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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457215/the-effect-of-anaesthetic-technique-during-primary-breast-cancer-surgery-on-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-platelet-lymphocyte-ratio-and-return-to-intended-oncological-therapy
#1
A Ní Eochagáin, D Burns, B Riedel, D I Sessler, D J Buggy
Inflammation and immunosuppression contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer. An increased neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio reflects these processes and is associated with adverse cancer outcomes. Whether anaesthetic technique for breast cancer surgery influences these factors, and potentially cancer recurrence, remains unknown. We conducted a secondary analysis in patients enrolled in an ongoing trial of anaesthetic technique on breast cancer recurrence. The primary hypothesis was that postoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio is lower in patients allocated to receive propofol-paravertebral rather than inhalational agent-opioid anaesthesia for primary breast cancer surgery...
February 19, 2018: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457121/anesthesia-for-patients-with-ptrf-mutations-a-case-report
#2
Atsuko Hirano, Tomohiko Takada, Mariko Senda, Hidemasa Takahashi, Takeo Suzuki
Background: Polymeraze I and transcript release factor ( PTRF ) mutations are a newly recognized disease, which cause congenital generalized lipodystrophy associated with myopathy. Case presentation: A 29-year-old man (height 126 cm; weight 22 kg) with a PTRF mutation was scheduled for mandibular dentigerous cystectomy. His primary symptoms were lipodystrophy, myopathy, long QT syndrome, refractory nephrosis, and abnormal lipid metabolism. Defibrillator pads were applied soon after the patient entered the operating room...
2018: JA Clin Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451844/pulmonary-delivery-of-therapeutic-and-diagnostic-gases
#3
Warren M Zapol, H Cecil Charles, Andrew R Martin, Rui C Sá, Binglan Yu, Fumito Ichinose, Neil MacIntyre, Joseph Mammarappallil, Richard Moon, John Z Chen, Eric T Geier, Chantal Darquenne, G Kim Prisk, Ira Katz
The 21st Congress for the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine included, for the first time, a session on Pulmonary Delivery of Therapeutic and Diagnostic Gases. The rationale for such a session within ISAM is that the pulmonary delivery of gaseous drugs in many cases targets the same therapeutic areas as aerosol drug delivery, and is in many scientific and technical aspects similar to aerosol drug delivery. This article serves as a report on the recent ISAM congress session providing a synopsis of each of the presentations...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430833/spray-dried-nanoparticle-in-microparticle-delivery-systems-nimds-for-gene-delivery-comprising-polyethylenimine-pei-based-nanoparticles-in-a-poly-vinyl-alcohol-matrix
#4
Jan Schulze, Stephanie Kuhn, Stephan Hendrikx, Michaela Schulz-Siegmund, Tobias Polte, Achim Aigner
Nucleic acid-based therapies rely on efficient formulations for nucleic acid protection and delivery. As nonviral strategies, polymeric and lipid-based nanoparticles have been introduced; however, biological efficacy and biocompatibility as well as poor storage properties due to colloidal instability and their unavailability as ready-to-use systems are still major issues. Polyethylenimine is the most widely explored and promising candidate for gene delivery. Polyethylenimine-based polyplexes and their combination with liposomes, lipopolyplexes, are efficient for DNA or siRNA delivery in vitro and in vivo...
February 12, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424930/inhaled-mannitol-for-cystic-fibrosis
#5
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Judith Thornton, Clare S Murray, Tiffany Dwyer
BACKGROUND: Several agents are used to clear secretions from the airways of people with cystic fibrosis. Mannitol increases mucociliary clearance, but its exact mechanism of action is unknown. The dry powder formulation of mannitol may be more convenient and easier to use compared with established agents which require delivery via a nebuliser. Phase III trials of inhaled dry powder mannitol for the treatment of cystic fibrosis have been completed and it is now available in Australia and some countries in Europe...
February 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422905/immunomodulatory-properties-of-carvone-inhalation-and-its-effects-on-contextual-fear-memory-in-mice
#6
Aritz Lasarte-Cia, Teresa Lozano, Marta Pérez-González, Marta Gorraiz, Kristina Iribarren, Sandra Hervás-Stubbs, Pablo Sarobe, Obdulia Rabal, Mar Cuadrado-Tejedor, Ana García-Osta, Noelia Casares, Juan José Lasarte
A complex network of interactions exists between the immune, the olfactory, and the central nervous system (CNS). Inhalation of different fragrances can affect immunological reactions in response to an antigen but also may have effects on the CNS and cognitive activity. We performed an exploratory study of the immunomodulatory ability of a series of compounds representing each of the 10 odor categories or clusters described previously. We evaluated the impact of each particular odor on the immune response after immunization with the model antigen ovalbumin in combination with the TLR3 agonist poly I:C...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421482/minimum-alveolar-concentration-key-concepts-and-a-review-of-its-pharmacological-reduction-in-dogs-part-2
#7
REVIEW
Rachel Reed, Thomas Doherty
OBJECTIVE: To outline the major components of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and review the literature regarding pharmacological manipulation of the MAC of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, enflurane, and desflurane in dogs. The pharmacological agents included are alpha-2 agonists, benzodiazepines, propofol, opioids, lidocaine, acepromazine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), maropitant, and NMDA antagonists. Part 2 of this review will focus on the effect of opioids, lidocaine, NSAIDs, maropitant, acepromazine, and NMDA antagonists on MAC...
