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intravenous anaesthesia

Tonny Stone Luggya, Richard Nicholas Kabuye, Cephas Mijumbi, Joseph Bahe Tindimwebwa, Andrew Kintu
BACKGROUND: Surgery and anaesthesia cause shivering due to thermal dysregulation as a compensatory mechanism and is worsened by vasodilatation from spinal anaesthesia that redistributes core body heat. Due to paucity of data Mulago Hospital's post spinal shivering burden is unknown yet it causes discomfort and morbidity. METHODS: Ethical approval was obtained to perform the study among consenting mothers due for elective caesarean section from March to May 2011...
October 18, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Madhavi Unmesh Santpur, Govind Marutrao Kahalekar, Nowreen Saraf, Aparna Losari
BACKGROUND: Regional anesthesia is the preferred technique for most of lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries. For decades, lignocaine had been the local anesthetic of choice for spinal anesthesia. Recent studies show that intravenous clonidine and dexmedetomidine can prolong the duration of the spinal anesthesia. Dexmedetomidine is a more suitable adjuvant compared to clonidine due to its more selective α2A receptor agonist activity. AIM: The study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of intravenous administration of dexmedetomidine on spinal anesthesia with 0...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Georges Daccache, Edouard Caspersen, Michel Pegoix, Kelly Monthé-Sagan, Ludovic Berger, Dominique Fletcher, Jean-Luc Hanouz
BACKGROUND: The intraoperative modulation of opioids continues to be based on clinical signs. This may result in adverse events such as sympathetic reactivity or opioid induced hyperalgesia. Recently, the Analgesia/Nociception Index (ANI), a non-invasive 0-100 index derived from heart rate variability analysis, has been proposed for nociception assessment. However, the ability of the ANI to adequately guide intraoperative opioid administration has never been demonstrated. We designed a prospective study to evaluate the ability of the ANI to guide remifentanil administration in vascular surgery...
October 12, 2016: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Gilles Guerrier, David Boutboul, Cedric Chanat, Charles Marc Samama, Christophe Baillard
BACKGROUND: To compare self-reported pain during injection of plain versus alkalinised 0.75% ropivacaine - 2% mepivacaine solution for anaesthesia performed at the medial caruncle site for eye surgery. METHODS: This prospective, monocentric, double blind, randomised, controlled trial involved 40 consecutive patients who received either a standard local anaesthetic solution (0.75% ropivacaine 5ml and 2% mepivacaine 5ml with a pH of 5.9), or an alkalinised solution composed with a pH-adjusted solution of 7...
October 6, 2016: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
R Kearns, A Macfarlane, A Grant, K Puxty, P Harrison, M Shaw, K Anderson, J Kinsella
We performed a single centre, double blind, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority study comparing ultrasound-guided fascia iliaca block with spinal morphine for the primary outcome of 24-h postoperative morphine consumption in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty under spinal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine. One hundred and eight patients were randomly allocated to receive either ultrasound-guided fascia iliaca block with 2 levobupivacaine (fascia iliaca group) or spinal morphine 100 μg plus a sham ultrasound-guided fascia iliaca block using saline (spinal morphine group)...
October 7, 2016: Anaesthesia
Joe Hulin, Sarah R Baker, Zoe Marshman, Sondos Albadri, Helen D Rodd
BACKGROUND: Decision aids are tools used to help individuals faced with difficult healthcare decisions. They help patients further understand the treatment options available and encourage the sharing of information between patients and clinicians. AIM: To develop a decision aid for young patients faced with the decision to undergo dental treatment with inhalation sedation, intravenous sedation, or general anaesthesia (GA). DESIGN: Qualitative interviews with dental patients (aged 10-16 years), and their parents/guardians were used to inform the content of a draft decision aid...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
Szilard Szucs, David Jessop, Gabriella Iohom, George D Shorten
BACKGROUND: Fractured neck of femur is a common cause of hospital admission in the elderly and usually requires operative fixation. In a variety of clinical settings, preoperative glucocorticoid administration has improved analgesia and decreased opioid consumption. Our objective was to define the postoperative analgesic efficacy of single dose of dexamethasone administered preoperatively in patients undergoing operative fixation of fractured neck of femur. METHODS: Institutional ethical approval was granted and written informed consent was obtained from each patient...
