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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637770/analgesia-and-opioids-a-pharmacogenetics-shortlist-for-implementation-in-clinical-practice
#1
REVIEW
Maja Matic, Saskia N de Wildt, Dick Tibboel, Ron H N van Schaik
BACKGROUND: The use of opioids to alleviate pain is complicated by the risk of severe adverse events and the large variability in dose requirements. Pharmacogenetics (PGx) could possibly be used to tailor pain medication based on an individual's genetic background. Many potential genetic markers have been described, and the importance of genetic predisposition in opioid efficacy and toxicity has been demonstrated in knockout mouse models and human twin studies. Such predictors are especially of value for neonates and young children, in whom the assessment of efficacy or side effects is complicated by the inability of the patient to communicate this properly...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637428/quality-of-care-provided-in-two-scottish-rural-community-maternity-units-a-retrospective-case-review
#2
Sara Denham, Tracy Humphrey, Ruth Taylor
BACKGROUND: Women in Scotland with uncomplicated pregnancies are encouraged by professional bodies and national guidelines to access community based models of midwife-led care for their labour and birth. The evidence base for these guidelines relates to comparisons of predominantly urban birth settings in England. There appears to be little evidence available about the quality of the care during the antenatal, birth and post birth periods available for women within the Scottish Community Maternity Unit (CMU) model...
June 21, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636866/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-trichomonas-vaginalis-and-other-sexually-transmissible-infections-among-women-attending-antenatal-clinics-in-three-provinces-in-papua-new-guinea-a-cross-sectional-survey
#3
Lisa M Vallely, Pamela Toliman, Claire Ryan, Glennis Rai, Johanna Wapling, Carolyn Tomado, Savarina Huliafi, Gloria Munnull, Patricia Rarau, Suparat Phuanukoonnon, Handan Wand, Peter Siba, Glen D L Mola, John M Kaldor, Andrew J Vallely
Background Papua New Guinea (PNG) is estimated to have among the highest prevalences of HIV and sexually transmissible infections (STIs) of any Asia-Pacific country, and one of the highest burdens of maternal syphilis globally. The prevalence of curable STIs, such as Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), among pregnant women in PNG is relatively unknown. METHODS: A cross-sectional bio-behavioural survey to investigate the epidemiology of CT, NG, TV and other STIs among pregnant women in three provinces of PNG was undertaken...
October 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634578/neonatal-venous-thromboembolism
#4
REVIEW
Kristina M Haley
Neonates are the pediatric population at highest risk for development of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and the incidence of VTE in the neonatal population is increasing. This is especially true in the critically ill population. Several large studies indicate that the incidence of neonatal VTE is up almost threefold in the last two decades. Central lines, fluid fluctuations, sepsis, liver dysfunction, and inflammation contribute to the risk profile for VTE development in ill neonates. In addition, the neonatal hemostatic system is different from that of older children and adults...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629714/-clinical-observation-of-newborns-with-infection-risk-a-safe-practice
#5
Carla Escribano García, María Del Mar Montejo Vicente, Raquel Izquierdo Caballero, Carmen María Samaniego Fernández, Sara Isabel Marín Urueña, María Elena Infante López, Sonia Caserío Carbonero
INTRODUCTION: Early-onset neonatal sepsis refers to an infection which starts during the first 72hours of birth, and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Scientific evidence shows that infected infants present with symptoms during the first hours after delivery. There has been a significant decrease in this condition with the implementation of guidelines for its prevention. However, International guidelines still recommend the evaluation of these infants using painful tests...
June 16, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629251/neonatal-complications-amoung-596-infants-delivered-by-vacuum-extraction-in-relation-to-characteristics-of-the-extraction
#6
Cecilia Ekéus, Karin Wrangsell, Sandra Penttinen, Katarina Åberg
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between complicated vacuum extraction deliveries and neonatal complications. METHODS: Observational study including data on the management of 596 consecutive VE-deliveries at 6 different birth clinics in Sweden in 2013. We used logistic regression to examine the association between a complicated VE and: extracranial bleeding, severe neonatal complication (intracranial hemorrhage and/or asphyxia/low Apgar score and/or convulsions, and/or encephalopathy) and brachial plexus injury...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619546/screening-in-developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip-ddh
#7
REVIEW
Robin W Paton
Screening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) is a controversial subject. Screening may be by universal neonatal clinical examination (Ortolani or Barlow manoeuvres) with the addition of sonographic imaging of the hip (selective 'at risk' hips or universal screening in the neonate). In the UK, the NIPE guidelines recommend universal neonatal clinical assessment of the hip joints, a General Practitioner 6-8 week clinical 'hip check' and assessment clinically with sonographic imaging at 4-6 weeks for certain 'at risk' hips for pathological DDH...
