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vaccine and adjuvant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646827/immunization-of-c57bl-6-mice-with-gra2-combined-with-mpl-conferred-partial-immune-protection-against-toxoplasma-gondii
#1
Jalal Babaie, Samira Amiri, Robab Homayoun, Ebrahim Azimi, Reyhaneh Mohabati, Mahboobe Berizi, Reza Sadaie, Majid Golkar
Background: We have previously reported that immunization with GRA2 antigen of Toxoplasma gondii induces protective immunity in CBA/J (H2k) and BALB/c mice (H2d). We aimed to examine whether immunization of a distinct strain of rodent with recombinant dense granule antigens (GRA2) combined with monophosphorryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvant elicits protective immune response against T. gondii. Methods: C57BL/6 (H2b haplotype) mice were immunized with GRA2, formulated in MPL adjuvant...
June 25, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646234/electroporation-as-a-vaccine-delivery-system-and-a-natural-adjuvant-to-intradermal-administration-of-plasmid-dna-in-macaques
#2
Biliana Todorova, Lucille Adam, Slobodan Culina, Raphaël Boisgard, Frédéric Martinon, Antonio Cosma, Mart Ustav, Thierry Kortulewski, Roger Le Grand, Catherine Chapon
In vivo electroporation (EP) is used to enhance the uptake of nucleic acids and its association with DNA vaccination greatly stimulates immune responses to vaccine antigens delivered through the skin. However, the effect of EP on cutaneous cell behavior, the dynamics of immune cell recruitment and local inflammatory factors, have not been fully described. Here, we show that intradermal DNA vaccination combined with EP extends antigen expression to the epidermis and the subcutaneous skin muscle in non-human primates...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645718/optimizing-adjuvants-for-intradermal-delivery-of-menc-glycoconjugate-vaccine
#3
Agnese Donadei, Cristiana Balocchi, Maria R Romano, Luigi Panza, Roberto Adamo, Francesco Berti, Derek T O'Hagan, Simona Gallorini, Barbara C Baudner
Intradermal vaccine delivery is a promising alternative to the conventional intramuscular route. The skin layer is immunologically supported by a densely network of antigen presenting cells, while the skeletal muscle is loaded with a relatively sparse population of APCs. Nevertheless, the vaccine to be suitable for intradermal delivery needs a new formulation to facilitate either smaller injection volumes or the introduction into new delivery devises as micro-needles. This study presents a proof of concept for intradermal delivery of the MenC-CRM197 glycoconjugate vaccine using a mouse model...
June 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645300/bacterial-ghosts-as-adjuvants-mechanisms-and-potential
#4
REVIEW
Irshad A Hajam, Pervaiz A Dar, Gayeon Won, John Hwa Lee
Bacterial ghosts (BG) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria. They contain many innate immunostimulatory agonists, and are potent activators of a broad range of cell types involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Several considerable studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of BG as adjuvants as well as their ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine production by a range of immune and non-immune cell types. These proinflammatory cytokines trigger a generalized recruitment of T and B lymphocytes to lymph nodes that maximize the chances of encounter with their cognate antigen, and subsequent elicitation of potent immune responses...
June 24, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644608/targeting-cpg-adjuvant-to-lymph-node-via-dextran-conjugate-enhances-anti-tumor-immunotherapy
#5
Weidong Zhang, Myunggi An, Jingchao Xi, Haipeng Liu
Nucleic acids based adjuvants recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR) are potent immune system stimulants that can augment the anti-tumor immune responses in an antigen-specific manner. However, their clinical uses as vaccine adjuvants are limited primarily due to lack of accumulation in the lymph nodes, the anatomic sites where the immune responses are initiated. Here, we showed that chemical conjugation of type B CpG DNA, a TLR9 agonist to dextran polymer dramatically enhanced CpG's lymph node accumulation in mice...
