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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641392/alcohol-is-not-protective-against-mortality-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Jennifer S Albrecht, Majid Afshar, Deborah M Stein, Gordon S Smith
Alcohol exposure results in reduced mortality following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in animal models, yet clinical studies reported conflicting results and clinical trials based on proposed mechanisms have been disappointing. Methodological issues common to many of the clinical studies may have contributed to spurious results. Our objective was to evaluate the association between blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and in-hospital mortality following TBI, overcoming methodological problems of prior studies. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on individuals treated for isolated TBI at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center between 1997-2012 (n = 1,084)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641282/health-related-genetic-direct-to-consumer-tests-in-the-german-setting-the-available-offer-and-the-potential-implications-for-a-solidarily-financed-health-care-system
#2
Marika Plöthner, Mike Klora, Daniel Rudolph, Johann-Matthias Graf von der Schulenburg
BACKGROUND: The global genetic direct-to-consumer (DTC) market will reach a volume of USD 230 billion in 2018. The expenditures for this genetic analysis are borne by the customer, whereas consequential costs may arise for a solidarily financed system. In a first step, it is essential to gain an overview of the currently available offer in the German setting. METHODS: In April 2016, we conducted a systematic internet search in the Google search engine. In November 2016, we updated the information of the webpages in terms of country, language, types of health-related tests, additional offer of non-health-related DTC test, information about sensitivity and specificity, certification and accreditation, costs as well as reference to German Act on Genetic Testing...
June 23, 2017: Public Health Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641242/arrhythmia-mechanism-and-scaling-effect-on-the-spectral-properties-of-electroanatomical-maps-with-manifold-harmonics
#3
Margarita Sanroman-Junquera, Inmaculada Mora-Jimenez, Arcadi Garcia-Alberola, Antonio J Caamano, Beatriz Trenor, Jose Luis Rojo-Alvarez
Spatial and temporal processing of intracardiac electrograms provides relevant information to support the arrhythmia ablation during electrophysiological studies. Current Cardiac Navigation Systems (CNS) and Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI) build detailed three-dimensional electroanatomical maps (EAM), which represent the spatial anatomical distribution of bioelectrical features, such as activation time or voltage. We present a principled methodology for spectral analysis of both EAM geometry and bioelectrical feature in CNS or ECGI, including their spectral representation, cut-off frequency, or spatial sampling rate (SSR)...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641150/polyamine-and-tyramine-involvement-in-nacl-induced-improvement-of-cd-resistance-in-the-halophyte-inula-chrithmoides-l
#4
Rim Ghabriche, Tahar Ghnaya, Mejda Mnasri, Hanen Zaier, Raoudha Baioui, Delphine Vromman, Chedly Abdelly, Stanley Lutts
The aim of the present work was to analyze the impact of salinity on the plant response to Cd toxicity in the Mediterranean halophyte species Inula crithmoides. For this purpose, cuttings were cultivated hydroponically during 21d in the presence of 0, 25 or 50μM CdCl2 combined or not with 0, 100, 200 and 400mM NaCl. The obtained data demonstrated that, in the absence of Cd, NaCl strongly increased plant growth (the maximal dry weight being observed at 100mM) and enhanced the Na(+)/K(+) ratio in the shoot. Cd alone strongly affected plant growth in this halophyte...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641056/the-odd-couple-using-biomedical-and-intersectional-approaches-to-address-health-inequities
#5
Olena Hankivsky, Lesley Doyal, Gillian Einstein, Ursula Kelly, Janet Shim, Lynn Weber, Robin Repta
BACKGROUND: Better understanding and addressing health inequities is a growing global priority. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we contribute to the literature examining complex relationships between biological and social dimensions in the field of health inequalities. Specifically, we explore the potential of intersectionality to advance current approaches to socio-biological entwinements. DESIGN: We provide a brief overview of current approaches to combining both biological and social factors in a single study, and then investigate the contributions of an intersectional framework to such work...
