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neutrophil sepsis neonatal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224121/immunological-defects-in-neonatal-sepsis-and-potential-therapeutic-approaches
#1
REVIEW
Steven L Raymond, Julie A Stortz, Juan C Mira, Shawn D Larson, James L Wynn, Lyle L Moldawer
Despite advances in critical care medicine, neonatal sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with the greatest risk affecting very low birth weight, preterm neonates. The presentation of neonatal sepsis varies markedly from its presentation in adults, and there is no clear consensus definition of neonatal sepsis. Previous work has demonstrated that when neonates become septic, death can occur rapidly over a matter of hours or days and is generally associated with inflammation, organ injury, and respiratory failure...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196391/pentoxifylline-treatment-of-very-low-birth-weight-neonates-with-nosocomial-sepsis
#2
Şahin Hamilçıkan, Emrah Can, Övgü Büke, Meltem Erol, Özlem Bostan Gayret
Objective The objective of this study was to assess the result of intravenous pentoxifylline as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy on mortality and morbidity in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates with nosocomial sepsis. Methods For the 18 VLBW preterm neonates, as an adjunct therapy to antibiotics regimens, pentoxifylline (5 mg/kg/h for 6 hours) was administered to premature infants with sepsis on 3 successive days. Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded before and after treatment. Results Following pentoxifylline therapy, the immature-to-total neutrophil ratio and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly decreased, while the blood pH and base excess were significantly increased (p < 0...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182674/evaluation-of-altitude-appropriate-reference-ranges-for-neutrophils-in-diagnosis-of-sepsis-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#3
Jianhui Wang, Jialin Yu, Juan Fan, Yu He, Wenhui Dong, Zhengli Wang
BACKGROUND: The circulating neutrophil count was commonly believed to be influenced by altitude. At present, neutrophil reference ranges (RRs) for very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates are only available from the sea level and from high altitude. This study aimed to construct RRs for neutrophils in VLBW infants in an intermediate-altitude area and assess its usefulness in evaluation for sepsis. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective study of 2173 VLBW infants admitted to 20 hospitals in Chongqing in southwest of China with altitude from 1000 to 2600 feet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131458/biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-neonatal-sepsis-and-necrotizing-entercolitis-clinical-practice-guidelines
#4
Margaret Gilfillan, Vineet Bhandari
Sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis are major contributors to morbidity and mortality in neonates, especially in those born preterm. While therapeutic interventions are available for both (for e.g. antibiotics), a major dilemma is early diagnosis so that these interventions can be done in a timely manner. As clinical evaluation alone is unreliable in identifying infants in the early stages of neonatal sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis, there is a need to find specific biomarkers associated with these conditions to improve diagnostic capabilities...
January 25, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114736/cromolyn-sodium-for-the-prevention-of-chronic-lung-disease-in-preterm-infants
#5
REVIEW
Geraldine Ng, Arne Ohlsson
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a review last published by Cochrane in June 2012 entitled "Cromolyn sodium for the prevention of chronic lung disease in preterm infants", which included two studies. This 2016 update identified no further studies.Chronic lung disease (CLD) frequently occurs in preterm infants and has a multifactorial aetiology including inflammation. Cromolyn sodium is a mast cell stabiliser that inhibits neutrophil activation and neutrophil chemotaxis and therefore may have a role in the prevention of CLD...
January 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012568/improved-survival-after-induction-of-sepsis-by-cecal-slurry-in-pd-1-knockout-murine-neonates
#6
Whitney A Young, Eleanor A Fallon, Daithi S Heffernan, Philip A Efron, William G Cioffi, Alfred Ayala
BACKGROUND: Sepsis and the ensuing immune dysfunction continue to be major contributors to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Neonatal sepsis also is associated with profound immune dysfunction. We have recently identified a role for a family of coinhibitory molecules that are altered in murine sepsis and in critically ill adult patients, which may be a target for development of novel therapies. There is, however, a paucity of data pertaining to the role of coinhibitory checkpoint proteins in the control and modulation of neonatal sepsis...
December 21, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997265/plasma-lactoferrin-levels-in-newborn-preterm-infants-with-sepsis
#7
Lidia Decembrino, Mara DeAmici, Annalisa De Silvestri, Paolo Manzoni, Piermichele Paolillo, Mauro Stronati
INTRODUCTION: Lactoferrin (Lf) is one of the major proteins of all exocrine secretions with a role in the antinfective process. Our aim was to evaluate how plasma Fl levels may change in response to infection in newborn preterm infants. METHODS: A total of 15 (8 females, 7 males) newborn preterm infants with a postnatal age >72 h of life, underwent to blood culture and others markers of infection, for suspected sepsis, were enrolled in the study. RESULTS: We found that Lf serum concentration was significantly lowest in four neonates (26...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974910/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-g6pd-as-a-risk-factor-of-male-neonatal-sepsis
#8
REVIEW
Z Rostami-Far, K Ghadiri, M Rostami-Far, F Shaveisi-Zadeh, A Amiri, B Rahimian Zarif
Introduction.Neonatal sepsis is a disease process, which represents the systemic response of bacteria entering the bloodstream during the first 28 days of life. The prevalence of sepsis is higher in male infants than in females, but the exact cause is unknown. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, which leads to the production of NADPH. NADPH is required for the respiratory burst reaction in white blood cells (WBCs) to destroy microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in neonates with sepsis...
