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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224733/validated-maldi-tof-ms-method-for-anthrax-lethal-factor-provides-early-diagnosis-and-evaluation-of-therapeutics
#1
Maribel Gallegos-Candela, Anne E Boyer, Adrian R Woolfitt, Judy Brumlow, Renato C Lins, Conrad P Quinn, Alex R Hoffmaster, Gabriel Meister, John R Barr
Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endoprotease and a critical virulence factor for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. The mass spectrometry (MS) method for total-LF quantification includes three steps; 1) LF specific antibody capture/concentration, 2) LF-specific hydrolysis of a peptide substrate, and 3) detection and quantification of LF-cleaved peptides by isotope-dilution MALDI-TOF/MS. Recombinant LF spiked plasma was used for calibration and quality control (QC) materials. Specificity was 100% from analysis of serum and plasma from 383 non-infected humans, 31 rabbits, and 24 rhesus macaques...
December 7, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223575/a-comparison-between-inhalational-desflurane-and-total-intravenous-anaesthesia-propofol-and-dexmedetomidine-in-improving-postoperative-recovery-for-morbidly-obese-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-a-double-blinded-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Abd-Elazeem Elbakry, Wesam-Eldin Sultan, Ezzeldin Ibrahim
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is commonly performed under total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) or balanced anaesthesia using an intravenous and inhalation agent. It is still unclear which anaesthesia regimen is better for this group of patients. The present study has been conducted to compare the use of the inhalation anaesthesia technique using desflurane with the TIVA technique, using propofol and dexmedetomidine. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, double-blinded study...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221728/emulsified-isoflurane-induces-release-of-cytochrome-c-in-human-neuroblastoma-shsy-5y-cells-via-jnk-c-jun-n-terminal-kinases-signaling-pathway
#3
Zeyong Yang, Jingjing Lv, Xianfu Lu, Xingxing Li, Xiaohu An, Jianwei Wang, Hao Weng, Yuanhai Li
A large number of studies have demonstrated that inhalation anesthetic isoflurane induced neural cell death by apoptosis in various cell and animal models. Emulsified isoflurane (EIso) is a new type of intravenous preparation of isoflurane that attracts increasing research attention as a promising clinical agent due to its both advantages as an intravenous and inhalation anesthetics medication. However, its safety and underlying molecular mechanism of neurotoxicity largely remain unknown. Therefore, it is meaningful to investigate the safety of EIso and to further elucidate its mechanism of anesthetic neurotoxicity...
December 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221297/current-status-of-asthma-care-in-south-korea-nationwide-the-health-insurance-review-and-assessment-service-database
#4
Joon Young Choi, Hyoung Kyu Yoon, Jae Ha Lee, Kwang Ha Yoo, Bo Yeon Kim, Hye Won Bae, Young Kyoon Kim, Chin Kook Rhee
Background: Quality control is important for patients with asthma because of its prevalence and because the social burden is substantial. This study analyzed the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database to assess asthma quality control in South Korea. Methods: We investigated the HIRA nationwide database for reimbursed insurance claims from all medical institutions in South Korea from July 2013 to June 2014. The number of patients with asthma were evaluated and the medical institutions were categorized by type of medical institution...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218036/the-macrophage-a-disputed-fortress-in-the-battle-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#5
REVIEW
Christophe J Queval, Roland Brosch, Roxane Simeone
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of human tuberculosis (TB), has plagued humans for thousands of years. TB still remains a major public health problem in our era, causing more than 4,400 deaths worldwide every day and killing more people than HIV. After inhaling Mtb-contaminated aerosols, TB primo-infection starts in the terminal lung airways, where Mtb is taken up by alveolar macrophages. Although macrophages are known as professional killers for pathogens, Mtb has adopted remarkable strategies to circumvent host defenses, building suitable conditions to survive and proliferate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216852/access-to-affordable-medicines-and-diagnostic-tests-for-asthma-and-copd-in-sub-saharan-africa-the-ugandan-perspective
#6
Davis Kibirige, Leaticia Kampiire, David Atuhe, Raymond Mwebaze, Winceslaus Katagira, Winters Muttamba, Rebecca Nantanda, William Worodria, Bruce Kirenga
BACKGROUND: Equitable access to affordable medicines and diagnostic tests is an integral component of optimal clinical care of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In Uganda, we lack contemporary data about the availability, cost and affordability of medicines and diagnostic tests essential in asthma and COPD management. METHODS: Data on the availability, cost and affordability of 17 medicines and 2 diagnostic tests essential in asthma and COPD management were collected from 22 public hospitals, 23 private and 85 private pharmacies...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213218/tiotropium-in-asthma-back-to-the-future-of-anticholinergic-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Matteo Bonini, Nicola Scichilone
Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases worldwide; however, despite progresses in the understanding of the patho-physiological mechanisms and advances in the development of new therapeutic options and strategies, the disease remains uncontrolled in a not trivial proportion of subjects. Thus, the need of new molecules to treat the underlying biological and functional abnormalities and to control symptoms is strongly advocated by clinicians. In this scenario, the most recent GINA guidelines have included the use of tiotropium bromide in the most severe and uncontrolled forms of the disease, in addition to treatment with inhaled corticosteroid plus long acting beta adrenergic agents...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210794/effect-of-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-on-outcomes-in-adult-cardiac-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-studies
#8
Jianfeng Xie, Xiwen Zhang, Jingyuan Xu, Zhongheng Zhang, Nathan J Klingensmith, Songqiao Liu, Chun Pan, Yi Yang, Haibo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been demonstrated to prevent organ dysfunction in cardiac surgery patients. However, recent large, prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) had controversial results. Thus, a meta-analysis of RCTs was performed to investigate whether RIPC can reduce the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), acute kidney injury (AKI), and mortality in adult cardiac surgery patients. METHODS: Study data were collected from Medline, Elsevier, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases...
