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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196444/temporal-analysis-of-hippocampal-ca3-gene-co-expression-networks-in-a-rat-model-of-febrile-seizures
#1
Hatylas Azevedo, Nathália Amato Khaled, Paula Santos, Fernanda Bernardi Bertonha, Carlos Alberto Moreira-Filho
Complex febrile seizures during infancy constitute an important risk factor for epilepsy development. However, little is known about the alterations induced by febrile seizures that may turn the brain susceptible to epileptic activity. In this context, the use of animal models of hyperthermic seizures (HS) could allow the temporal analysis of brain molecular changes that arise after febrile seizures. Here, we investigated temporal changes in hippocampal gene co-expression networks during the development of rats submitted to HS...
November 30, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184486/differential-postnatal-expression-of-neuronal-maturation-markers-in-the-dentate-gyrus-of-mice-and-rats
#2
Tijana Radic, Lara Frieß, Aruvi Vijikumar, Tassilo Jungenitz, Thomas Deller, Stephan W Schwarzacher
The dentate gyrus (DG) is a unique structure of the hippocampus that is distinguished by ongoing neurogenesis throughout the lifetime of an organism. The development of the DG, which begins during late gestation and continues during the postnatal period, comprises the structural formation of the DG as well as the establishment of the adult neurogenic niche in the subgranular zone (SGZ). We investigated the time course of postnatal maturation of the DG in male C57BL/6J mice and male Sprague-Dawley rats based on the distribution patterns of the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX) and a marker for mature neurons, calbindin (CB)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070632/retracing-your-footsteps-developmental-insights-to-spinal-network-plasticity-following-injury
#3
Celine Jean-Xavier, Simon A Sharples, Kyle A Mayr, Adam Parker Lognon, Patrick J Whelan
During development of the spinal cord, a precise interaction occurs between descending projections and sensory afferents with spinal networks that lead to expression of coordinated motor output. In the rodent, during the last embryonic week, motor output first occurs as regular bursts of spontaneous activity progressing to stochastic patterns of episodes that express bouts of coordinated rhythmic activity perinatally. Locomotor activity becomes functionally mature in the second postnatal week and is heralded by the onset of weight-bearing locomotion on the 8th-9th postnatal day...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060314/network-mediated-responses-of-on-ganglion-cells-to-electric-stimulation-become-less-consistent-across-trials-during-retinal-degeneration
#4
Jae-Ik Lee, Shelley I Fried, Maesoon Im
Microelectronic retinal prostheses are being developed to restore sight in individuals blinded by outer retinal degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Unfortunately, the quality of vision restored by these devices is still limited. To improve the quality of elicited vision, our group studies the responses of retinal neurons to electric stimulation. Our previous work showed that responses mediated through the retinal network are reproducible with high temporal precision, even for spikes that occur >100 ms after stimulus onset...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024713/a-lack-of-glun2a-containing-nmda-receptors-confers-a-vulnerability-to-redox-dysregulation-consequences-on-parvalbumin-interneurons-and-their-perineuronal-nets
#5
Romain Cardis, Jan-Harry Cabungcal, Daniella Dwir, Kim Q Do, Pascal Steullet
The GluN2A subunit of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) plays a critical role during postnatal brain development as its expression increases while Glun2B expression decreases. Mutations and polymorphisms in GRIN2A gene, coding for GluN2A, are linked to developmental brain disorders such as mental retardation, epilepsy, schizophrenia. Published data suggest that GluN2A is involved in maturation and phenotypic maintenance of parvalbumin interneurons (PVIs), and these interneurons suffer from a deficient glutamatergic neurotransmission via GluN2A-containing NMDARs in schizophrenia...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974382/dual-effect-of-serotonin-on-the-dendritic-growth-of-cultured-hippocampal-neurons-involvement-of-5-ht1a-and-5-ht7-receptors
#6
P S Rojas, F Aguayo, D Neira, M Tejos, E Aliaga, J P Muñoz, C S Parra, J L Fiedler
Serotonin acts through its receptors (5-HTRs) to shape brain networks during development and modulates essential functions in mature brain. The 5-HT1AR is mainly located at soma of hippocampal neurons early during brain development and its expression gradually shifts to dendrites during postnatal development. The 5-HT7R expressed early during hippocampus development, shows a progressive reduction in its expression postnatally. Considering these changes during development, we evaluated in cultured hippocampal neurons whether the 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R change their expression, modulate dendritic growth, and activate signaling pathways such as ERK1/2, AKT/GSK3β and LIMK/cofilin, which may sustain dendrite outgrowth by controlling cytoskeleton dynamics...
