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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814858/spotlight-on-glycopyrronium-formoterol-fumarate-inhalation-aerosol-in-the-management-of-copd-design-development-and-place-in-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Santosh Dhungana, Gerard J Criner
Long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of the treatment of COPD. With the advent of several combination inhalers with long-acting antimuscarinic agents (LAMAs) and long-acting beta agonists (LABAs), the choice of therapy in the treatment of COPD has been ever expanding. With the focus of COPD management shifting from FEV1-based treatment escalation to symptoms and risk-based treatment, we are seeing a paradigm shift in COPD treatment with early introduction of LAMA-LABA combination as a single inhaler...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797487/clinical-manifestations-and-treatment-of-blastomycosis
#2
REVIEW
Joseph A McBride, Gregory M Gauthier, Bruce S Klein
The causal agents of blastomycosis, Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii, belong to a group of thermally dimorphic fungi that can infect healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Following inhalation of mycelial fragments and spores into the lungs, Blastomyces spp convert into pathogenic yeast and evade host immune defenses to cause pneumonia and disseminated disease. The clinical spectrum of pulmonary blastomycosis is diverse. The diagnosis of blastomycosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and involves culture-based and non-culture-based fungal diagnostic tests...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780147/stem-cells-in-pulmonary-disease-and-regeneration
#3
REVIEW
Rohan R Nadkarni, Soumeya Abed, Jonathan S Draper
The epithelial cells lining the mammalian lung are subjected to constant interaction with the external environment, necessitating robust regeneration strategies to deal with cell loss due to natural turn over or damage arising via inhaled agents or disease. Since lung epithelium function extends beyond respiratory gas exchange to include roles such as immune defense and mucocillary clearance, a diverse complement of epithelial cell types exists that are regionally distributed along the respiratory tree and extensive surface area of the alveolar interface...
August 2, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778139/inhaled-or-nebulised-ciprofloxacin-for-the-maintenance-treatment-of-bronchiectasis
#4
Manjit K Cartlidge, Adam T Hill
Inhaled or nebulised antibiotics are a major topic of ongoing research interest in reducing exacerbations in bronchiectasis. There are no licenced inhaled or nebulised antibiotics currently in bronchiectasis. Areas covered: Inhaled or nebulised ciprofloxacin as a long-term treatment in bronchiectasis. Expert opinion: Results from the Phase III ongoing trials on inhaled or nebulised ciprofloxacin will be key for the outcome of the drugs but additionally, cost-effectiveness and longer-term studies will be necessary to determine the viability of the drug...
August 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776686/contralateral-r1-and-r2-components-of-the-laryngeal-adductor-reflex-in-humans-under-general-anesthesia
#5
Catherine F Sinclair, Maria J Téllez, Oscar R Tapia, Sedat Ulkatan
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that under total intravenous general anesthesia (TIVA), the contralateral R1 (cRI) and contralateral R2 (cR2) components of the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) can be reliably elicited; to determine effects of topical anesthesia and inhalational anesthesia on the LAR; and to discuss how this technique may be utilized to continuously monitor the vagus nerve reflex arc. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. METHODS: Vocal fold mucosa was electrically stimulated via endotracheal tube surface-based electrodes to elicit a LAR...
August 4, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774208/moving-beyond-subcutaneous-insulin-the-application-of-adjunctive-therapies-to-the-treatment-of-type-1-diabetes
#6
Kathleen H Ang, Jennifer L Sherr
With the discovery of insulin nearly a century ago, the diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) transformed from a death sentence to a chronic medical condition. Despite the advances that have been made, the vast majority of those living with T1D still struggle to achieve targeted control. Yet, a plethora of agents have been developed to treat those with Type 2 Diabetes. Exploration of how these agents may benefit those with T1D has been an area of intense investigation, especially due to the overweight/obesity epidemic, which now afflicts more than 60% of those living with T1D...
August 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770093/the-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-management-of-ards-in-japan
#7
Satoru Hashimoto, Masamitsu Sanui, Moritoki Egi, Shinichiro Ohshimo, Junji Shiotsuka, Ryutaro Seo, Ryoma Tanaka, Yu Tanaka, Yasuhiro Norisue, Yoshiro Hayashi, Eishu Nango
BACKGROUND: The Japanese Society of Respiratory Care Medicine and the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine provide here a clinical practice guideline for the management of adult patients with ARDS in the ICU. METHOD: The guideline was developed applying the GRADE system for performing robust systematic reviews with plausible recommendations. The guideline consists of 13 clinical questions mainly regarding ventilator settings and drug therapies (the last question includes 11 medications that are not approved for clinical use in Japan)...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762312/cadmium-organ-toxicity-and-therapeutic-approaches-a-review-on-brain-kidney-and-testis-damage
#8
Mariagrazia Rinaldi, Antonio Micali, Herbert Marini, Elena Bianca Adamo, Domenico Puzzolo, Antonina Pisani, Vincenzo Trichilo, Domenica Altavilla, Francesco Squadrito, Letteria Minutoli
BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal particularly hazardous for human health, as it is highly diffused and, therefore, a ubiquitous environmental toxicant. In fact, in the general population, the main sources of exposure are food, cigarette smoking, inhalation of ambient air, drinking water, contaminated soil or dust. Furthermore, an occupational exposure usually involves human during mining, fume inhalation or manufacturing nickel-cadmium battery, electroplating and paint pigments that utilize Cd...
