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inhalational agents

Azza A Mahmoud, Nermeen A Elkasabgy, Abdel Fatah A Abdelkhalek
Roflumilast is a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-4 isoenzyme in lung cells. Having psychiatric adverse reactions when administered orally affects negatively the patients' adherence to the drug. This work aimed to prepare emulsified spray dried alginate microparticles for the pulmonary delivery of roflumilast. Sodium alginate was used as microparticle-forming material, isopropyl myristate as an oil, Tween®80 as surfactant and calcium beta-glycerophosphate as cross-linking agent to enhance the mechanical properties of the particles...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sophia Carvalho, Maria Ferrini, Lou Herritt, Andrij Holian, Zeina Jaffar, Kevan Roberts
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been reported to promote lung inflammation and fibrosis. The commercial demand for nanoparticle-based materials has expanded rapidly and as demand for nanomaterials grows, so does the urgency of establishing an appreciation of the degree of health risk associated with their increased production and exposure. In this study, we examined whether MWCNT inhalation elicited pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation and influenced the development of allergic airway inflammatory responses...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Narongsak Nakwan
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a complication of several respiratory diseases characterized by an elevation in pulmonary vascular resistance with resultant right-to-left shunting of blood and severe hypoxemia in the neonatal period. PPHN carries a high rate of morbidity and mortality, particularly in limited-resource settings (low-income and/or developing country). Echocardiography remains the gold standard for diagnosis of PPHN. Modern therapies such as inhaled nitric oxide, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and/or other pulmonary vasodilators agents can reduce the mortality rate of PPHN...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Gabriella Guarnieri
OBJECTIVES: An accurate diagnosis of occupational allergic respiratory diseases is crucial because they are related to disability, loss of work and worsening of psychosocial and economic status of workers. Early diagnosis is therefore essential to prevent the progression of allergic respiratory diseases and to implement preventive measures. The most frequent occupational allergic respiratory diseases are asthma (OA) and rhinitis (OR), less frequently hypersensitivity pneumonia (HP) and non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB)...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Satoshi Fukuda, Perenlei Enkhbaatar, Christina Nelson, Robert A Cox, Marla R Wolfson, Thomas H Shaffer, Robert O Williams, Soraya Hengsawas Surasarang, Sahakijpijarn Sawittree, Galina Florova, Andrey A Komissarov, Kathleen Koenig, Krishna Sarva, Harrison T Ndetan, Karan P Singh, Steven Idell
BACKGROUND: Airway fibrin casts are clinically important complications of severe inhalational smoke-induced acute lung injury (ISIALI) for which reliable evidence-based therapy is lacking. Nebulized anticoagulants or a tissue plasminogen activator; tPA, has been advocated, but airway bleeding is a known and lethal potential complication. We posited that nebulized delivery of single chain urokinase plasminogen activator, scuPA, is well-tolerated and improves physiologic outcomes in ISIALI...
June 18, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Maurice S Albin
Background The United States Civil War (1861-1865) pitted the more populous industrialized North (Union) against the mainly agricultural slaveholding South (Confederacy). This conflict cost an enormous number of lives, with recent estimates mentioning a total mortality greater than 700,000 combatants [1]. Although sulfuric ether (ETH) and chloroform (CHL) were available since Morton's use of the former in 1846 and the employment of the latter in 1847, and even though inhalational agents were used in Crimean war (1853-1856) and the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), the United States Civil War gave military surgeons on both sides the opportunity to experience the use of these two agents because of the large number of casualties...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Susanne Koch, Leopold Rupp, Christine Prager, Rudolf Mörgeli, Sylvia Kramer, Klaus Dieter Wernecke, Astrid Fahlenkamp, Claudia Spies
OBJECTIVE: In pediatric patients, anaesthesia induction is often performed with intravenous Propofol or Sevoflurane inhalation. Although epileptiform discharges have been observed during inductions with Sevoflurane, their occurrence has not been investigated for i.v. Propofol inductions. The aim of this study is to compare the incidence of epileptiform discharges in children during anaesthesia induction using Propofol versus Sevoflurane. METHODS: Prospective, observational cohort study in children aged 0...
June 8, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Jan Hendrickx, Jan Poelaert, Andre De Wolf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Jianwei Gao, Lei Li, Xia Liu, Rui Guo, Bin Zhao
Recent studies have indicated that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) efficiently diagnoses lung cancer. However, the efficacy of MRI in diagnosing lung cancer requires improving for patients in the early stage of the disease. In the present study, a novel nano-sized contrast agent of chistosan/Fe3 O4 -enclosed bispecific antibodies (BsAbCENS) was introduced, which targeted carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in lung cancer cells. The diagnostic efficacy of contrast-enhanced MRI with BsAbCENS (CEMRI-BsAbCENS) was investigated in a total of 182 patients with suspected lung cancer who had high serum levels of CEA and NSE...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Shin Miyakawa, Hidenobu Tachibana, Shunsuke Moriya, Tomoyuki Kurosawa, Teiji Nishio
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate different deformable image registration (DIR) parameters for the open-source NiftyReg package in its application to DIR-based ventilation imaging. METHODS: Two three-dimensional (3D)-computed tomography (CT) scans of a non-rigid air-ventilating phantom were acquired at peak exhalation and peak inhalation, with xenon (Xe) gas being used as an air-based contrast agent. We compared four different sets of DIR parameters, including one set with two-step deformation and three sets with four-step deformation...