September 30, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968898/loss-of-trkb-signaling-in-parvalbumin-expressing-basket-cells-results-in-network-activity-disruption-and-abnormal-behavior
#7
Dionysios Xenos, Marija Kamceva, Simone Tomasi, Jessica A Cardin, Michael L Schwartz, Flora M Vaccarino
The GABAergic system is regulated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) pathway, but the cell-intrinsic role of TrkB signaling in parvalbumin cortical interneuron development and function is unclear. We performed conditional ablation of the TrkB receptor in parvalbumin-expressing (PV) interneurons to study whether postnatal loss of TrkB in parvalbumin cells affects their survival, connectivity, spontaneous and evoked neuronal activity and behavior. Using in vivo recordings of local field potentials, we found reduced gamma oscillations in the sensory cortex of PVcre+; TrkBF/F conditional knockout mice (TrkB cKO), along with increased firing of putative excitatory neurons...
August 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905487/endogenous-neurosteroids-influence-synaptic-gabaa-receptors-during-post-natal-development
#8
REVIEW
Delia Belelli, Adam R Brown, Scott J Mitchell, Ben G Gunn, Murray B Herd, Grant Phillips, Mohsen Seifi, Jerome D Swinny, Jeremy J Lambert
GABA plays a key role in both embryonic and neonatal brain development. For example, during early neonatal nervous system maturation, synaptic transmission, mediated by GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs), undergoes a temporally specific form of synaptic plasticity, to accommodate the changing requirements of maturing neural networks. Specifically, the duration of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), resulting from vesicular GABA activating synaptic GABAA Rs, is reduced, permitting neurons to appropriately influence the window for postsynaptic excitation...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899717/early-patterns-of-activity-in-the-developing-cortex-focus-on-the-sensorimotor-system
#9
REVIEW
Roustem Khazipov, Mathieu Milh
Early development of somatotopic cortical maps occurs during the fetal period in humans and during the postnatal period in rodents. During this period, the sensorimotor cortex expresses transient patterns of correlated neuronal activity including delta waves, gamma- and spindle-burst oscillations. These early activity patterns are largely driven by the thalamus and triggered, in a topographic manner, by sensory feedback resulting from spontaneous movements. Early cortical activities are instrumental for competitive interactions between sensory inputs for the cortical territories, they prevent cortical neurons from apoptosis and their alteration may lead to disturbances in cortical network development in a number of neurodevelopmental diseases...
September 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860962/cell-proliferation-migration-and-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-brain-of-the-pulse-type-weakly-electric-fish-gymnotus-omarorum
#10
Valentina Olivera-Pasilio, Moira Lasserre, María E Castelló
Adult neurogenesis, an essential mechanism of brain plasticity, enables brain development along postnatal life, constant addition of new neurons, neuronal turnover, and/or regeneration. It is amply distributed but negatively modulated during development and along evolution. Widespread cell proliferation, high neurogenic, and regenerative capacities are considered characteristics of teleost brains during adulthood. These anamniotes are promising models to depict factors that modulate cell proliferation, migration, and neurogenesis, and might be intervened to promote brain plasticity in mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859888/postnatal-development-of-gabaergic-interneurons-and-perineuronal-nets-in-mouse-temporal-cortex-subregions
#11
Hiroshi Ueno, Shunsuke Suemitsu, Shinji Murakami, Naoya Kitamura, Kenta Wani, Motoi Okamoto, Shozo Aoki, Takeshi Ishihara
In human neuropsychiatric disorders, there are functional and anatomical abnormalities of GABAergic interneurons in each temporal cortex subregion. Furthermore, accumulation of amyloid-β is observed in the temporal cortex in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Each subregion of the temporal cortex has an important role in coordinating the input and output of the hippocampus. When subregions of the temporal cortex are impaired, memory and learning ability decrease. GABAergic interneurons control excitatory neurons, forming the cortico-cortical and cortico-hippocampal networks...
