, Janez Rebol, Andreja Sinkovič
Therapeutic hypothermia was associated with increased mortality in patients with severe bacterial meningitis in a large randomized trial. It still remains a treatment strategy for comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. There are several potential advantages of inhalational anesthetics as long-term sedation agents compared to intravenous sedation, however, uncontrollable increases of intracranial pressure were observed in neurocritical patients. Here we present a patient with severe bacterial meningitis and secondary cardiac arrest where therapeutic hypothermia and inhalational anesthesia were successfully used...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844299/comparison-of-pneumotachography-and-anemometery-for-flow-measurement-during-mechanical-ventilation-with-volatile-anesthetics
#20
Jarred R Mondoñedo, Jacob Herrmann, John S McNeil, David W Kaczka
Volatile anesthetics alter the physical properties of inhaled gases, such as density and viscosity. We hypothesized that the use of these agents during mechanical ventilation would yield systematic biases in estimates of flow ([Formula: see text]) and tidal volume (V T) for two commonly used flowmeters: the pneumotachograph (PNT), which measures a differential pressure across a calibrated resistive element, and the hot-wire anemometer (HWA), which operates based on convective heat transfer from a current-carrying wire to a flowing gas...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
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