2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Preeti Verma, Sunil Kumar Prajapati, Rajbharan Yadav, Danielle Senyschyn, Peter R Shea, Natalie L Trevaskis
Vesicular and colloidal delivery systems can be designed to control drug release spatially and temporally to improve drug efficacy and side effect profiles. Niosomes (vesicles prepared from nonionic surfactants in aqueous media) are gaining interest as an alternative vesicular delivery system as they offer advantages such as biocompatibility, chemical stability, low cost, high purity and versatility. However, the physical stability of niosomes, like other vesicular systems, is limited by vesicle fusion, aggregation and leakage...
September 15, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Fozieh Bakhsha, Alireza Seyedi Niaki, Seyed Yaghoub Jafari, Zahra Yousefi, Mohammad Aryaie
INTRODUCTION: The main tasks of postoperative care are postoperative pain and complications control which play an important role in accelerating the recovery of patient's general condition. AIM: This study was performed in order to compare the effects of diclofenac suppository, intravenous acetaminophen and their combination on the severity of postoperative pain in patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia for cesarean section in Sayyad Shirazi teaching Hospital, Gorgon, Iran...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Harprit Kaur Madan, Rajinder Singh, Gurdip Singh Sodhi
INTRODUCTION: Propofol possesses many characteristics of an ideal intravenous anaesthetic agent, providing a smooth induction and a rapid recovery. However, it has been reported to evoke considerable pain on injection in 10-100% of patients. The cause of pain upon intravenous injection of propofol remains a mystery. AIM: To study and compare the efficacy of Lignocaine, Tramadol and Ketorolac in minimizing the propofol injection pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hundred adult patients (ASA grade I and grade II) scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia with propofol as an inducing agent were considered for the study...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Fidelis Anayo Onyekwulu, Edith Ebere Agu, Adaobi Obianuju Amucheazi
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous tramadol in control of shivering in obstetric patients under spinal anaesthesia and to determine the minimal dose of tramadol that is effective. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, randomised, double-blind, cross-sectional study of 144 pregnant women at term who had an indication for caesarean section. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups at the occurrence of shivering...
July 2016: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
Hemanshu Prabhakar, Gyaninder Pal Singh, Charu Mahajan, Indu Kapoor, Mani Kalaivani, Vidhu Anand
BACKGROUND: Brain tumour surgery usually is carried out with the patient under general anaesthesia. Over past years, both intravenous and inhalational anaesthetic agents have been used, but the superiority of one agent over the other is a topic of ongoing debate. Early and rapid emergence from anaesthesia is desirable for most neurosurgical patients. With the availability of newer intravenous and inhalational anaesthetic agents, all of which have inherent advantages and disadvantages, we remain uncertain as to which technique may result in more rapid early recovery from anaesthesia...
September 9, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sayaka Ishigaki, Takahiro Ogura, Ayana Kanaya, Yu Miyake, Kenichi Masui, Tomiei Kazama
BACKGROUND: The influence of preoperative rehydration on the action of rocuronium has not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the hypothesis that preoperative rehydration lowers arterial rocuronium plasma concentrations and changes its associated neuromuscular blocking effects during induction of anaesthesia. DESIGN: Randomised, single-blinded study. SETTING: A secondary hospital from October 2013 to July 2014...
September 2, 2016: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Eva-Lena Zetterlund, Henrik Gréen, Anna Oscarsson, Svante Vikingsson, Magnus Vrethem, Maj-Lis Lindholm, Christina Eintrei
BACKGROUND: Computer-processed algorithms of encephalographic signals are widely used to assess the depth of anaesthesia. However, data indicate that the bispectral index (BIS), a processed electroencephalography monitoring system, may not be reliable for assessing the depth of anaesthesia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the BIS monitoring system to assess changes in the level of unconsciousness, specifically during the transition from consciousness to unconsciousness, in patients undergoing total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol...