June 2018: Physica Medica: PM
L Brad Morgans, Nicholas Graham
Medical services in the austere and limited environment often require therapeutics and practices uncommon in modern times due to a lack of availability, affordability, or expertise in remote areas. In this setting, diethyl ether, or simply ether anesthesia, still serves a role today as an effective inhalation agent. An understanding of ether as an anesthetic not only illustrates the evolution in surgical anesthesia but also demonstrates ether's surviving function and durable use as a practical agent in developing nations...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
R K Das, K Walsh, J Hannaford, A I Lazzarino, S K Kamboj
Weakening drinking-related reward memories by blocking their reconsolidation is a potential novel strategy for treating alcohol use disorders. However, few viable pharmacological options exist for reconsolidation interference in humans. We therefore examined whether the NMDA receptor antagonising gas, Nitrous Oxide (N2 O) could reduce drinking by preventing the post-retrieval restabilisation of alcohol memories in a group of hazardous drinkers. Critically, we focussed on whether prediction error (PE; a key determinant of reconsolidation) was experienced at retrieval...
June 7, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Gerald C Smaldone
Pulmonary diseases frequently involve imbalances in immunity. The inability to control bacteria in tuberculosis is a failed response to a pathogen. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive fibrotic lung disease, can lead to respiratory failure and death within 3 years of diagnosis. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) progresses until death and in recent years has been labeled an autoimmune disease. Proposed mechanistic pathways of pathophysiology involve uncontrolled healing governed by pro-fibrotic cytokines that are unresponsive to the standard anti-inflammatory agents (e...
June 7, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Tongtong Zhang, Yanming Chen, Yuanyuan Ge, Yuzhen Hu, Miao Li, Yiguang Jin
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Traditional chemotherapy causes serious toxicity due to the wide bodily distribution of these drugs. Curcumin is a potential anticancer agent but its low water solubility, poor bioavailability and rapid metabolism significantly limits clinical applications. Here we developed a liposomal curcumin dry powder inhaler (LCD) for inhalation treatment of primary lung cancer. LCDs were obtained from curcumin liposomes after freeze-drying. The LCDs had a mass mean aerodynamic diameter of 5...
May 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
R S Mangus, S B Kinsella, D T Farar, J A Fridell, L T Woolf, C A Kubal
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the ability of inhaled anesthetic agents to ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in liver transplantation (LT). This study compares inhaled anesthetics in early liver allograft IRI. LT recipient and organ donor data were extracted retrospectively for all LTs at a single center between 2001 and 2015. METHODS: LT recipient and organ donor data were extracted retrospectively for all LTs at a single center between 2001 and 2015...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Ross A Little, Yann Jamin, Jessica K R Boult, Josephine H Naish, Yvonne Watson, Susan Cheung, Katherine F Holliday, Huiqi Lu, Damien J McHugh, Joely Irlam, Catharine M L West, Guy N Betts, Garry Ashton, Andrew R Reynolds, Satish Maddineni, Noel W Clarke, Geoff J M Parker, John C Waterton, Simon P Robinson, James P B O'Connor
Purpose To cross-validate T1-weighted oxygen-enhanced (OE) MRI measurements of tumor hypoxia with intrinsic susceptibility MRI measurements and to demonstrate the feasibility of translation of the technique for patients. Materials and Methods Preclinical studies in nine 786-0-R renal cell carcinoma (RCC) xenografts and prospective clinical studies in eight patients with RCC were performed. Longitudinal relaxation rate changes (∆R1) after 100% oxygen inhalation were quantified, reflecting the paramagnetic effect on tissue protons because of the presence of molecular oxygen...
June 5, 2018: Radiology
Nicoleta Aurelia Popescu, Marcela Daniela Ionescu, Georgiana Balan, Simina Visan, Eliza Cinteza, Diana Stanescu, Ionut Gobej, Mihaela Balgradean
Central sleep apnea is characterized by frequent cessation of breathing during sleep, resulting in repetitive episodes of insufficient ventilation and abnormalities of acid-base balance. It may be primary or secondary, and it is uncommon in children, with limited data for this population. We present here the case of a five-year-old girl, known to have thoracolumbar myelomeningocele (for which she underwent a surgical procedure in infancy), secondary hydrocephalus (with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt) and flaccid paralysis, who was admitted in our hospital with prolonged fever syndrome, productive cough, severe dyspnea and perioral cyanosis...
March 2018: Mædica
Melissa Quinn, J T Fannin, Joseph Sciasci, Allison Bragg, Patrick K Campbell, Delia Carias, Kristine R Crews, David Gregornik, Sima Jeha, Gabriela Maron, Jennifer L Pauley, Hope D Swanson, Joshua Wolf, William Greene
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in children receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy. Without prophylaxis, up to 25% of pediatric oncology patients receiving chemotherapy will develop Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the preferred agent for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Pentamidine may be an acceptable alternative for pediatric patients unable to tolerate trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole...
June 4, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Patrick Scheiermann, Friederike Herzog, Andrea Siebenhofer, Reinhard Strametz, Tobias Weberschock
STUDY OBJECTIVE: General anesthesia is commonly used in pediatric inpatient surgery. It can be induced and maintained by either intravenous or volatile anesthetic agents. We aimed to elucidate whether intravenous or volatile anesthetic agents are superior with regards to preventing anesthesia-related complications. DESIGN: Using a predefined standardized study protocol we conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with meta-analysis where appropriate searching the following data bases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, metaRegister of Controlled Trials (until June 2016)...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
P Arvers, G Mathern, B Dautzenberg
Tobacco use is not just about manufactured cigarettes. Rolling tobacco, highly prized in the wake of price increases, is estimated to carry more toxic agents than its counterpart. This study shows that the use of cigar, pipe, cigarillos and narghile also leads to a cohort of pathologies similar to or more than what is known for smoking single cigarettes. Exotic, liquid or heated forms do just as much. The non-smoked tobacco, often fallen into disuse in France is very used in the United States and especially in Scandinavia...
May 29, 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
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