February 1, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415640/in-vivo-effects-of-intravenous-lipid-emulsion-on-lung-tissue-in-an-experimental-model-of-acute-malathion-intoxication
#8
Murat Uysal, Serhat Karaman
Malathion can be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin, but acute toxicity is maximized when administered orally. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) treatment is used as a new therapeutic method in cases of systemic toxicity caused by some lipid soluble agents. This study aimed to examine the potential treatment effect of ILE on rat lung tissue in a toxicokinetic model of malathion exposure. Twenty-one adult Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three equal groups. The groups were organized as group I (control), group II (malathion), and group III (malathion + ILE treatment)...
February 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413503/co-suspension-delivery-technology-in-pressurized-metered-dose-inhalers-for-multi-drug-dosing-in-the-treatment-of-respiratory-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Gary T Ferguson, Anthony J Hickey, Sarvajna Dwivedi
Technologies for long-term delivery of aerosol medications in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have improved over the past 2 decades with advancements in our understanding of the physical chemistry of aerosol formulations, device engineering, aerosol physics, and pulmonary biology. However, substantial challenges remain when a patient is required to use multiple inhaler types, multiple medications, and/or combinations of medications. Combining multiple drugs into a single inhaler while retaining appropriate dosing of the individual agents in the combination may enhance patient adherence to therapy and reduce device errors that occur when patients are using multiple inhalers...
January 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409063/recovery-of-the-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-virulence-after-animal-passage-promotes-changes-in-the-antioxidant-repertoire-of-the-fungus
#10
Daniele G Castilho, Marina V Navarro, Alison F A Chaves, Patricia Xander, Wagner L Batista
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a cause of disease in healthy and immunocompromised persons in Latin America. The infection begins after inhalation of the fungal propagules and their thermo-dimorphic shift to yeast form. The development of the disease depends on factors associated with the host immune response and the infectious agent's characteristics, especially virulence. The oxidative stress response is an important virulence attribute in several fungi. In this study, we assessed the enzymatic repertoire of responses to oxidative stress in the Pb18 isolate with different degrees of virulence...
February 2, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408385/inhaled-corticosteroids-safety-and-adverse-effects-in-patients-with-asthma
#11
Enrico Heffler, Lorena Nascimento Girardi Madeira, Matteo Ferrando, Francesca Puggioni, Francesca Racca, Luca Malvezzi, Gianni Passalacqua, Giorgio Walter Canonica
Asthma is a common inflammatory airway disease for which the most commonly used controller medications are inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Asthma control is difficult to achieve in individuals with severe asthma, which comprise 5-10% of individuals with asthma, even with high doses of ICS and other anti-inflammatory drugs. In this clinical context, the adverse effects of ICS (including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression, reduction in growth velocity, osteoporosis, diabetes, and respiratory infections) become more probable and impacting on the quality of life of severe asthmatics...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403385/differential-contribution-of-constituent-metal-ions-to-the-cytotoxic-effects-of-fast-dissolving-metal-oxide-nanoparticles
#12
Jiyoung Jeong, Sung-Hyun Kim, Seonghan Lee, Dong-Keon Lee, Youngju Han, Soyeon Jeon, Wan-Seob Cho
The main mechanism of toxicity for fast-dissolving nanoparticles (NPs) is relatively simple as it originates from the intrinsic toxicity of their constituent elements rather than complicated surface reactivity. However, there is little information about the compared toxicity of fast-dissolving NP and its constituent ion, which is essential for understanding the mechanism of NP toxicity and the development of a structure-toxicity relationship (STR) model. Herein, we selected three types of fast-dissolving metal-oxide NPs (CoO, CuO, and ZnO) and constituent metal chlorides (CoCl2, CuCl2, and ZnCl2) to compare dose-response curves between NP and its constituent metal...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402620/monitoring-of-mycoflora-in-outdoor-air-of-different-localities-of-ahvaz-iran
#13
M Fatahinia, A Zarei-Mahmoudabadi, H Shokri, H Ghaymi
INTRODUCTION: Airborne fungi are considered important causes of respiratory allergy and diseases. The knowledge of these fungi in a city or region is important for the ecological diagnosis and specific treatment of respiratory manifestations induced by inhalation of fungal agents. Therefore, in recent years bioaerosols and their density in the air is highly regarded. Identifying fungi with common mycological methods as well as molecular about 5% of people are prone to allergic symptoms of the respiratory tract caused by molds during their lives...
February 2, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399928/the-unfold-story-of-general-anesthesia
#14
Ferenc Zsila
Inhalational anesthetics are routinely employed in the clinical practice to accomplish general anesthesia. Concerns have recently been emerged regarding deleterious impact of these volatile agents on cognitive performance, immune functions, tumor recurrence and metastasis. These agents have shown to modify the gene expression pattern as well as cell signaling in tumor cells but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain a matter of conjecture. Regulatory/signaling proteins either of cytosolic or membrane origin abundantly contain intrinsically disordered sequences, the conformational pliability of which is pivotal in their biological functions...