June 12, 2017: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611102/effect-on-neonatal-mortality-of-newborn-infection-management-at-health-posts-when-referral-is-not-possible-a-cluster-randomized-trial-in-rural-ethiopia
#8
Tedbabe Degefie Hailegebriel, Brian Mulligan, Simon Cousens, Bereket Mathewos, Steve Wall, Abeba Bekele, Jeanne Russell, Deborah Sitrin, Biruk Tensou, Joy Lawn, Joseph de Graft Johnson, Hailemariam Legesse, Sirak Hailu, Assaye Nigussie, Bogale Worku, Abdullah Baqui
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recently provided guidelines for outpatient treatment of possible severe bacterial infections (PSBI) in young infants, when referral to hospital is not feasible. This study evaluated newborn infection treatment at the most peripheral level of the health system in rural Ethiopia. METHODS: We performed a cluster-randomized trial in 22 geographical clusters (11 allocated to intervention, 11 to control). In both arms, volunteers and government-employed Health Extension Workers (HEWs) conducted home visits to pregnant and newly delivered mothers; assessed newborns; and counseled caregivers on prevention of newborn illness, danger signs, and care seeking...
June 12, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610581/household-air-pollution-from-cooking-and-risk-of-adverse-health-and-birth-outcomes-in-bangladesh-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#9
Md Nuruzzaman Khan, Cherri Zhang B Nurs, M Mofizul Islam, Md Rafiqul Islam, Md Mizanur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with solid fuels has become a leading cause of death and disability in many developing countries including Bangladesh. We assess the association between HAP and risk of selected adverse birth and maternal health outcomes. METHODS: Data for this study were extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted during 2007-2014. Selected adverse birth outcomes were acute respiratory infection (ARI) among children, stillbirth, low birth weight (LBW), under-five mortality, neonatal mortality and infant mortality...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609805/syphilis-in-pregnancy-and-congenital-syphilis-reality-in-a-portuguese-central-university-hospital
#10
Magda Magalhães, Lígia Basto, Ana Luísa Areia, Sofia Franco, Maria Eugénia Malheiro, Maria Eulália Afonso, Paulo Moura
Purpose To evaluate maternal-fetal surveillance and follow-up of infants at risk for congenital syphilis (CS). Methods Retrospective cohort study in a Portuguese Tertiary Referral Hospital. The main inclusion criterion was a positive syphilis serology. The study included all pregnant women that delivered in our hospital between January 2004 and December 2013. The neonates were classified according to their probability of infection based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Results Among the 27 pregnancies at risk for CS, 48...
June 13, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607211/consensus-statement-of-the-indian-academy-of-pediatrics-on-newborn-hearing-screening
#11
Abraham Paul, Chhaya Prasad, S S Kamath, Samir Dalwai, M K C Nair, Waheeda Pagarkar
JUSTIFICATION: Hearing impairment is one of the most critical sensory impairments with significant social and psychological consequences. Reported incidence of congenital hearing loss is 30 per 10,000 children. Evidence-based, standardized national guidelines are needed for professionals to screen for hearing impairment during the neonatal period. PROCESS: The meeting on formulation of national consensus guidelines on developmental disorders was organized by Indian Academy of Pediatrics in Mumbai, on 18th and 19th December, 2015...
June 4, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600829/small-for-gestational-age-babies-after-37-weeks-an-impact-study-of-a-risk-stratification-protocol
#12
M Veglia, A Cavallaro, A Papageorghiou, R Black, L Impey
OBJECTIVES: Although no clear evidence exists, many international guidelines advocate early term delivery of small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses. The aim of this study was to determine whether a protocol that included monitoring SGA fetuses beyond 37 weeks affected perinatal and maternal outcomes. METHODS: The impact of the introduction in 2014 of a protocol for management of SGA, which included risk stratification with surveillance and expectant management after 37 weeks for lower risk babies (Group 2), was compared with the previous strategy, which recommended delivery at around 37 weeks (Group 1)...
