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external compartment syndrome

Lauren Roberts, Jason Strelzow, Emily K Schaeffer, Christopher W Reilly, Kishore Mulpuri
BACKGROUND: Although the recommended treatment for Gartland types I and III supracondylar humeral fractures is well-established, the optimal treatment for type II fractures without rotational malalignment remains controversial, involving circumferential casting or closed reduction and pinning. Our institution uses pronated flexion-taping for Gartland type IIA fractures. This theoretically removes external pressure secondary to circumferential casting, potentially decreasing risks of compartment syndrome and mitigating loss of reduction with extension while maintaining optimal flexion position for reduction...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Zhao-Wen Zong, Quan-Wei Bao, Hua-Yu Liu, Yue Shen, Yu-Feng Zhao, Xiang Hua, Qing-Shan Guo, Lian-Yang Zhang, Hui Chen
PURPOSE: To enhance the awareness of rare complications of pelvic fracture and describe the correct diagnosis and effective treatment. METHODS: A total of 188 cases of pelvic fractures were retrospectively reviewed, and four patients who suffered from four types of rare pelvic fracture complications were described, namely ureteral obstruction caused by retroperitoneal hematoma-induced abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), bowel entrapment, external iliac artery injury, and open scrotal sac injury...
August 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Bengt Rippe, Carl M Öberg
The turnover of albumin is increased in both peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) due to increased external losses, normally leading to compensatory increases in the hepatic albumin synthesis. The normal rate of albumin synthesis is on the order of 12 g/day corresponding to an equally large albumin fractional catabolic rate of ~4% daily. Most albumin catabolism is assumed to occur in the endothelium, but there is also renal and hepatic catabolism and leakage into the gastrointestinal tract. In PD the daily losses are on the order of 5 g/day...
August 15, 2016: Seminars in Dialysis
A P Rosales-Varo, O Roda-Murillo, N Prados-Olleta, M A García-Espona
OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel coronal osteotomy of the external facet of the patella, and to evaluate if the outcomes of the treatment of lateral knee compartment syndrome (LKCS) with this osteotomy, combined with the release of the external lateral retinaculum, are better than the isolated lateral retinacular release. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective study with a 2 year follow up that included 70 patients diagnosed with LKCS, distributed into 2 groups. The first group included 50 patients on whom the lateral retinacular release combined with osteotomy was performed, and a second group on whom an isolated retinacular release was performed...
September 2016: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
R Wirbel, A Weber, J Heinzmann, C Meyer, T Pohlemann
Background: Dislocation fractures of the tibial plateau often lead to functional restrictions and subjective complaints from the patients. Besides functional and radiological results, criteria to determine the quality of life are of increasing importance. Intermediate term restriction in quality of life was evaluated and correlated with objective radiological results in patients with Moore type V dislocation fracture of the tibial plateau. Patients and Methods: From 2003 to 2012, a multicentre retrospective cohort study in three hospitals was used to register 36 patients with 38 Moore type V dislocation fractures of the tibial plateau...
July 1, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Takashi Maruyama, Masanori Abe, Tetsuya Furukawa, Shinichiro Kobayashi, Yoshinori Yoshida, Hiroko Noda, Kazuyoshi Okada, Masayoshi Soma
A 73-year-old man with chronic kidney disease stage G5 was admitted to our hospital because of a worsening kidney dysfunction. He had undergone prosthetic valve replacement of the mitral valve 5 years previously and was currently taking warfarin. He showed excessive anticoagulation on admission, with a prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) of 3.91. The use of warfarin was ceased and PT-INR decreased to 2.1. Since the patient would need renal replacement therapy, he underwent arteriovenous fistula surgery for hemodialysis access on day 16...