January 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641026/sociodemographic-factors-associated-with-female-genital-cutting-among-women-of-reproductive-age-in-nigeria
#6
T O Ojo, M Y Ijadunola
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of female genital cutting (FGC) among women of reproductive age in Nigeria and identify the sociodemographic factors associated with the practice. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was carried out in 38,948 women of reproductive age (15-49 years). RESULTS: The prevalence of FGC among respondents was almost 25%, most of whom (82%) had undergone the procedure when they were under 5 years of age...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640854/maternal-bmi-and-diabetes-in-pregnancy-investigating-variations-between-ethnic-groups-using-routine-maternity-data-from-london-uk
#7
Erin Nishikawa, Laura Oakley, Paul T Seed, Pat Doyle, Eugene Oteng-Ntim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ethnicity-specific association between body mass index (BMI) and diabetes in pregnancy, with a focus on the appropriateness of using BMI cut-offs to identify pregnant women at risk of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Analysis of routinely-collected data from a maternity unit in London, UK. Data were available on 53 264 women delivering between 2004 and 2012. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between diabetes in pregnancy and BMI among women of different ethnicities, and adjusted probability estimates were used to derive risk equivalent cut-offs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637244/elevated-homocysteine-increases-the-risk-of-left-atrial-left-atrial-appendage-thrombus-in-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation-with-low-cha2ds2-vasc-score
#8
Yan Yao, Mei-Sheng Shang, Li-Jian Gao, Jing-Hua Zhao, Xiao-Hui Yang, Tong Liu, Ri-Bo Tang, Chen-Xi Jiang, De-Yong Long, Man Ning, Hui Zhu, Qiang Lv, Rong Hu, Xin Du, Jian-Zeng Dong
Aims: To assess the association and the predictive value of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels with LA/LAA thrombus in non-valvular Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with low CHA2DS2-VASc score. Methods and results: Eight hundred and eighty-eight consecutive patients in non-valvular AF with CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0 and 1 were enrolled. All patients routinely underwent transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography. A total of thirty-two patients had LA/LAA thrombus...
June 16, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637207/the-use-of-semitranslucent-rubber-pledgets-during-microsurgical-dissection-of-cerebellopontine-angle-tumors-technical-note
#9
Marcus D Mazur, Richard Gurgel, Joel D MacDonald
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Dissection of cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumors that abut or adhere to the brainstem or cranial nerves can be a challenging surgical endeavor. We describe the use of semitranslucent latex rubber pledgets in the tumor-brain interface as a method to improve visualization and protection of vital tissue during microsurgical dissection of CPA masses. The rubber pledgets are fashioned by cutting circular discs out of the cuff portion of talc-free, partially opaque latex gloves...
June 20, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637145/amount-of-balance-necessary-for-the-independence-of-transfer-and-stair-climbing-in-stroke-inpatients
#10
Takaaki Fujita, Atsushi Sato, Yuji Ohashi, Kazutaka Nishiyama, Takuro Ohashi, Kazuhiro Yamane, Yuichi Yamamoto, Kenji Tsuchiya, Koji Otsuki, Fusae Tozato
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the amount of balance necessary for the independence of transfer and stair-climbing in stroke patients. METHOD: This study included 111 stroke inpatients. Simple and multiple regression analyses were conducted to establish the association between the FIM(®) instrument scores for transfer or stair-climbing and Berg Balance Scale. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic curves were used to elucidate the amount of balance necessary for the independence of transfer and stair-climbing...
February 23, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637006/the-effect-of-ca125-on-metastasis-of-ovarian-cancer-old-marker-new-function
#11
Qin Yuan, Jiayin Song, Weiwei Yang, Hongyan Wang, Qianyu Huo, Jie Yang, Xiaoxu Yu, Yunde Liu, Chen Xu, Huijing Bao
CA125 has been used extensively to screen for neoplasms, especially in ovarian cancer. The serum CA125 level can be used as a better prognosis evaluation and it may dynamic monitoring the disease progression. We explored the effect of CA125 on ovarian cancer cell migration and its underlying mechanism. Transwell assays showed that exposure to 0.2 μg/ml or 0.4 μg/ml CA125 for 48 h increased migration of A2780 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. This effect of CA125 was blocked addition of 200 ng/ml DKK-1, a Wnt pathway inhibitor...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636792/mtf-and-dqe-enhancement-using-an-apodized-aperture-x-ray-detector-design
#12
Tomi F Nano, Terenz Escartin, Elina Ismailova, Karim S Karim, Jan Lindstrȍm, Ho Kyung Kim, Ian A Cunningham
PURPOSE: Acquisition of high-quality x-ray images using low patient exposures requires detectors with high detective quantum efficiency (DQE). We describe a novel apodized-aperture pixel (AAP) design that increases high-frequency modulation transfer function (MTF) and DQE values. The AAP design makes a separation of physical sensor elements from image pixels by using very small sensor elements (e.g. 0.010-0.025 mm) to synthesize desired larger image pixels (e.g. 0.1-0.2 mm). METHODS: A cascaded systems model of signal and noise propagation is developed to describe the benefits of the AAP approach in terms of the MTF, Wiener noise power spectrum (NPS) and DQE...
June 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636264/desmopressin-in-haemophilia-the-need-for-a-standardised-clinical-response-and-individualised-test-regimen
#13
S C M Stoof, L M Schütte, F W G Leebeek, M H Cnossen, M J H A Kruip
INTRODUCTION: Due to interindividual variation in desmopressin response, non-severe haemophilia A patients require desmopressin testing prior to therapeutic treatment. However, adequate response or frequency of blood sampling is not standardised in international guidelines. Consequently, various definitions and blood sampling protocols are currently applied. Interestingly, sustainability of desmopressin response is not incorporated into these definitions. AIM: To study desmopressin response rates in a cohort of non-severe haemophilia A patients using currently accepted desmopressin response definitions...