August 1, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753070/impact-of-mucolytic-agents-on-copd-exacerbations-a-pair-wise-and-network-meta-analysis
#9
Mario Cazzola, Paola Rogliani, Luigino Calzetta, Nicola A Hanania, Maria Gabriella Matera
Mucolytics are potentially useful for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although there is conflicting advice on their use in different guideline documents. Furthermore, there is paucity of data comparing the efficacy of the different mucolytic agents in reducing the odds of COPD exacerbations. We performed pair-wise and network meta-analyses to evaluate the impact of mucoly-tics in COPD. Randomized clinical trials lasting at least 3 months and investigating the effects of mucolytics on COPD exacerbations were identified from published studies and repository databases...
July 28, 2017: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748958/new-and-revisited-approaches-to-preserving-the-reperfused-myocardium
#10
REVIEW
Robert A Kloner, David A Brown, Marie Csete, Wangde Dai, James M Downey, Roberta A Gottlieb, Sharon L Hale, Jianru Shi
Early coronary artery reperfusion improves outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), but morbidity and mortality after STEMI remain unacceptably high. The primary deficits seen in these patients include inadequate pump function, owing to rapid infarction of muscle in the first few hours of treatment, and adverse remodelling of the heart in the months that follow. Given that attempts to further reduce myocardial infarct size beyond early reperfusion in clinical trials have so far been disappointing, effective therapies are still needed to protect the reperfused myocardium...
July 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732821/optimizing-inhalation-technique-using-web-based-videos-in-obstructive-lung-diseases
#11
Tobias Müller, Annegret Müller, Christian Hübel, Verena Knipel, Wolfram Windisch, Christian Gabriel Cornelissen, Michael Dreher
BACKGROUND: Inhaled agents are widely used in the treatment of chronic airway diseases. Correct technique is required to ensure appropriate drug deposition, but poor technique is common. This study investigated whether inhalation technique could be improved by patient training using short videos from the German Airway League. METHODS: Outpatients from a university hospital respiratory clinic who had incorrect inhalation technique were asked to demonstrate this again immediately after viewing the training videos, and after 4-8 weeks' follow-up...
August 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723308/percutaneous-trans-tracheal-endoscopic-approach-a-novel-technique-for-the-excision-of-benign-lesions-of-thoracic-trachea
#12
Suresh C Sharma, K Devaraja, Arvind Kairo, Rakesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Currently, neoplasms of the trachea and lower airway demand open transcervical approach with or without thoracotomy. We describe here a novel, minimally invasive approach for an intraluminal lesion of the thoracic trachea, called percutaneous trans-tracheal endoscopic approach (PTEA). Apart from obvious advantages over potentially morbid open procedures, this technique has certain peculiar benefits over rigid or flexible bronchoscopic approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 43-year-old male patient had glomus tumor of thoracic trachea...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719697/diagnosis-and-management-of-asthma-in-adults-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Jennifer L McCracken, Sreenivas P Veeranki, Bill T Ameredes, William J Calhoun
Importance: Asthma affects about 7.5% of the adult population. Evidence-based diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment can improve functioning and quality of life in adult patients with asthma. Observations: Asthma is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome primarily affecting the lower respiratory tract, characterized by episodic or persistent symptoms of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough. The diagnosis of asthma requires these symptoms and demonstration of reversible airway obstruction using spirometry...
July 18, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717881/a-retrospective-comparison-of-inhaled-milrinone-and-iloprost-in-post-bypass-pulmonary-hypertension
#14
Kassiani Theodoraki, Apostolos Thanopoulos, Panagiota Rellia, Evangelos Leontiadis, Dimitrios Zarkalis, Konstantinos Perreas, Theophani Antoniou
During cardiac operations, weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may prove challenging as a result of superimposed acute right ventricular dysfunction in the setting of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the effect of inhaled milrinone versus inhaled iloprost in patients with persistent pulmonary hypertension following discontinuation of CPB. Eighteen patients with elevated PVR post-bypass were administered inhaled milrinone at a cumulative dose of 50 μg kg(-1)...