November 22, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209614/laryngeal-cryptococcosis-associated-with-inhaled-corticosteroid-use-case-reports-and-literature-review
#9
Daniel Jun Yi Wong, Peter Stanley, Paul Paddle
Laryngeal cryptococcosis is a rare clinical entity. There have been a limited number of case reports in the literature with no consensus regarding optimal management. This review contributes two additional case reports of immunocompetent patients with cryptococcal infection of the larynx in whom exposure to high doses of inhaled corticosteroids is proposed as a significant risk factor. Twenty cases were identified from review of the literature. All patients presented with hoarseness and a spectrum of microlaryngoscopic features, often mimicking laryngeal malignancy...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206477/acute-eosinophilic-pneumonia-causes-diagnosis-and-management
#10
Federica De Giacomi, Robert Vassallo, Eunhee S Yi, Jay H Ryu
Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is an uncommon acute respiratory illness of varying severity that includes presentation as acute respiratory distress syndrome with fatal outcome. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia may be idiopathic but identifiable causes include smoking and other inhalational exposures, medications and infections. The pathogenesis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is poorly understood but likely varies depending on the underlying cause. Airway epithelial injury, endothelial injury and release of interleukin-33 are early events that subsequently promote eosinophil recruitment to the lung; eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation appear to mediate subsequent lung inflammation and associated clinical manifestations...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203545/bordetella-pertussis-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-disrupts-functional-integrity-of-bronchial-epithelial-layers
#11
Shakir Hasan, Nikhil Nitin Kulkarni, Arni Asbjarnarson, Irena Linhartova, Radim Osicka, Peter Sebo, Gudmundur H Gudmundsson
Airway epithelium restricts penetration of inhaled pathogens into the underlying tissue and plays a crucial role in innate immune defense against respiratory infections. The whooping cough agent, Bordetella pertussis, adheres to ciliated cells of human airway epithelium and subverts its defense functions through the action of secreted toxins and other virulence factors. We have examined the impact of B. pertussis infection and of adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) action on the functional integrity of air-liquid interface (ALI)-cultured human bronchial epithelial cells...
December 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201215/contrast-enhanced-computerized-tomography-combined-with-a-targeted-nanoparticle-contrast-agent-for-screening-for-early-phase-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
Ninglu Yuan, Xiaohe Zhang, Yonghui Cao, Xiaojie Jiang, Si Zhao, Yingying Feng, Yimeng Fan, Zhitao Lu, Hongmei Gao
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and patients with NSCLC are frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage. This is primarily due to a lack of advanced and sensitive protocols for the detection of early stage NSCLC. Therefore, methods for the accurate diagnosis of early stage NSCLC are urgently required to improve survival rates. The present study investigated the use of contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CECT) combined with a targeted nanoparticle contrast agent (TNCA) to diagnose early-stage NSCLC in a mice xenograft model...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200281/discovery-and-optimization-of-thiazolidinyl-and-pyrrolidinyl-derivatives-as-inhaled-pde4-inhibitors-for-respiratory-diseases
#13
Laura Carzaniga, Gabriele Amari, Andrea Rizzi, Carmelida Capaldi, Renato De Fanti, Eleonora Ghidini, Gino Villetti, Chiara Carnini, Nadia Moretto, Fabrizio Facchinetti, Paola Caruso, Gessica Marchini, Loredana Battipaglia, Riccardo Patacchini, Valentina Cenacchi, Roberta Volta, Francesco Amadei, Alice Pappani, Silvia Capacchi, Valentina Bagnacani, Maurizio Delcanale, Paola Puccini, Silvia Catinella, Maurizio Civelli, Elisabetta Armani
Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a key cAMP-metabolising enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease and its pharmacological inhibition has been shown to exert therapeutic efficacy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Herein we describe a drug discovery program aiming at the identification of novel classes of potent PDE4 inhibitors suitable for pulmonary administration. Starting from a previous series of benzoic acid esters, we explored the chemical space in the solvent-exposed region of the enzyme catalytic binding pocket...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198958/inhalation-anaesthetic-isoflurane-inhibits-the-muscarinic-cation-current-and-carbachol-induced-gastrointestinal-smooth-muscle-contractions
#14
Dariia Dryn, Jialie Luo, Mariia Melnyk, Alexander Zholos, Hongzhen Hu
Gastrointestinal tract motility may be demoted significantly after surgery operations at least in part due to anaesthetic agents, but there is no comprehensive explanation of the molecular mechanism(s) of such adverse effects. Anesthetics are known to interact with various receptors and ion channels including several subtypes of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Two members of the canonical subfamily of TRP channels (TRPC), TRPC4 and TRPC6 are Ca2+-permeable cation channels involved in visceral smooth muscle contractility induced by acetylcholine, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the gut...