June 21, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636200/functional-impairment-an-unmeasured-marker-of-medicare-costs-for-postacute-care-of-older-adults
#14
S Ryan Greysen, Irena Stijacic Cenzer, W John Boscardin, Kenneth E Covinsky
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of preadmission functional impairment on Medicare costs of postacute care up to 365 days after hospital discharge. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Health and Retirement Study (HRS). PARTICIPANTS: Nationally representative sample of 16,673 Medicare hospitalizations of 8,559 community-dwelling older adults from 2000 to 2012. MEASUREMENTS: The main outcome was total Medicare costs in the year after hospital discharge, assessed according to Medicare claims data...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635569/stratification-model-based-on-early-postprostatectomy-prostate-specific-antigen-kinetics-may-help-to-reduce-the-risk-of-overtreatment-in-candidates-for-adjuvant-radiotherapy
#15
Stepan Vesely, Ladislav Jarolim, Marek Schmidt, Joana Do Carmo Silva, Katerina Duskova, Marko Babjuk
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to construct a stratification model based on early postoperative kinetics of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to select the most suitable high-risk patients for early intervention after radical prostatectomy (RP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study evaluated 205 men who had undergone RP without any adjuvant treatment. All of the patients had positive surgical margins, extracapsular extension and/or seminal vesicle invasion. The patients underwent multiple ultrasensitive PSA measurements on days 14, 30, 60 and 90 after RP, and subsequently at 3 month intervals...
February 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635514/effects-of-thyroid-hormone-therapy-on-cut-surface-healing-of-the-remnant-stomach-with-short-term-weight-loss-alterations-after-sleeve-gastrectomy
#16
Suleyman Orman, Kerem Karaman, Banu Isbilen Basok, Ucler Kisa, Ayse Bahar Ceyran, Erdal Birol Bostanci
BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic-pituitary-tyhroid axis is directly affected by drastic changes in energy stores. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of triiodothyronine (T3) treatment on cut-surface healing of remnant stomach with weight loss alterations after sleeve gastrectomy (SG). METHODS: Thirty male Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: sham (n = 6), control (n = 12), and experimental (n = 12). Control and experimental group rats underwent sleeve gastrectomy...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635461/cut-fossil-fuel-links-and-curb-burden-on-the-nhs
#17
Alice Munro
At a time when the NHS is struggling to meet demand, it is easy to regard the health impact of climate change as less urgent than the immediate needs of patients. However, action now to limit the effects of climate change would also reduce demands on the health service and help us to meet the healthcare needs of future generations.
June 21, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634773/development-and-validation-of-a-fall-risk-assessment-index-for-dialysis-patients
#18
Kenichi Kono, Yusuke Nishida, Hiroki Yabe, Yoshihumi Moriyama, Toshihiko Mori, Ryota Shiraki, Takashi Sato
BACKGROUND: Dialysis patients often have low physical performance due to uremic sarcopenia, protein energy wasting (PEW), and incidence intradialytic hypotension (IDH), which are indicated as risk factors for falling. The objective of this study was to develop a symptom-encompassing evaluation form to predict falls with high sensitivity for dialysis patients. METHODS: A total of 251 patients who had been receiving maintenance hemodialysis therapy three times a week were enrolled in the study...
June 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634757/a-uhplc-ms-ms-method-for-profiling-multifunctional-steroids-in-human-hair
#19
Zhen Dong, Caihong Wang, Jinlan Zhang, Zhe Wang
It is important to profile steroids in many physiological and pathological processes. Recently, hair has been used for the long-term measurement of endogenous steroid hormones. Analyzing hair has advantages of being noninvasive and time sequential compared with other bio-specimens. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques have been widely used over the past decades; however, it is challenging to profile estrogens in hair by LC-MS, and more comprehensive steroid profiling is required. In this paper, an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to simultaneously profile 28 multifunctional steroids, including corticosteroids (n = 6), estrogens (n = 13), androgens (n = 5) and progestogens (n = 4), in human scalp hair in a single run...
June 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634575/association-between-plasmatic-ceramides-profile-and-ast-alt-ratio-c14-0-ceramide-as-predictor-of-hepatic-steatosis-in-adolescents-independently-of-obesity
#20
Jorge Maldonado-Hernández, Gabriela E Saldaña-Dávila, Mónica I Piña-Aguero, Benjamín A Núñez-García, Mardia G López-Alarcón
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between plasma ceramides and hepatic steatosis (HS) in adolescents, independently of obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-four adolescents from two previous studies conducted and published by our crew were included. Study subjects were stratified in three groups: normal weight (n = 18), obesity (n = 34), and obesity + HS (n = 42). The presence of HS was defined when ALT/AST ratio was <1. Ceramides subspecies (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C24:0, and C24:1) were determined by LC/MS...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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