July 17, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717638/spatial-patterns-and-impacts-of-environmental-and-climatic-factors-on-canine-sinonasal-aspergillosis-in-northern-california
#15
Monise Magro, Jane Sykes, Polina Vishkautsan, Beatriz Martínez-López
Sinonasal aspergillosis (SNA) causes chronic nasal discharge in dogs and has a worldwide distribution, although most reports of SNA in North America originate from the western USA. SNA is mainly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, a ubiquitous saprophytic filamentous fungus. Infection is thought to follow inhalation of spores. SNA is a disease of the nasal cavity and/or sinuses with variable degrees of local invasion and destruction. While some host factors appear to predispose to SNA (such as belonging to a dolichocephalic breed), environmental risk factors have been scarcely studied...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717108/isoflurane-is-a-suitable-alternative-to-ether-for-anesthetizing-rats-prior-to-euthanasia-for-gene-expression-analysis
#16
Noriyuki Nakatsu, Yoshinobu Igarashi, Taiki Aoshi, Isao Hamaguchi, Masumichi Saito, Takuo Mizukami, Haruka Momose, Ken J Ishii, Hiroshi Yamada
Diethyl ether (ether) had been widely used in Japan for anesthesia, despite its explosive properties and toxicity to both humans and animals. We also had used ether as an anesthetic for euthanizing rats for research in the Toxicogenomics Project (TGP). Because the use of ether for these purposes will likely cease, it is required to select an alternative anesthetic which is validated for consistency with existing TGP data acquired under ether anesthesia. We therefore compared two alternative anesthetic candidates, isoflurane and pentobarbital, with ether in terms of hematological findings, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expressions...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712737/pharmacists-can-help-prevent-lipoid-pneumonia
#17
Ann E Cabri, Afoma King, Lee Morrow, Mark A Malesker
OBJECTIVES: To report 2 cases of lipoid pneumonia. SUMMARY: Lipoid pneumonia is an inflammatory process in the lower airways due to the presence of lipid molecules in the alveoli. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is due to the inhalation or aspiration of fat-containing substances. Historically, mineral oil is the most common medication cause but there have also been several reports of lipoid pneumonia associated with petroleum jelly, medicated vapor rub, and lip glosses...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696894/preference-of-aerosolized-pirfenidone-to-oral-intake-an-experimental-model-of-pulmonary-fibrosis-by-paraquat
#18
Rokhsana Rasooli, Hamid Rajaian, Abbas Pardakhty, Ali Mandegary
BACKGROUND: Inhalation drug delivery is a fast, effective, and safe route of delivering medication directly to the lungs. Thanks to the large surface area and highly vascularized epithelium in lung, pulmonary drug delivery has been considered as an effective route to deliver drugs to the systemic circulation. Pirfenidone (PF), an oral antifibrotic agent, has been shown to slow down the progression of the lung fibrosis. Inhalation or intrapulmonary delivery of PF appears to be a good alternative to optimize drug delivery and minimize the dosage, adverse and nonspecific effects...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696235/evaluation-of-combination-drug-therapy-for-treatment-of-antibiotic-resistant-inhalation-anthrax-in-a-murine-model
#19
H S Heine, S V Shadomy, A E Boyer, L Chuvala, R Riggins, A Kesterson, J Myrick, J Craig, M G Candela, J R Barr, K Hendricks, W A Bower, H Walke, G L Drusano
Bacillus anthracis is considered a likely agent to be used as a bioweapon and use of a strain resistance to the first-line antimicrobial treatments is a concern. We determined treatment efficacy against a ciprofloxacin-resistant (C(r)) strain of B. anthracis (C(r) Ames) in a murine inhalational anthrax model. Ten groups of 46 BALB/c mice were exposed by inhalation to 7-35 LD50 of B. anthracis C(r) Ames spores. Commencing at 36 hours (h) post-exposure, groups were administered intraperitoneal doses of sterile water for injections (SWI) and ciprofloxacinalone (control groups), or ciprofloxacin combined with two antimicrobials including meropenem/linezolid, meropenem/clindamycin, meropenem/rifampin, meropenem/doxycycline, penicillin/linezolid, penicillin/doxycycline, rifampin/linezolid, or rifampin/clindamycin at appropriate dosing intervals(6 or 12 hours) for the respective antibiotics...
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694806/a-bivalent-anthrax-plague-vaccine-that-can-protect-against-two-tier-1-bioterror-pathogens-bacillus-anthracis-and-yersinia-pestis
#20
Pan Tao, Marthandan Mahalingam, Jingen Zhu, Mahtab Moayeri, Michelle L Kirtley, Eric C Fitts, Jourdan A Andersson, William S Lawrence, Stephen H Leppla, Ashok K Chopra, Venigalla B Rao
Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent vaccine. Here, we report the development of a single recombinant vaccine, a triple antigen consisting of all three target antigens, F1 and V from Y...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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