2016: Internal Medicine
Reza Firoozabadi, Jason Schneidkraut, Daphne Beingessner, Robert Dunbar, David Barei
OBJECTIVES: The authors have identified a subset of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures with a hyperextension varus deformity (HEVBTP). The radiographic hallmarks of this pattern are (1) sagittal plane malalignment with loss of the normal posterior slope of the tibial plateau, (2) tension failure of the posterior cortex, (3) compression of the anterior cortex, and (4) varus deformity in the coronal plan. The purpose of this study was to describe this fracture pattern, to compare the associated injuries with non-HEVBTP fractures, and to suggest treatment strategies that may allow for improved reduction and stabilization...
May 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Nirav K Pandya
Tibial shaft fractures are common injuries in the pediatric population, and can be treated conservatively the vast majority of the time. Yet, it is important to recognize that open and/or unstable tibial shaft fractures represent a different entity. Rigid intramedullary devices are generally contraindicated because of the skeletal immaturity of these patients, and external fixation is associated with a high complication rate. As a result, flexible nailing is being utilized with increasing frequency. It is essential for the clinician to understand the pearls and pitfalls associated with the utilization of these flexible nails; particularly in regards to their immediate use in the context of open fractures and the risk of compartment syndrome postoperatively after fixation...
June 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Thomas L Jenkins, Cindy X Zheng, Ann P Murchison, Jurij R Bilyk
Orbital extension of subgaleal hematoma is rare. This report describes the case of an otherwise healthy 10-year-old girl who developed delayed contralateral proptosis and external ophthalmoplegia after relatively minor right-sided forehead trauma. She was found to have bilateral subgaleal hematomas communicating with a left superior subperiostial orbital hematoma. Over the course of 2 days, she developed an orbital compartment syndrome requiring emergent canthotomy and cantholysis, followed by surgical incision and drainage of her scalp hematoma without orbitotomy...
April 4, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Shuangmin Ji, Dewei Shang, Kehua Wu, Anning Li, Xiwei Li, Chenhui Deng, Liang Li, Tianyan Zhou, Chuanyue Wang, Wei Lu
PURPOSE: Risperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic agent commonly used in the treatment of ~ 31.1% of schizophrenia patients in China, it is the most commonly-prescribed antipsychotic agent. Despite the abundant use of risperidone, population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models of risperidone have not been performed in Chinese schizophrenia patients. The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PopPK/PD) model to describe the PK behavior and efficacy of risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone (active metabolite) in Chinese patients...
May 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ju Mizuno, Toru Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH) system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP) applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Toshihiro Kikuchi, Hiroyuki Maeda
Two cases of compartment syndrome of the lower extremities occurring during surgery for gynecological malignancies are reported. In addition to the risk from being in the lithotomy position for over 4 h, these two cases were believed to have been caused by the combined use of a disposable wound retractor and abdominal retractors to secure the operative field. This conclusion is based on the fact that an abrupt increase in partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) was observed when wound drapes and abdominal retractors were removed approximately 4 h after the start of surgery...
June 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
M I Wunderlich, E J Nissen, M Schargus, H B Dick, M Pohl, S E Coupland, V Kakkassery
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic and therapy resistant uveitis especially of unclear origin, is a diagnostic challenge for ophthalmologists. Metastases to the anterior chamber or vitreous body can occasionally mimic the clinical picture of uveitis, a variant on the usual lymphomatous masquerade syndrome. The underlying pathological pathways leading to the metastatic spread of tumor cells within the fluid compartments of the eye remain unclear. CASE REPORT: We present an unusual case of vitreous metastases to the right eye of a patient in whom an underlying primary malignancy was unknown...
August 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Naveen Sharma, Varun Singh, Ashish Agrawal, Rakesh Bhargava
BACKGROUND: Proximal tibia fractures with compartment syndrome present a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. More often than not these patients are subjected to multiple surgeries and are complicated by infection osteomyelitis and poor rehabilitation. There is no consensus in the management of these fractures. Most common mode is to do early fasciotomy with external fixation, followed by second stage definitive fixation. We performed a retrospective study of proximal tibia fractures with impending compartment syndrome treated by single stage fasciotomy and internal fixation...