January 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819066/group-b-streptococcus-circumvents-neutrophils-and-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-during-amniotic-cavity-invasion-and-preterm-labor
#9
Erica Boldenow, Claire Gendrin, Lisa Ngo, Craig Bierle, Jay Vornhagen, Michelle Coleman, Sean Merillat, Blair Armistead, Christopher Whidbey, Varchita Alishetti, Veronica Santana-Ufret, Jason Ogle, Michael Gough, Sengkeo Srinouanprachanh, James W MacDonald, Theo K Bammler, Aasthaa Bansal, H Denny Liggitt, Lakshmi Rajagopal, Kristina M Adams Waldorf
Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) is associated with the majority of early preterm births, the temporal events that occur during MIAC and preterm labor are not known. Group B Streptococci (GBS) are β-hemolytic, gram-positive bacteria, which commonly colonize the vagina but have been recovered from the amniotic fluid in preterm birth cases. To understand temporal events that occur during MIAC, we utilized a unique chronically catheterized nonhuman primate model that closely emulates human pregnancy...
October 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713676/meropenem-induced-neutropenia-in-a-neonate
#10
Joseph S Van Tuyl, Aubrey N Jones, Peter N Johnson
Postmarketing surveillance has associated meropenem with the development of hematologic abnormalities, including agranulocytosis, neutropenia, and leukopenia, but the exact incidence in children is unknown. The case describes a full-term, 26-day-old neonate admitted for a sepsis workup. She was found to have a blood culture positive for Enterobacter cloacae and suspected meningitis and was initiated on meropenem 40 mg/kg/dose intravenously every 8 hours. On day 14 of antibiotic treatment, the patient developed an isolated neutropenia with an absolute neutrophil count of 288 cells/mm(3)...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699073/early-diagnosis-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-il10r-deficiency-leading-to-very-early-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-are-essential-in-familial-cases
#11
Neslihan Edeer Karaca, Guzide Aksu, Ezgi Ulusoy, Serap Aksoylar, Salih Gozmen, Ferah Genel, Sanem Akarcan, Nesrin Gulez, Tatjana Hirschmugl, Savas Kansoy, Kaan Boztug, Necil Kutukculer
Alterations of immune homeostasis in the gut may result in development of inflammatory bowel disease. A five-month-old girl was referred for recurrent respiratory and genitourinary tract infections, sepsis in neonatal period, chronic diarrhea, perianal abscess, rectovaginal fistula, and hyperemic skin lesions. She was born to second-degree consanguineous, healthy parents. Her elder siblings were lost at 4 months of age due to sepsis and 1 year of age due to inflammatory bowel disease, respectively. Absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, immunoglobulin levels, and lymphocyte subsets were normal ruling out severe congenital neutropenia and classic severe combined immunodeficiencies...
2016: Case Reports in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649291/effectiveness-of-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-in-hospitalized-infants-with-neutropenia
#12
Jin A Lee, Brooke Sauer, William Tuminski, Jiyu Cheong, John Fitz-Henley, Megan Mayers, Chidera Ezuma-Igwe, Christopher Arnold, Christoph P Hornik, Reese H Clark, Daniel K Benjamin, P Brian Smith, Jessica E Ericson
Objective The objective of this study was to determine the time to hematologic recovery and the incidence of secondary sepsis and mortality among neutropenic infants treated or not treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Study Design We identified all neutropenic infants discharged from 348 neonatal intensive care units from 1997 to 2012. Neutropenia was defined as an absolute neutrophil count ≤ 1,500/µL for ≥ 1 day during the first 120 days of life. Incidence of secondary sepsis and mortality and number of days required to reach an absolute neutrophil count > 1,500/µL for infants exposed to G-CSF were compared with those of unexposed infants...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578316/significance-of-neutrophilic-cd64-as-an-early-marker-for-detection-of-neonatal-sepsis-and-prediction-of-disease-outcome
#13
Mohamed Sami El Shimi, Nancy Mohamed Abou Shady, Gehan Mostafa Hamed, Nahed Samy Shedeed
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis (NS) is a global health problem owing to its significant contribution to morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the significance of neutrophilic CD64 (nCD64) expression as an early marker for diagnosis of NS compared to CRP and assessed its relation to disease outcome. METHODS: High sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) and nCD64 were measured in 60 neonates with symptoms and signs of sepsis (40% were culture-proved) and 30 age- and sex-matched controls...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515207/in-the-diagnosis-of-neonatal-sepsis-importance-of-gelsolin-and-relationship-with-mortality-and-morbidity
#14
Hülya Halis, Tamer Gunes, Sabriye Korkut, Berkay Saraymen, Ahmet Şen, Osman Bastug, Adnan Öztürk, Selim Kurtoğlu
In spite of advances in neonatal care and the new generation of antibiotics, neonatal sepsis is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is difficult because clinical signs are non-specific. Thus, new biomarkers are still needed for diagnosis. Gelsolin is an actin-binding plasma protein. Furthermore, extracellular gelsolin binds lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid, which are major virulence factors of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The result of this binding is the inhibition of gelsolin's F-actin depolymerizing activity...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450230/tlr-expression-phagocytosis-and-oxidative-burst-in-healthy-and-septic-newborns-in-response-to-gram-negative-and-gram-positive-rods
#15
Ana Lúcia Silveira-Lessa, Camila Quinello, Laila Lima, Ana Carolina Costa Redondo, Maria Esther Jurfest Rivero Ceccon, Magda Carneiro-Sampaio, Patricia Palmeira
The objective was to investigate whether phagocytes from healthy and septic newborns have a developmental deficiency in their capacity to recognize, phagocytize and generate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in response to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. TLR expression and phagocytic ability of neutrophils and monocytes from 44 healthy preterm and term neonates, from 13 newborns with late-onset sepsis and from 24 healthy adults were determined using flow cytometry, and H2O2 production was measured by dihydrorhodamine test...
