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Hassan Hashemi, Akbar Fotouhi, Abbasali Yekta, Reza Pakzad, Hadi Ostadimoghaddam, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
Purpose: The aim of the study was a systematic review of refractive errors across the world according to the WHO regions. Methods: To extract articles on the prevalence of refractive errors for this meta-analysis, international databases were searched from 1990 to 2016. The results of the retrieved studies were merged using a random effect model and reported as estimated pool prevalence (EPP) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: In children, the EPP of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism was 11...
March 2018: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
Lauren G Gabra, Samir I Sayegh
This study develops a method to determine toricity ratios used by arbitrary toric intraocular lens calculators. Access to this information allows for the improvement of refractive results. We derive the Sayegh-Gabra formula, which uses input and output parameters in a toric calculator to extract toricity ratios that are typically not disclosed. We illustrate the method on a number of commercial calculators. For each calculator, high, average, and low axial length values are crossed with high, average, and low mean corneal power values to generate a 3 × 3 matrix...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Seyyedhassan Paylakhi, Cassandre Labelle-Dumais, Nicholas G Tolman, Michael A Sellarole, Yusef Seymens, Joseph Saunders, Hesham Lakosha, Wilhelmine N deVries, Andrew C Orr, Piotr Topilko, Simon Wm John, K Saidas Nair
A mismatch between optical power and ocular axial length results in refractive errors. Uncorrected refractive errors constitute the most common cause of vision loss and second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Although the retina is known to play a critical role in regulating ocular growth and refractive development, the precise factors and mechanisms involved are poorly defined. We have previously identified a role for the secreted serine protease PRSS56 in ocular size determination and PRSS56 variants have been implicated in the etiology of both hyperopia and myopia, highlighting its importance in refractive development...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Vasily Mikhaïlovitch Smirnov, Christina Zeitz, Nagasamy Soumittra, Isabelle Audo, Sabine Defoort-Dhellemmes
INTRODUCTION: CABP4-related retinal dysfunction is a cone-rod synaptic transmission disorder with electronegative electroretinogram (ERG) waveform. It is a rare retinal dysfunction that can be classified into the incomplete form of congenital stationary night blindness. Absent foveal reflex and overall foveal thinning were previously reported, but in most cases the fundus appearance was described as nearly normal. We report here peculiar macular changes in a patient of French ancestry harbouring CABP4 mutations...
March 10, 2018: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Giuseppe Giannaccare, Laura Primavera, Michela Fresina
PURPOSE: To evaluate refractive, binocular vision and ocular alignment outcomes of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the treatment of hyperopia in esotropic patients. METHODS: Medical charts of hyperopic patients with full or partial accommodative esotropia (FAE or PAE) or consecutive exotropia (CE) undergone PRK from 2011 to 2014 were reviewed. The primary outcome was to assess the efficacy of PRK in improving ocular alignment. The secondary outcomes were the assessments of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), spherical equivalent (SE) and stereoacuity...
March 3, 2018: International Ophthalmology
D-J Qian, H Zhong, Q Nie, J Li, Y Yuan, C-W Pan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and associated factors of spectacles need and ownership among multiethnic school students in rural China. STUDY DESIGN: School-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: This school-based eye study was conducted in Yunnan province located in Southwestern China. Questionnaires were filled out by children with the help of their parents concerning demographic characteristics, spectacles usage, and myopia-related lifestyle exposures...
March 1, 2018: Public Health
Tawna L Roberts, Ruth E Manny, Julia S Benoit, Heather A Anderson
SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that accommodation in children is more accurate and less variable when performing a sustained near task with increased cognitive demand. In addition, children with increased uncorrected hyperopia have less stable accommodative responses, which may have visual implications during sustained near tasks. PURPOSE: This study investigated accommodative accuracy (lag) and variability during sustained viewing for passive and active tasks in children and adults with emmetropia and uncorrected hyperopia...
February 15, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Kyung Eun Han, Seung-Hee Baek, Seung-Hyun Kim, Key Hwan Lim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with horizontal strabismus in children and adolescents in South Korea. METHODS: A total of 5,935 children and adolescents 5-18 years of age who participated in the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-V) from July 2008 to December 2011 were evaluated and the prevalence of horizontal strabismus was estimated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between demographic, socioeconomic and clinical risk factors and clinically significant exodeviation (≥15 prism diopters [PD]) and esodeviation (≥10 PD)...
2018: PloS One
Hassan Hashemi, Mehdi Khabazkhoob, Amir Asharlous, Abbasali Yekta, Mohammad Hassan Emamian, Akbar Fotouhi
AIM: To compare sphere and cylinder refraction values using retinoscopy and autorefraction under cycloplegic conditions in children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out using multistage cluster sampling. The target population was children aged 6-12 years in Shahroud, a northern city in Iran. Examinations included measurements of visual acuity, subjective refraction and objective refraction. Objective refraction was measured with and without cycloplegia with a retinoscope and an autorefractometer...
