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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526439/-over-diagnosis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-primary-care-prevalence-and-determining-factors
#1
R Golpe, M Díaz-Fernández, N Mengual-Macenlle, P Sanjuán-López, I Martín-Robles, E Cano-Jiménez
INTRODUCTION: COPD under-diagnosis is common in Primary Health Care medicine, due to the low use of spirometry, but there is less information about over-diagnosis of the disease in patients that have a clinical diagnosis of COPD. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the study was to investigate the prevalence of COPD over-diagnosis in Primary Care medicine. Secondary objectives were to determine the factors associated with an incorrect clinical diagnosis of COPD and to analyse whether the pharmacological treatment is different for patients with correct or incorrect diagnosis...
May 17, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523393/flavored-anesthetic-masks-for-inhalational-induction-in-children
#2
Aakriti Gupta, Preethy Joseph Mathew, Neerja Bhardwaj
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of masking the odor of inhalational agents using fruit flavors on the anxiety behavior and compliance of children for inhalational induction. METHODS: A prospective randomized double blind, placebo controlled study was conducted on 60 unpremedicated children in the age group of 4-12 y. Thirty children received anesthetic masks smeared with a flavor of child's choice while the other 30 children were induced using masks without flavor...
May 19, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518083/bronchoalveolar-lavage-of-murine-lungs-to-analyze-inflammatory-cell-infiltration
#3
Lien Van Hoecke, Emma Richelle Job, Xavier Saelens, Kenny Roose
Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) is an experimental procedure that is used to examine the cellular and acellular content of the lung lumen ex vivo to gain insight into an ongoing disease state. Here, a simple and efficient method is described to perform BAL on murine lungs without the need of special tools or equipment. BAL fluid is isolated by inserting a catheter in the trachea of terminally anesthetized mice, through which a saline solution is instilled into the bronchioles. The instilled fluid is gently retracted to maximize BAL fluid retrieval and to minimize shearing forces...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516246/aspergillus-species-in-bronchiectasis-challenges-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-and-non-cystic-fibrosis-airways
#4
REVIEW
Sanjay H Chotirmall, Maria Teresa Martin-Gomez
Bronchiectasis is a chronic irreversible airway abnormality associated with infectious agents that either cause or superinfect the airways. While the role of bacteria is well studied, much remains to be determined about fungi in both cystic fibrosis- and non-cystic fibrosis-related bronchiectasis. The airway is constantly exposed to inhaled ambient moulds of which Aspergillus represent the most ubiquitous. In a normal healthy host, this situation is of little consequence. The presence of anatomical or immunological abnormalities such as those in bronchiectasis leads to a range of fungal-related pathologies from asymptomatic airway colonization to fungal sensitization, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or chronic pulmonary aspergillosis...
May 17, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509852/inhaled-antibiotic-therapy-in-chronic-respiratory-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Diego J Maselli, Holly Keyt, Marcos I Restrepo
The management of patients with chronic respiratory diseases affected by difficult to treat infections has become a challenge in clinical practice. Conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis require extensive treatment strategies to deal with multidrug resistant pathogens that include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia species and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM). These challenges prompted scientists to deliver antimicrobial agents through the pulmonary system by using inhaled, aerosolized or nebulized antibiotics...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506727/-differences-and-similarities-between-occupational-and-tobacco-induced-copd
#6
REVIEW
T Soumagne, D Caillaud, B Degano, J-C Dalphin
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) most often results from the inhalation of toxic agents. Cigarette smoking still remains the principal cause but the pertinence of occupational COPD is now clearly established. After a brief overview of the epidemiology of this "other COPD", the clinical and functional characteristics are summarized, taking into account recent advances in this field. The combined effects of occupational exposure and tobacco are also considered, providing evidence of the need to continuously reinforce campaigns of education and prevention in occupational COPD...
May 12, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506101/evaluation-of-personal-inhalable-aerosol-samplers-with-different-filters-for-use-during-anthrax-responses
#7
Sergey A Grinshpun, Angela M Weber, Michael Yermakov, Reshmi Indugula, Yousef Elmashae, Tiina Reponen, Laura Rose
Risk of inhalation exposure to viable Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) spores has primarily been assessed using short-term, stationary sampling methods which may not accurately characterize the concentration of inhalable-sized spores reaching a person's breathing zone. While a variety of aerosol sampling methods have been utilized during previous anthrax responses, no consensus has yet been established for personal air sampling. The goal of this study was to determine the best sampler-filter combination(s) for the collection and extraction of B...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504252/pulmonary-delivery-of-nanoparticle-chemotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-lung-cancers-challenges-and-opportunities
#8
REVIEW
Sharad Mangal, Wei Gao, Tonglei Li, Qi Tony Zhou
Lung cancer is the second most prevalent and the deadliest among all cancer types. Chemotherapy is recommended for lung cancers to control tumor growth and to prolong patient survival. Systemic chemotherapy typically has very limited efficacy as well as severe systemic adverse effects, which are often attributed to the distribution of anticancer drugs to non-targeted sites. In contrast, inhalation routes permit the delivery of drugs directly to the lungs providing high local concentrations that may enhance the anti-tumor effect while alleviating systemic adverse effects...