February 4, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399129/efficacy-of-salmeterol-and-formoterol-combination-treatment-in-mice-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#15
Zhiyuan Wang, Chunyan Wang, Xiaoli Yang
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a severe lung disease characterized by progressive airflow limitation. Salmeterol and formoterol are two commonly used drugs in COPD therapy, which act as β2-receptor agonists. In the current study, a mouse model of COPD induced by airway lipopolysaccharide inhalation was established. The therapeutic efficacy of salmeterol and formoterol co-treatment was investigated in this model over a 56-day-long observation period. It was also identified that functional residual capacity and inspiratory resistance were significantly improved after salmeterol and/or formoterol treatment compared with the control group (all P<0...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388572/melioidosis
#16
REVIEW
W Joost Wiersinga, Harjeet S Virk, Alfredo G Torres, Bart J Currie, Sharon J Peacock, David A B Dance, Direk Limmathurotsakul
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative environmental bacterium and the aetiological agent of melioidosis, a life-threatening infection that is estimated to account for ∼89,000 deaths per year worldwide. Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for melioidosis, and the global diabetes pandemic could increase the number of fatalities caused by melioidosis. Melioidosis is endemic across tropical areas, especially in southeast Asia and northern Australia. Disease manifestations can range from acute septicaemia to chronic infection, as the facultative intracellular lifestyle and virulence factors of B...
February 1, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385692/an-inhalable-powder-formulation-based-on-micro-and-nanoparticles-containing-5-fluorouracil-for-the-treatment-of-metastatic-melanoma
#17
Kelly Cristine Zatta, Luiza A Frank, Luciano Antonio Reolon, Lucas Amaral-Machado, Eryvaldo S T Egito, Maria Palmira Daflon Gremião, Adriana Raffin Pohlmann, Silvia S Guterres
Melanoma is the most aggressive and lethal type of skin cancer, with a poor prognosis because of the potential for metastatic spread. The aim was to develop innovative powder formulations for the treatment of metastatic melanoma based on micro- and nanocarriers containing 5-fluorouracil (5FU) for pulmonary administration, aiming at local and systemic action. Therefore, two innovative inhalable powder formulations were produced by spray-drying using chondroitin sulfate as a structuring polymer: (a) 5FU nanoparticles obtained by piezoelectric atomization (5FU-NS) and (b) 5FU microparticles of the mucoadhesive agent Methocel™ F4M for sustained release produced by conventional spray drying (5FU-MS)...
January 30, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377691/identification-of-a-novel-hybridization-from-isosorbide-5-mononitrate-and-bardoxolone-methyl-with-dual-activities-of-pulmonary-vasodilation-and-vascular-remodeling-inhibition-on-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-rats
#18
Yusheng Cheng, Yan Gong, Shuai Qian, Yi Mou, Hanrui Li, Xijing Chen, Hui Kong, Weiping Xie, Hong Wang, Yihua Zhang, Zhangjian Huang
Given that the clinical therapeutic efficacy of oral-dosed bardoxolone methyl (1) and the selective vasodilatory effect caused by inhalation of nitric oxide (NO) on pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients, a new hybrid (CDDO-NO, 2) from 1 and NO donor isosorbide 5-mononitrate (3) was designed and synthesized. This hybrid could liberate 1 and NO in the lungs of rats after trachea injection. Significantly, 2 lowered mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), decreased right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), as well as attenuated pulmonary artery medial thickness (PAMT) and vascular muscularization in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rats...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374847/volumetric-and-reflective-device-dead-space-of-anaesthetic-reflectors-under-different-conditions
#19
Hagen Bomberg, Max Veddeler, Thomas Volk, Heinrich V Groesdonk, Andreas Meiser
Inhalation sedation is increasingly performed in intensive care units. For this purpose, two anaesthetic reflectors, AnaConDa™ and Mirus™ are commercially available. However, their internal volume (100 ml) and possible carbon dioxide reflection raised concerns. Therefore, we compared carbon dioxide elimination of both with a heat moisture exchanger (HME, 35 ml) in a test lung model. A constant flow of carbon dioxide was insufflated into the test lung, ventilated with 500 ml, 10 breaths per minute. HME, MIRUS and AnaConDa were connected successively...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368146/irritant-induced-asthma-to-hypochlorite-in-mice-due-to-impairment-of-the-airway-barrier
#20
Sofie Van Den Broucke, Lore Pollaris, Greetje Vande Velde, Erik Verbeken, Benoit Nemery, Jeroen Vanoirbeek, Peter Hoet
Inhalation of commonly present irritants, such as chlorine and chlorine derivatives, can cause adverse respiratory effects, including irritant-induced asthma (IIA). We hypothesize that due to airway barrier impairment, exposure to hypochlorite (ClO-) can result in airway hypersensitivity. C57Bl/6 mice received an intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of the airway damaging agent naphthalene (NA, 200 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle (mineral oil, MO). In vivo micro-computed tomography (CT) images of the lungs were acquired before and at regular time points after the i...
January 24, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
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