June 23, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642849/aim2-co-immunization-with-vp1-is-associated-with-increased-memory-cd8-t-cells-and-mounts-long-lasting-protection-against-coxsackievirus-b3-challenge
#6
Liang Yin, Dafei Chai, Yan Yue, Chunsheng Dong, Sidong Xiong
The recurrent Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection is the most important cause of intractable myocarditis which often leads to chronic myocarditis and even dilated cardiomyopathy. Therefore, enhanced DNA vaccines capable of memory CD8 T cells are essential for long-lasting immunological protection against CVB3 infection. In this study, absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) was used as an adjuvant to enhance the induction of memory CD8 T cells elicited by VP1 (viral capsid protein 1) vaccine. Mice were intramuscularly injected with 50 μg AIM2 plasmid and equal amount of VP1 plasmid (pAIM2/pVP1) vaccine 4 times at 2 week-intervals...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641531/application-of-alphaviral-vectors-for-immunomodulation-in-cancer-therapy
#7
Anna Zajakina, Karina Spunde, Kenneth Lundstrom
BACKGROUND: The lack of specific and efficient cancer therapies has influenced the development of novel approaches, such as immunotherapy, which from its original application of immunogenic protein delivery has developed into the use of more sophisticated recombinant gene delivery methods to achieve better safety and efficacy profiles. This approach involves viral and non-viral delivery systems. METHODS: Expression vectors have been engineered for alphaviruses, including Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus...
June 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639100/sting-mediated-dna-sensing-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
REVIEW
Xiang Zhou, Zhengfan Jiang
While STING (STimulator of INterferon Genes) has been shown to be essential for cytosolic DNA-triggered innate immune activation, accumulated evidence obtained from various studies suggested that an intrinsic relevance of STING-associated signaling in tumorigenesis can be observed. Also, several clinical trials using immunostimulatory adjuvants, particularly agonistic as well as non-agonistic ligands for STING, have revealed their therapeutic potential not only as vaccine adjuvants but also as anti-tumor agents...
May 29, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638734/severe-but-not-mild-heat-shock-treatment-induces-immunogenic-cell-death-in-cancer-cells
#9
Irena Adkins, Lenka Sadilkova, Nada Hradilova, Jakub Tomala, Marek Kovar, Radek Spisek
The mechanisms of immunogenicity underlying mild heat-shock (mHS) treatment < 42°C of tumor cells are largely attributed to the action of heat-shock proteins; however, little is known about the immunogenicity of tumor cells undergoing severe cytotoxic heat-shock treatment (sHS > 43°C). Here, we found that sHS, but not mHS (42°C), induces immunogenic cell death in human cancer cell lines as defined by the induction of ER stress response and ROS generation, cell surface exposure of calreticulin, HSP70 and HSP90, decrease of cell surface CD47, release of ATP and HMGB1...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638106/protective-efficacy-of-the-trivalent-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-vaccine-candidate-pcrv-opri-hcp1-in-murine-pneumonia-and-burn-models
#10
Feng Yang, Jiang Gu, Liuyang Yang, Chen Gao, Haiming Jing, Ying Wang, Hao Zeng, Quanming Zou, Fenglin Lv, Jinyong Zhang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a formidable pathogen that is responsible for a diverse spectrum of human infectious diseases, resulting in considerable annual mortality rates. Because of biofilm formation and its ability of rapidly acquires of resistance to many antibiotics, P. aeruginosa related infections are difficult to treat, and therefore, developing an effective vaccine is the most promising method for combating infection. In the present study, we designed a novel trivalent vaccine, PcrV28-294-OprI25-83-Hcp11-162 (POH), and evaluated its protective efficacy in murine pneumonia and burn models...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637471/enhanced-humoural-and-cellular-immune-responses-to-influenza-h7n9-antigen-ha1-2-fused-with-flagellin-in-chickens
#11
Li Song, Dan Xiong, Maozhi Hu, Xilong Kang, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
BACKGROUND: Sudden increases in the number of human A (H7N9) cases reported during December and January have been observed in previous years. Most reported infection cases are due to prior exposure to live poultry or potentially contaminated environments. Low pathogenicity of influenza A (H7N9) virus in avian species complicates timely discovery of infected birds. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safe and effective anti-H7N9 vaccines for poultry to reduce the risk of human infection and prevent the emergence of novel mutated strains...