October 2016: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438994/nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate-oxidase-2-regulates-lps-induced-inflammation-and-alveolar-remodeling-in-the-developing-lung
#16
Heather L Menden, Sheng Xia, Sherry M Mabry, Angels Navarro, Michael F Nyp, Venkatesh Sampath
In premature infants, sepsis is associated with alveolar simplification manifesting as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The redox-dependent mechanisms underlying sepsis-induced inflammation and alveolar remodeling in the immature lung remain unclear. We developed a neonatal mouse model of sepsis-induced lung injury to investigate whether nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2) regulates Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammation and alveolar remodeling. Six-day-old NOX2(+/+) and NOX2(-/-) mice were injected with intraperitoneal LPS to induce sepsis...
December 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365145/revisiting-the-diagnostic-criteria-of-clinical-chorioamnionitis-in-preterm-birth
#17
J-H Sung, S-J Choi, S-Y Oh, C-R Roh, J-H Kim
OBJECTIVE: To re-evaluate the utility of the conventional criteria for clinical chorioamnionitis in the prediction of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) in preterm birth. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Seoul, Republic of Korea. SAMPLE: A total of 1468 singleton births between 24 and 34 weeks due to preterm labour (n = 713) or preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (n = 755). METHOD: We evaluated three diagnostic categories of clinical chorioamnionitis: Criteria 1, conventional criteria; Criteria 2, combination of any three conventional parameters without prerequisite fever; Criteria 3, Criteria 1 plus positive maternal C-reactive protein and neutrophil left-shift into minor criteria...
July 1, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27268050/meta-analysis-of-diagnostic-accuracy-of-neutrophil-cd64-for-neonatal-sepsis
#18
Jing Shi, Jun Tang, Dapeng Chen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the diagnostic performance of nCD64 for neonatal sepsis. METHODS: Computer retrieval was conducted for the databases of PubMed, Embase, and Springer databases up to March 18, 2015 to select the relevant studies on nCD64 and neonatal sepsis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for diagnostic efficiency of nCD64 were pooled...
June 7, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27167641/temporal-relationship-between-serum-levels-of-interleukin-6-and-c-reactive-protein-in-therapeutic-hypothermia-for-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#19
Junichi Saito, Jun Shibasaki, Tomoyuki Shimokaze, Makoto Kishigami, Makiko Ohyama, Rikuo Hoshino, Katsuaki Toyoshima, Yasufumi Itani
Objective C-reactive protein (CRP) is a useful marker of neonatal infection. Recent studies have shown that neonatal therapeutic hypothermia delays an elevation of CRP in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). This study investigated the time difference of peak levels of serum CRP and other inflammatory responses during therapeutic hypothermia. Study design We prospectively studied the serial serum data of CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT), and complete blood counts during the first week of life in HIE infants receiving therapeutic hypothermia...
December 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144533/analysis-of-the-physiological-variation-in-neutrophil-cd64-expression-during-the-early-neonatal-period
#20
Fuyu Miyake, Masahiro Ishii, Takayuki Hoshina, Shun Ichikawa, Shunsuke Araki, Tadamune Kinjo, Eiji Shibata, Toru Hachisuga, Koichi Kusuhara
Background Several biomarkers for the diagnosis of sepsis are elevated during the early neonatal period due to physiological variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological variation in neutrophil CD64 (nCD64) expression during the early neonatal period and the change in nCD64 expression in neonates with noninfectious diseases. Methods Of 71 neonates enrolled in this prospective study, 5 and 51 were diagnosed as having bacteremia and noninfectious diseases, respectively. Fifteen healthy neonates were enrolled as normal controls...
December 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
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