September 7, 2016: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Lucy Mwaura, Vitalis Mung'ayi, Jimmie Kabugi, Samina Mir
BACKGROUND: Spinal anaesthesia is the standard of care for elective caesarean delivery. It has advantages over general anaesthesia. However the sympathetic blockade induced by spinal anaesthesia results in an 80 percent incidence of hypotension without prophylactic management. Current evidence supports co-loading with intravenous fluids in conjunction with the use of vasopressors as the most effective way to prevent and treat the hypotension. Phenylephrine is the accepted vasopressor of choice in the parturient...
June 2016: African Health Sciences
E Pesonen, J Keski-Nisula, S Andersson, R Palo, J Salminen, P K Suominen
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are used in paediatric heart surgery to attenuate systemic inflammatory response. Glycocalyx regulates vascular permeability, shear stress and cell adhesion on the endothelium. Syndecan-1 serves as a biomarker of glycocalyx degradation. Hydrocortisone decreased endothelial glycocalyx degradation in an experimental model. Our hypothesis was that high-dose methylprednisolone decreases glycocalyx degradation as measured by plasma sydecan-1 concentration in children undergoing cardiac surgery...
November 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Gian M Tomassini, Piero Covarelli, Marco A Tomassini, Alessia Corsi, Leonardo Bianchi, Katharina Hansel, Luca Stingeni
BACKGROUND: The treatment of cutaneous advanced non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) and multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous melanoma metastases (Mm) represents a main therapeutic challenge. Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is an anticancer procedure that facilitates the penetration of cytotoxic drugs into cancer cells by means of the application of electrical pulses. The aim of our study was to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of ECT in the treatment of advanced NMSC and Mm. METHODS: Thirteen patients with a total of 88 cutaneous and subcutaneous tumour lesions were selected (69 Mm in 6 patients and 19 NMSC in 7 patients)...
October 2016: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Achiwa Motonobu, Yuasa Hidemichi, Umemura Eri, Takemoto Takashi, Kurita Kenichi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of intravenous sedation as a useful pain-relieving option for impacted third molar extractions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among patients who underwent bilateral mandibular third molar extractions under local anaesthesia and intravenous sedation (sedation group) and patients who underwent unilateral mandibular third molar extraction under local anaesthesia alone (local anaesthesia group)...
August 29, 2016: Oral Diseases
Byung-Moon Choi, Yong-Hun Lee, Sang-Mee An, Soo-Han Lee, Eun-Kyung Lee, Gyu-Jeong Noh
AIM: This prospective study aimed to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of intravenous oxycodone and to determine the minimum effective concentration (MEC) and minimum effective analgesic concentration (MEAC) of oxycodone for major open intra-abdominal surgery. METHODS: In the pharmacokinetic study, patients were administered intravenous oxycodone (0.1 mg⋅kg(-1) ), and arterial blood was sampled at pre-set intervals. In the analgesic-potency study, patients were administered intravenous oxycodone (0...
August 25, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Aanchal Kakkar, Asha Tyagi, Nazish Nabi, A K Sethi, U C Verma
BACKGROUND: Clonidine and dexmedetomidine are alpha-2 agonists with beneficial effect on the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of intravenous clonidine 1 μg/kg, and dexmedetomidine in doses of 0.5 μg/kg and 1 μg/kg, for blunting the hemodynamic changes during laryngoscopy and intubation. METHOD: Adult patients of ASA physical grade I/II scheduled for surgery under general anaesthesia with endotracheal tube were randomly divided into three groups using a computer generated random number table, each group receiving one of the following drugs prior to induction of anaesthesia, by a blinded anaesthesiologist in a volume of 100 mL infused intravenously over 20 minutes: clonidine 1 μg/kg, or dexmedetomidine 0...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
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