June 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636997/an-optimized-hmgb1-expressed-by-recombinant-rabies-virus-enhances-immunogenicity-through-activation-of-dendritic-cells-in-mice
#12
Zhao Wang, Qian Liang, Yajing Zhang, Jie Yang, Mingming Li, Kunlun Wang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao, Ming Zhou
Rabies remains an important public health threat, killing approximately 59,000 people worldwide annually, most of which are from the developing countries of Africa and Asia where dog rabies are endemic. Therefore, developing an affordable and efficacious vaccine for dog-mediated rabies control is needful in these countries. Our previous studies indicated that over-expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1α or CCL3) by recombinant rabies virus (rRABV) could enhance the immunogenicity by activating dendritic cells (DCs)...
June 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636956/elicitation-of-robust-tier-2-neutralizing-antibody-responses-in-nonhuman-primates-by-hiv-envelope-trimer-immunization-using-optimized-approaches
#13
Matthias Pauthner, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Devin Sok, Joseph P Nkolola, Raiza Bastidas, Archana V Boopathy, Diane G Carnathan, Abishek Chandrashekar, Kimberly M Cirelli, Christopher A Cottrell, Alexey M Eroshkin, Javier Guenaga, Kirti Kaushik, Daniel W Kulp, Jinyan Liu, Laura E McCoy, Aaron L Oom, Gabriel Ozorowski, Kai W Post, Shailendra K Sharma, Jon M Steichen, Steven W de Taeye, Talar Tokatlian, Alba Torrents de la Peña, Salvatore T Butera, Celia C LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Guido Silvestri, Ian A Wilson, Darrell J Irvine, Rogier W Sanders, William R Schief, Andrew B Ward, Richard T Wyatt, Dan H Barouch, Shane Crotty, Dennis R Burton
The development of stabilized recombinant HIV envelope trimers that mimic the virion surface molecule has increased enthusiasm for a neutralizing antibody (nAb)-based HIV vaccine. However, there is limited experience with recombinant trimers as immunogens in nonhuman primates, which are typically used as a model for humans. Here, we tested multiple immunogens and immunization strategies head-to-head to determine their impact on the quantity, quality, and kinetics of autologous tier 2 nAb development. A bilateral, adjuvanted, subcutaneous immunization protocol induced reproducible tier 2 nAb responses after only two immunizations 8 weeks apart, and these were further enhanced by a third immunization with BG505 SOSIP trimer...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635557/cellular-immune-responses-of-older-adults-to-four-influenza-vaccines-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-comparison
#14
Arun Kumar, Janet E McElhaney, Lisa Walrond, Terry D Cyr, Shahzma Merani, Tobias R Kollmann, Scott A Halperin, David W Scheifele
Cellular immunity is important for protection against the serious complications of influenza in older adults. As it is unclear if newer influenza vaccines elicit greater cellular responses than standard vaccines, we compared responses to two standard and two newer licensed trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIVs) in a randomized trial in older adults. Non-frail adults ≥65 years old were randomly assigned to receive standard subunit, MF59-adjuvanted subunit, standard split-virus or intradermal split-virus TIV...
June 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634286/conjugate-vaccine-immunotherapy-for-substance-use-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Paul T Bremer, Kim D Janda
Substance use disorder, especially in relation to opioids such as heroin and fentanyl, is a significant public health issue and has intensified in recent years. As a result, substantial interest exists in developing therapeutics to counteract the effects of abused drugs. A promising universal strategy for antagonizing the pharmacology of virtually any drug involves the development of a conjugate vaccine, wherein a hapten structurally similar to the target drug is conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein...