February 13, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Fateme Alipour, Fateme Veisi Hampa, Elham Ashrafi, Shima Dehghani
PURPOSE: To determine predictive factors for intra-operative cyclotorsion in photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). METHODS: A retrospective statistical analysis of medical records pertaining to 3,996 eyes undergoing PRK was conducted. Outcome measures of this study were the likely existence of statistically significant relations between diverse and potentially influential factors and the occurrence of intraoperative cyclotorsion. RESULTS: A total of 96% of examined medical records indicated some degree of cyclotorsion with the absolute mean intraoperative value of 1...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Asaf Friehmann, Michael Mimouni, Arie Y Nemet, Tzahi Sela, Gur Munzer, Igor Kaiserman
PURPOSE: To analyze the incidence and risk factors associated with epithelial ingrowth following uncomplicated microkeratome-assisted LASIK. METHODS: All patients who underwent microkeratome-assisted LASIK between January 2006 and December 2014 in a single surgical center were reviewed. Epithelial ingrowth cases were identified and associated factors were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 149 (0.49%) of 30,574 cases developed epithelial ingrowth...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Ali M Alsaqr, Ghayda'a Ibrahim, Ali Abu Sharha, Raied Fagehi
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to explore the vision status of preschool children aged 3-6 years in Al Riyadh and to identify children at risk of amblyopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population-based study. Visual acuity (VA) was measured using 15-line Lea symbols, refractive error was assessed using the Mohindra near retinoscopy technique, and peak contrast sensitivity (CS) was measured with the aid of the numerical CS test. We recruited 335 children, with their parents' written consent, from 14 kindergartens...
October 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
Tanie Natung, Trishna Taye, Laura Amanda Lyngdoh, Begonia Dkhar, Ranendra Hajong
Purpose: To determine the magnitude and pattern of refractive errors among patients attending the ophthalmology department of a new medical college in North-East India. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of the new patients (age ≥5 years), who were phakic and whose unaided visual acuities were worse than 20/20 but improved with pinhole, was done. Complete ophthalmic examination and refraction with appropriate cycloplegia for age were done for the 4582 eligible patients...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Hussain F Al-Habboubi, Waseem Al-Zamil, Ali A Al-Habboubi, Rajiv Khandekar
Purpose: To evaluate refractive status and identify predictors of surgical success following a combined silicone oil removal/cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation procedure. Methods: In this single-armed, retrospective study, we reviewed patients who underwent vitreoretinal surgery followed by a combined silicone oil removal/cataract surgery procedure between 2009 and 2013. Preoperative data included patient demographics, refractive status, IOL power, and axial length (measured with the IOL Master)...
January 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
Tawna L Roberts, Scott B Stevenson, Julia S Benoit, Ruth E Manny, Heather A Anderson
SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that blur detection thresholds are elevated in young children compared with adults, and poorer blur detection thresholds are significantly correlated with the magnitude of accommodative microfluctuations. Given that accommodative microfluctuations are greater with greater accommodative responses, these findings may have implications for young uncorrected hyperopes. PURPOSE: This study investigated the association between subjective blur detection thresholds and accommodative microfluctuations in children 3 years to younger than 10 years old and adults...
February 3, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Christina Zeitz, Christoph Friedburg, Markus N Preising, Birgit Lorenz
Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of non-progressive retinal disorder with largely normal fundus appearance. The mode of inheritance can be autosomal dominant (adCSNB), autosomal recessive (arCSNB) or X-chromosomal (XLCSNB). Additional ocular signs can be myopia, hyperopia, strabismus, nystagmus and reduced visual acuity. The Riggs and Schubert-Bornschein form of CSNB can be discriminated by electroretinography. While the Riggs form represents a dysfunction of the rods, a signal transmission defect from photoreceptors to bipolar cell is described in patients with the more frequently occurring Schubert-Bornschein form...
February 1, 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Lisbeth Sandfeld, Hanne Weihrauch, Gitte Tubaek, Panteleimon Mortzos
PURPOSE: To report normative data on visual acuity (VA) for near and distance, refraction, ocular alignment, ocular motility and stereo acuity in a cohort of children aged 4.5-7 years. METHODS: A total of 950 children with normal development from the municipality of Roskilde, Denmark, were invited to participate in an ophthalmic cross-sectional population-based survey, of which 445 children in the age of 54-87 months participated with a complete ocular examination including cycloplegia...
January 25, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Li-Fang Hung, Baskar Arumugam, Lisa Ostrin, Nimesh Patel, Klaus Trier, Monica Jong, Earl L Smith Iii
Purpose: Previous studies suggest that the adenosine receptor antagonist, 7-methylxanthine (7-MX), retards myopia progression. Our aim was to determine whether 7-MX alters the compensating refractive changes produced by defocus in rhesus monkeys. Methods: Starting at age 3 weeks, monkeys were reared with -3 diopter (D; n = 10; 7-MX -3D/pl) or +3D (n = 6; 7-MX +3D/pl) spectacles over their treated eyes and zero-powered lenses over their fellow eyes. In addition, they were given 100 mg/kg of 7-MX orally twice daily throughout the lens-rearing period (age 147 ± 4 days)...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
D Ian Flitcroft, James Loughman, Christine F Wildsoet, Cathy Williams, Jeremy A Guggenheim
Purpose: To test the hypothesis that genes known to cause clinical syndromes featuring myopia also harbor polymorphisms contributing to nonsyndromic refractive errors. Methods: Clinical phenotypes and syndromes that have refractive errors as a recognized feature were identified using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. One hundred fifty-four unique causative genes were identified, of which 119 were specifically linked with myopia and 114 represented syndromic myopia (i...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
H Sprague Eustis, Pulin Shah
PURPOSE: Accommodative esotropia is a common cause of acquired esotropia. Pathogenesis varies among patients but usually includes excessive hyperopia and a high accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio or tight medial recti. The present study reviews an individualized treatment plan combining photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and strabismus surgery to correct these problems. DESIGN: This study is a retrospective, interventional case series. METHODS: Records for 15 patients who were treated for accommodative esotropia were reviewed...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
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