May 1, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496494/effect-of-inhalation-of-lavender-essential-oil-on-vital-signs-in-open-heart-surgery-icu
#9
Armaiti Salamati, Soheyla Mashouf, Faraz Mojab
This study evaluated the effects of inhalation of Lavender essential oil on vital signs in open heart surgery ICU. The main complaint of patients after open-heart surgery is dysrhythmia, tachycardia, and hypertension due to stress and pain. Due to the side effects of chemical drugs, such as opioids, use of non-invasive methods such as aromatherapy for relieving stress and pain parallel to chemical agents could be an important way to decrease the dose and side effects of analgesics. In a multicenter, single-blind trial, 40 patients who had open-heart surgery were recruited...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495073/expert-statement-on-the-single-agent-use-of-inhaled-bronchodilator-in-the-treatment-of-stable-mild-moderate-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Juan Antonio Riesco Miranda, Bernardino Alcázar, Inmaculada Alfageme, Ciro Casanova, Bartolomé Celli, Juan P de-Torres, Carlos A Jiménez Ruiz
OBJECTIVE: To describe the evidence- and experience-based expert consensus on the use of single-agent bronchodilators in patients with stable mild-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Using Delphi methodology, a panel of 7 respiratory medicine experts was established, who, in the first nominal group meeting defined the scope, users, and document sections. The panel drew up 14 questions on the use of single-agent bronchodilators in patients with mild-moderate stable COPD to be answered with a systematic review of the literature...
May 8, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494877/prevalence-of-malignant-hyperthermia-diagnosis-in-hospital-discharge-records-in-california-florida-new-york-and-wisconsin
#11
Zhen Lu, Henry Rosenberg, Guohua Li
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare yet potentially fatal pharmacogenetic disorder triggered by exposure to inhalational anesthetics and the depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent succinylcholine. Epidemiologic data on the geographic variation in MH prevalence is scant. The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence of recorded MH diagnosis in patients discharged from hospitals in four states in the United States. DESIGN: Observational study...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494828/treatment-of-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn-use-of-pulmonary-vasodilators-in-term-neonates
#12
Caitlyn Luecke, Christopher McPherson
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) represents a challenging condition associated with significant morbidity. A successful transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life is contingent on adequate pulmonary vasodilation. Several pathophysiologies contribute to the failure of this cascade and may result in life-threatening hypoxia and acidosis in the newborn. Management includes optimal respiratory support, adequate sedation and analgesia, and support of vascular tone and cardiac function...
May 1, 2017: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492195/evaluation-of-nitrous-oxide-oxygen-and-triclofos-sodium-as-conscious-sedative-agents
#13
Priya Subramaniam, K L Girish Babu, Disha Lakhotia
BACKGROUND: Conscious sedation is used in the pediatric dentistry to reduce fear and anxiety in children and promote favorable treatment outcomes. To achieve them, the primary clinical need is for a well-tolerated, effective, and expedient analgesic and sedative agent that is safe to use. AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of nitrous oxide-oxygen and triclofos sodium as conscious sedative agents in 5-10-year-old children. METHODOLOGY: Sixty children aged 5-10 years showing anxious, uncooperative, and apprehensive behavior were randomly divided and assigned into two groups (Groups A and B) such that Group A received 40% nitrous oxide-60% oxygen and Group B received triclofos sodium in the dose of 70 mg/kg body weight, given 30 min before the treatment procedure...
April 2017: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486343/fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-feno-and-spirometry-as-indicators-of-inhalation-exposure-to-chemical-agents-in-pathology-workers
#14
Ritsuko Arakawa Suzuki, Toshiya Irokawa, Hiromasa Ogawa, Shinya Ohkouchi, Masao Tabata, Susumu Togashi, Takeshi Nakamura, Noriko Ohisa, Etsuhiro Nikkuni, Emiri Miura, Kaoru Yoshida, Hiroshi Inomata, Hajime Kurosawa
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine whether fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and spirometry can be used as indices to evaluate adverse health effects of low-concentrated chemical inhalation exposure, mainly to formaldehyde. METHODS: Thirty-three subjects (pathology technicians) and 30 controls (workers without handling any chemicals in the same hospitals) participated in this study. All participants underwent FeNO measurement and spirometry before and after 5 days of work...