November 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187721/-survival-strategies-of-aspergillus-in-the-human-body
#15
Masato Tashiro, Koichi Izumikawa
 The human body is a hostile environment for Aspergillus species, which originally live outside the human body. There are lots of elimination mechanisms against Aspergillus inhaled into the human body, such as high body temperature, soluble lung components, mucociliary clearance mechanism, or responses of phagocytes. Aspergillus fumigatus, which is the primary causative agent of human infections among the human pathogenic species of Aspergillus, defend itself from the hostile human body environment by various mechanisms, such as thermotolerance, mycotoxin production, and characteristic morphological features...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184805/growth-perturbations-from-stimulant-medications-and-inhaled-corticosteroids
#16
REVIEW
Erin Richardson, Tasa Seibert, Naveen K Uli
Stimulant medications for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for the treatment of asthma are two classes of medications that are commonly prescribed in pediatrics. Among other adverse effects of these medications, growth attenuation has long been a focus of investigation. With stimulants, growth deficits of 1-1.4 cm/year have been observed in the short term, mainly in the first 2 years of treatment, in a dose-dependent manner. Long-term studies on stimulants have reported divergent effects on growth, with many studies showing no clinically significant height deficits by adulthood...
October 2017: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184413/near-fatal-asthma-responsive-to-mepolizumab-after-failure-of-omalizumab-and-bronchial-thermoplasty
#17
Francesco Menzella, Carla Galeone, Mirco Lusuardi, Anna Simonazzi, Claudia Castagnetti, Patrizia Ruggiero, Nicola Facciolongo
Severe asthma affects between 5% and 10% of patients with asthma worldwide and requires best standard therapies at maximal doses, but there is a subgroup of patients refractory to all treatments. We share a case report of a 53-year-old woman with a history of severe allergic asthma that progressively worsened over the years despite the best therapy. She had been hospitalized 35 times, including nine admissions to the respiratory intensive care unit due to severe exacerbations. To rule out other possible diagnoses, several investigations were performed, such as computed tomography scan of the chest and neck, fiberoptic laryngoscopy, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, and complete blood cell count...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183393/prophylactic-penehyclidine-inhalation-for-prevention-of-postoperative-pulmonary-complications-in-high-risk-patients-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Ting Yan, Xin-Quan Liang, Tong Wang, Wei-Ou Li, Hui-Juan Li, Sai-Nan Zhu, Dong-Xin Wang
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are major causes of morbidity, mortality, and prolonged hospital stay in patients after surgery. Using effective strategies to prevent its occurrence is essential to improve outcome. However, despite various efforts, the incidence of PPCs remains elevated in high-risk patients. Anticholinergic inhalation is used to reduce high airway resistance and improve pulmonary function; it may be helpful to decrease the risk of PPCs. Penehyclidine is a long-acting anticholinergic agent which selectively blocks M1 and M3 receptors...
November 28, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178365/levodopa-a-new-look-at-an-old-friend
#19
REVIEW
C Warren Olanow, Fabrizio Stocchi
Levodopa is the most effective antiparkinsonian agent, but chronic treatment is associated with the development of motor complications in the majority of patients with PD. Recent scientific and clinical advances are improving this situation. Long-term, double-blind studies demonstrate that dose is an important risk factor for the development of both motor fluctuations and dyskinesia, and suggest that it is best to use low doses of l-dopa when possible. Inhaled l-dopa and sublingual apomorphine are now being developed as rescue therapies that permit rapid and predictable reversal of off periods...
November 27, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176298/smaller-effect-of-propofol-than-sevoflurane-anesthesia-on-dopamine-turnover-induced-by-methamphetamine-and-nomifensine-in-the-rat-striatum-an-in-vivo-microdialysis-study
#20
Saori Taharabaru, Maiko Satomoto, Takahiro Tamura, Yushi U Adachi
Volatile anesthetics accelerate dopamine turnover in the brain, especially when used in conjunction with psychotropic agents such as methamphetamine and nomifensine. The effect of intravenous propofol anesthesia on the extracellular dopamine concentrations is unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two anesthetics on the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and metabolites using an in vivo microdialysis model. Male Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with a microdialysis probe into the right striatum...
November 23, 2017: Experimental Animals
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