July 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634011/immunomodulatory-properties-of-concholepas-concholepas-hemocyanin-against-francisellosis-in-a-zebrafish-model
#16
Leidy Lagos, Julia I Tandberg, María Inés Becker, Hanne C Winther-Larsen
The development of vaccines for aquaculture has been an important milestone in providing a continuous and sustainable production. Most of the vaccines currently on the market for aquaculture include oil as adjuvant. Nevertheless, several studies reported an occurrence of side effects after their use in farmed fish. As a result, there is a need for new and improved adjuvants that can stimulate the immune system while causing as few side-effects as possible. Hemocyanins are versatile macromolecules with strong immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties...
June 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633491/optimization-of-inactivated-h5n9-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-vaccine-and-inactivated-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-vaccine-with-antigen-dose-and-prime-boost-regimen-in-domestic-ducks
#17
Seong-Su Yuk, Eredene-Ochir To, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jin-Yong Noh, Woo-Tack Hong, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Chang-Seon Song
Owing to the increase in the number of diseases affecting ducks and the demand for food safety by consumers, vaccination has become one of the factors that influence duck meat productivity. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the most prevalent and causes one of the most lethal diseases in domestic ducks, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen persistent in the domestic duck population. To better understand the optimal usage of HPAI and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines, we aimed to determine antigen dose, oil and gel adjuvant usage with prime-boost regimen, and vaccination age, inducing the best immune response in ducks, without an effect on body weight gain...
June 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633071/structural-characterization-of-the-immunostimulatory-exopolysaccharide-produced-by-leuconostoc-mesenteroides-strain-ntm048
#18
Chiaki Matsuzaki, Chikahiro Takagaki, Yusuke Tomabechi, Lennart S Forsberg, Christian Heiss, Parastoo Azadi, Kenji Matsumoto, Toshihiko Katoh, Koji Hosomi, Jun Kunisawa, Kenji Yamamoto, Keiko Hisa
The exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by probiotic Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides strain NTM048 has been reported to be an immunostimulant that enhances mucosal IgA production. In this study, we found that intranasal administration of mice with the EPS and an antigen (ovalbumin) resulted in secretion of antigen-specific IgA and IgG in the airway mucosa and the serum, suggesting that the EPS has the adjuvant activity for use with mucosal vaccination. Methylation analysis coupled to GC-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy revealed that 94% of the EPS consists of an α-(1 → 6) glucan containing 4% of 1→3-linked α-glucose branches...
June 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630385/low-dose-of-lenalidomide-enhances-nk-cell-activity-possible-implication-as-an-adjuvant
#19
Kiandokht Borhani, Taravat Bamdad, Tayebeh Hashempour
BACKGROUND: Lenalidomide, a synthetic immunomodulatory drug, has a wide range of features including anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative properties. To date, researchers have shown that lenalidomide is capable of ameliorating the immune system factors and antitumor responses. Most researchers have reported that lenalidomide enhances the immune response in certain cancer patients through several pathways including the stimulation of Natural Killer cells; notwithstanding, it is still crucial to investigate the effect of lenalidomide on the activity of NK cell cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630108/inducing-mucosal-iga-a-challenge-for-vaccine-adjuvants-and-delivery-systems
#20
REVIEW
Prosper N Boyaka
Mucosal IgA or secretory IgA (SIgA) are structurally equipped to resist chemical degradation in the harsh environment of mucosal surfaces and enzymes of host or microbial origin. Production of SIgA is finely regulated, and distinct T-independent and T-dependent mechanisms orchestrate Ig α class switching and SIgA responses against commensal and pathogenic microbes. Most infectious pathogens enter the host via mucosal surfaces. To provide a first line of protection at these entry ports, vaccines are being developed to induce pathogen-specific SIgA in addition to systemic immunity achieved by injected vaccines...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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