May 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483563/losartan-a-selective-antagonist-of-at1-receptor-attenuates-seawater-inhalation-induced-lung-injury-via-modulating-jak2-stats-and-apoptosis-in-rat
#15
Congcong Li, Liyan Bo, Pengcheng Li, Xi Lu, Wangping Li, Lei Pan, Yani Sun, Deguang Mu, Wei Liu, Faguang Jin
Losartan is a selective antagonist of AngⅠ type (AT1) receptor of Angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ), which is widely used as a clinical medicine for the hypertension. Recent studies have shown that losartan was shown to protect from acute lung injury (ALI). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this research was to clarify whether Ang Ⅱ participated in the inflammatory response of ALI induced by seawater inhalation, and whether losartan had the protective effects on ALI by blocking the combination of Ang Ⅱ and AT1 receptor...
May 5, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480848/acute-viral-bronchiolitis-in-infants-review
#16
I Chkhaidze, D Zirakishvili
Bronchiolitis is a common condition in children less than 2 years of age and is a leading cause of infant hospitalization. Acute bronchiolitis is characterized by acute wheezing in infants or children and is associated with signs or symptoms of respiratory infection; the most common etiologic agent is respiratory syncytial virus. There is a lack of consensus regarding the clinical definition of acute viral bronchiolitis in children and hence the management varies across the globe. Usually it does not require investigation, treatment is merely supportive and a conservative approach seems adequate in the majority of children, especially for the youngest ones...
March 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480385/the-antibacterial-effect-of-urena-lobata-l-fromv-guangxi-on-mice-with-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#17
Yufang Yang, Zhenguang Huang, Xiaoqin Zou, Xiaobin Zhong, Xueyan Liang, Jinling Zhou
BACKGROUND: Alcohol extract from the root of Urena lobata L. (ULL) had broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Studies in vitro have sho that ULL aqueous extract has antibacterial effect on S. aureusis, and the combination therapy of the ULL aqueous extract with cefazolin sodium showed additive effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mice underwent nasal inhalation with S. aureus, a subset of mice were intra-gastric gavage with ULL and/or intravenous injection cefazolin sodium twice daily...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478944/theoretical-and-experimental-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-an-argon-gas-mixture-on-the-pressure-drop-through-adult-tracheobronchial-airway-replicas
#18
Patrick D Litwin, Anna Luisa Reis Dib, John Chen, Michelle Noga, Warren H Finlay, Andrew R Martin
Argon has the potential to be a novel inhaled therapeutic agent, owing to the neuroprotective and organoprotective properties demonstrated in preclinical studies. Before human trials are performed, an understanding of varying gas properties on airway resistance during inhalation is essential. This study predicts the effect of an 80% argon/20% oxygen gas mixture on the pressure drop through conducting airways, and by extension the airway resistance, and then verifies these predictions experimentally using 3-D printed adult tracheobronchial airway replicas...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478753/antibiotic-prescription-patterns-in-spanish-cystic-fibrosis-patients-results-from-a-national-multicenter-study
#19
Juan de Dios Caballero, Rosa Girón, Rosa Del Campo, Concepción Prados, María-Isabel Barrio, Antonio Salcedo, Rafael Cantón
OBJECTIVE: Information about antibiotic prescription patterns for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and, specifically, about inhaled treatment strategies for their management is lacking in Spain due to the absence of a national patient registry. In this study we present data about antibiotic prescription in the Spanish CF context that were obtained in a multicenter study, being inhaled treatment strategies the special focus of this work. METHODS: Twenty-four specialized CF units (12 adult, 12 pediatric) from 17 tertiary-care hospitals covering all Spanish Autonomous Communities provided sputa and clinical data from 15 consecutive patients...
May 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471738/regional-ventilation-changes-in-the-lung-treatment-response-mapping-by-using-hyperpolarized-gas-mr-imaging-as-a-quantitative-biomarker
#20
Felix C Horn, Helen Marshall, Guilhem J Collier, Richard Kay, Salman Siddiqui, Christopher E Brightling, Juan Parra-Robles, Jim M Wild
Purpose To assess the magnitude of regional response to respiratory therapeutic agents in the lungs by using treatment response mapping (TRM) with hyperpolarized gas magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. TRM was used to quantify regional physiologic response in adults with asthma who underwent a bronchodilator challenge. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the national research ethics committee and was performed with informed consent. Imaging was performed in 20 adult patients with asthma by using hyperpolarized helium 3 ((3)He) ventilation MR imaging...
May 4, 2017: Radiology
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