December 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856131/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-infant-brain-methods-pitfalls-and-potentiality
#12
Chandler R L Mongerson, Russell W Jennings, David Borsook, Lino Becerra, Dusica Bajic
Early brain development is characterized by rapid growth and perpetual reconfiguration, driven by a dynamic milieu of heterogeneous processes. Postnatal brain plasticity is associated with increased vulnerability to environmental stimuli. However, little is known regarding the ontogeny and temporal manifestations of inter- and intra-regional functional connectivity that comprise functional brain networks. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has emerged as a promising non-invasive neuroinvestigative tool, measuring spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal at rest that reflect baseline neuronal activity...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826501/electrical-activity-controls-area-specific-expression-of-neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-mouse-developing-cerebral-cortex
#13
Oriane Blanquie, Jenq-Wei Yang, Werner Kilb, Salim Sharopov, Anne Sinning, Heiko J Luhmann
Programmed cell death widely but heterogeneously affects the developing brain, causing the loss of up to 50% of neurons in rodents. However, whether this heterogeneity originates from neuronal identity and/or network-dependent processes is unknown. Here, we report that the primary motor cortex (M1) and primary somatosensory cortex (S1), two adjacent but functionally distinct areas, display striking differences in density of apoptotic neurons during the early postnatal period. These differences in rate of apoptosis negatively correlate with region-dependent levels of activity...
August 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751664/afferent-specific-role-of-nmda-receptors-for-the-circuit-integration-of-hippocampal-neurogliaform-cells
#14
R Chittajallu, J C Wester, M T Craig, E Barksdale, X Q Yuan, G Akgül, C Fang, D Collins, S Hunt, K A Pelkey, C J McBain
Appropriate integration of GABAergic interneurons into nascent cortical circuits is critical for ensuring normal information processing within the brain. Network and cognitive deficits associated with neurological disorders, such as schizophrenia, that result from NMDA receptor-hypofunction have been mainly attributed to dysfunction of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons that paradoxically express low levels of synaptic NMDA receptors. Here, we reveal that throughout postnatal development, thalamic, and entorhinal cortical inputs onto hippocampal neurogliaform cells are characterized by a large NMDA receptor-mediated component...
July 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690498/amyloid-precursor-like-proteins-aplp1-and-aplp2-are-dispensable-for-normal-development-of-the-neonatal-respiratory-network
#15
Kang Han, Ulrike C Müller, Swen Hülsmann
Recent studies using animal models indicated that the members of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene family are important for the formation, maintenance, and plasticity of synapses. Despite this, the specific role of the APP homologs APLP1 and APLP2 within the CNS and PNS is still poorly understood. In contrast to the subtle phenotypes of single mutants, double knockout mice (DKO) lacking APP/APLP2 or APLP1/APLP2 die within the first day after birth. Whereas APP/APLP2-DKO mice show severe deficits of neuromuscular morphology and transmission, the underlying cause of lethality of APLP1/APLP2-DKO mice remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576568/early-life-exposure-to-caffeine-affects-the-construction-and-activity-of-cortical-networks-in-mice
#16
Walid Fazeli, Stefania Zappettini, Stephan Lawrence Marguet, Jasper Grendel, Monique Esclapez, Christophe Bernard, Dirk Isbrandt
The consumption of psychoactive drugs during pregnancy can have deleterious effects on newborns. It remains unclear whether early-life exposure to caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance, alters brain development. We hypothesized that maternal caffeine ingestion during pregnancy and the early postnatal period in mice affects the construction and activity of cortical networks in offspring. To test this hypothesis, we focused on primary visual cortex (V1) as a model neocortical region. In a study design mimicking the daily consumption of approximately three cups of coffee during pregnancy in humans, caffeine was added to the drinking water of female mice and their offspring were compared to control offspring...