June 10, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600392/physical-stimulation-of-newborn-infants-in-the-delivery-room
#13
Vincent D Gaertner, Sophie A Flemmer, Laila Lorenz, Peter G Davis, C Omar Farouk Kamlin
OBJECTIVE: Neonatal resuscitation guidelines recommend that newborn infants are stimulated to assist with the establishment of regular respirations. The mode, site of application and frequency of stimulations are not stipulated in these guidelines. The effectiveness of stimulation in improving neonatal transition outcomes is poorly described. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of video recordings of neonatal resuscitation at a tertiary perinatal centre...
June 9, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599894/impact-of-aspirin-on-fetal-growth-in-diabetic-pregnancies-according-to-white-classification
#14
Katlynn Adkins, Amanda A Allshouse, Torri D Metz, Kent D Heyborne
OBJECTIVE: Current United States Preventative Services Task Force and other guidelines recommend low-dose aspirin for all pregnant women with pre-gestational diabetes mellitus to prevent preeclampsia and small for gestational age birth. The Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units High-Risk Aspirin trial did not show a reduction in either preeclampsia or small for gestational age birth in diabetic women. Our objective was to reassess the impact of aspirin on fetal growth in diabetic pregnancies overall and according to White classification...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598866/using-qualitative-research-to-inform-development-of-professional-guidelines-a-case-study-of-the-society-of-critical-care-medicine-family-centered-care-guidelines
#15
Maureen A Coombs, Judy E Davidson, Mark E Nunnally, Mary A Wickline, J Randall Curtis
OBJECTIVES: To explore the importance, challenges, and opportunities using qualitative research to enhance development of clinical practice guidelines, using recent guidelines for family-centered care in the ICU as an example. METHODS: In developing the Society of Critical Care Medicine guidelines for family-centered care in the neonatal ICU, PICU, and adult ICU, we developed an innovative adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations, Assessments, Development and Evaluations approach to explicitly incorporate qualitative research...
June 8, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597863/perinatal-care-practices-in-home-deliveries-in-rural-bangalore-india-a-community-based-cross-sectional-survey
#16
N Ramakrishna Reddy, C T Sreeramareddy
Background A slowing in the decline in neonatal mortality in India has hindered progress made in reducing overall child mortality. The persisting use of unsafe home deliveries and harmful neonatal care practices may contribute to this stagnation in neonatal mortality rates. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study of mothers residing in rural Bangalore, India, who had given birth within 42 days of the day of home visit was done during 2013-2014. Trained health workers interviewed women who delivered at home about perinatal care practices...
April 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595534/a-review-of-levetiracetam-in-neonates
#17
Amit Agrawal, Anita Banergee
BACKGROUND: Neonatal seizures are the most common clinical manifestation of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction and are associated with various neurological sequelae. There are currently no evidence-based guidelines for the management of neonatal seizures and currently used drugs such as phenobarbital, and phenytoin have limited efficacy and potential toxicities. Newer second line anticonvulsant, levetiracetam, has been used in refractory neonatal seizures despite limited data and off-label use...
June 6, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592480/implementing-family-centered-care-through-facilitated-sensemaking
#18
Judy E Davidson, Sidney Zisook
The Society of Critical Care Medicine has released updated recommendations for care of the family in neonatal, pediatric, and adult intensive care units. Translation of the recommendations into practice may benefit from a supporting theoretical framework. Facilitated sensemaking is a mid-range theory built from the same literature that formed the basis for recommendations within the guidelines. The process of facilitated sensemaking may be used to help nurses adopt the SCCM recommendations into practice through the development of caring relationships, promoting family presence, teaching family engagement strategies, and supporting families with communication, information gathering, and participation in decision-making...
2017: AACN Advanced Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591333/-regionalization-of-perinatal-health-care-in-the-province-of-santa-fe-argentina
#19
Alberto Tomás Simioni, Oraldo Llanos, Mariana Romero, Silvina Ramos, Vanessa Brizuela, Edgardo Abalos
Objective: Improve the performance of the regionalization policy in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, as a strategy to improve perinatal health care by analyzing implementation processes and building consensus among decision makers and stakeholders around an action plan. Methods: Implementation research was conducted using mixed methodology. A needs assessment established tracer indicators to measure adherence to the components of the policy. Actors were studied to identify the barriers and facilitators of implementation...
May 25, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590293/pediatric-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-on-the-eve-of-growing-up
#20
Johannes M Douwes, Rolf M F Berger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) during childhood are expert opinion based, because of lacking pediatric data. In recent years, however, important pediatric data have emerged on PAH. RECENT FINDINGS: PAH in children shows similarities as well as differences compared to adults. Neonates and children know specific clinical presentations and a hemodynamic profile that differs from adults with PAH...
June 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
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