September 2015: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Robert H Boyce, Keerat Singh, William T Obremskey
Acute knee dislocations are an uncommon injury that can result in profound consequences if not recognized and managed appropriately on presentation. Patients presenting with knee pain in the setting of high- or low-energy trauma may have sustained a knee dislocation that spontaneously reduced. Prompt reduction of the dislocated knee and serial neurovascular examinations are paramount. Damage to the popliteal artery is a common associated injury that can be diagnosed on physical examination using ankle brachial indices (ABIs), CT angiography, or standard angiography...
December 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Jerzy Wegiel, Michael Flory, N Carolyn Schanen, Edwin H Cook, Krzysztof Nowicki, Izabela Kuchna, Humi Imaki, Shuang Yong Ma, Jarek Wegiel, Eric London, Manuel F Casanova, Thomas Wisniewski, W Ted Brown
INTRODUCTION: Autism is diagnosed in numerous genetic and genomic developmental disorders associated with an overlap in high-risk genes and loci that underlie intellectual disability (ID) and epilepsy. The aim of this stereological study of neuronal soma volume in 25 brain structures and their subdivisions in eight individuals 9 to 26 years of age who were diagnosed with chromosome 15q11.2-13.1 duplication syndrome [dup(15)], autism, ID and epilepsy; eight age-matched subjects diagnosed with autism of unknown etiology (idiopathic autism) and seven control individuals was to establish whether defects of neuronal soma growth are a common denominator of developmental pathology in idiopathic and syndromic autism and how genetic modifications alter the trajectory of neuronal soma growth in dup(15) autism...
2015: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
David Metcalfe, Craig J Hickson, Lesley McKee, Xavier L Griffin
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether external fixation or open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) is optimal for patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review using Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic, Embase, AMED, the Cochrane Library, Open Grey, Orthopaedic Proceedings, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Current Controlled Trials, US National Institute for Health Trials Registry, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials...
December 2015: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
L Sermeus, S Boeckx, H Camerlynck, J Somville, M Vercauteren
Opinions diverge as to whether or not regional anaesthesia delays the diagnosis of evolving acute compartment syndrome. Withholding regional anaesthesia from patients with painful orthopaedic injuries may be ethically unacceptable, however. In this report, we describe a case of acute compartment syndrome in a 4-year old child who underwent resection of a forearm osteochondroma. Analgesia was satisfactory during the first post-operative night, but the child later complained of pain despite an effective infra-clavicular block...
2015: Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica
Jens Pedersen, Nis B Pedersen, Sophie W Brix, Kaare Villum Grunddal, Mette M Rosenkilde, Bolette Hartmann, Cathrine Ørskov, Steen S Poulsen, Jens J Holst
Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a potent intestinotrophic growth factor with therapeutic potential in the treatment of intestinal deficiencies. It has recently been approved for the treatment of short bowel syndrome. The effects of GLP-2 are mediated by specific binding of the hormone to the GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R) which was cloned in 1999. However, consensus about the exact receptor localization in the intestine has never been established. By physical, chemical and enzymatic tissue fragmentation, we were able to divide rat jejunum into different compartments consisting of: (1) epithelium alone, (2) mucosa with lamina propria and epithelium, (3) the external muscle coat including myenteric plexus, (4) a compartment enriched for the myenteric plexus and (5) intestine without epithelium...
May 2015: Peptides
Eric Cohen, Jeremy Truntzer, Jeremy Trunzter, Steve Klinge, Kevin Schwartz, Jonathan Schiller
Acute compartment syndrome is an orthopedic surgical emergency and may result in devastating complications in the setting of delayed or missed diagnosis. Compartment syndrome has a variety of causes, including posttraumatic or postoperative swelling, external compression, burns, bleeding disorders, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rare cases of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in the setting of acute myeloid leukemia and, even less commonly, chronic myeloid leukemia have been reported. The authors report the first known case of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in a patient without a previously known diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia...
November 2014: Orthopedics
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