September 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484370/clustered-protocadherins-are-required-for-building-functional-neural-circuits
#17
Sonoko Hasegawa, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Makiko Kumagai, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Etsuko Tarusawa, Hiro Kanda, Makoto Sanbo, Yumiko Yoshimura, Masumi Hirabayashi, Takahiro Hirabayashi, Takeshi Yagi
Neuronal identity is generated by the cell-surface expression of clustered protocadherin (Pcdh) isoforms. In mice, 58 isoforms from three gene clusters, Pcdhα, Pcdhβ, and Pcdhγ, are differentially expressed in neurons. Since cis-heteromeric Pcdh oligomers on the cell surface interact homophilically with that in other neurons in trans, it has been thought that the Pcdh isoform repertoire determines the binding specificity of synapses. We previously described the cooperative functions of isoforms from all three Pcdh gene clusters in neuronal survival and synapse formation in the spinal cord...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479324/theta-oscillations-during-active-sleep-synchronize-the-developing-rubro-hippocampal-sensorimotor-network
#18
Carlos Del Rio-Bermudez, Jangjin Kim, Greta Sokoloff, Mark S Blumberg
Neuronal oscillations comprise a fundamental mechanism by which distant neural structures establish and express functional connectivity. Long-range functional connectivity between the hippocampus and other forebrain structures is enabled by theta oscillations. Here, we show for the first time that the infant rat red nucleus (RN)-a brainstem sensorimotor structure-exhibits theta (4-7 Hz) oscillations restricted primarily to periods of active (REM) sleep. At postnatal day 8 (P8), theta is expressed as brief bursts immediately following myoclonic twitches; by P12, theta oscillations are expressed continuously across bouts of active sleep...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466069/early-social-isolation-stress-and-perinatal-nmda-receptor-antagonist-treatment-induce-changes-in-the-structure-and-neurochemistry-of-inhibitory-neurons-of-the-adult-amygdala-and-prefrontal-cortex
#19
Esther Castillo-Gómez, Marta Pérez-Rando, María Bellés, Javier Gilabert-Juan, José Vicente Llorens, Héctor Carceller, Clara Bueno-Fernández, Clara García-Mompó, Beatriz Ripoll-Martínez, Yasmina Curto, Noelia Sebastiá-Ortega, María Dolores Moltó, Julio Sanjuan, Juan Nacher
The exposure to aversive experiences during early life influences brain development and leads to altered behavior. Moreover, the combination of these experiences with subtle alterations in neurodevelopment may contribute to the emergence of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Recent hypotheses suggest that imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission, especially in the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, may underlie their etiopathology. In order to understand better the neurobiological bases of these alterations, we studied the impact of altered neurodevelopment and chronic early-life stress on these two brain regions...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408413/distinct-physiological-maturation-of-parvalbumin-positive-neuron-subtypes-in-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#20
Takeaki Miyamae, Kehui Chen, David A Lewis, Guillermo Gonzalez-Burgos
Parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) neurons control the timing of pyramidal cell output in cortical neuron networks. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC), PV(+) neuron activity is involved in cognitive function, suggesting that PV(+) neuron maturation is critical for cognitive development. The two major PV(+) neuron subtypes found in the PFC, chandelier cells (ChCs) and basket cells (BCs), are thought to play different roles in cortical circuits, but the trajectories of their physiological maturation have not been compared...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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