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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576568/early-life-exposure-to-caffeine-affects-the-construction-and-activity-of-cortical-networks-in-mice
#1
Walid Fazeli, Stefania Zappettini, Stephan Lawrence Marguet, Jasper Grendel, Monique Esclapez, Christophe Bernard, Dirk Isbrandt
The consumption of psychoactive drugs during pregnancy can have deleterious effects on newborns. It remains unclear whether early-life exposure to caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance, alters brain development. We hypothesized that maternal caffeine ingestion during pregnancy and the early postnatal period in mice affects the construction and activity of cortical networks in offspring. To test this hypothesis, we focused on primary visual cortex (V1) as a model neocortical region. In a study design mimicking the daily consumption of approximately three cups of coffee during pregnancy in humans, caffeine was added to the drinking water of female mice and their offspring were compared to control offspring...
May 30, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484370/clustered-protocadherins-are-required-for-building-functional-neural-circuits
#2
Sonoko Hasegawa, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Makiko Kumagai, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Etsuko Tarusawa, Hiro Kanda, Makoto Sanbo, Yumiko Yoshimura, Masumi Hirabayashi, Takahiro Hirabayashi, Takeshi Yagi
Neuronal identity is generated by the cell-surface expression of clustered protocadherin (Pcdh) isoforms. In mice, 58 isoforms from three gene clusters, Pcdhα, Pcdhβ, and Pcdhγ, are differentially expressed in neurons. Since cis-heteromeric Pcdh oligomers on the cell surface interact homophilically with that in other neurons in trans, it has been thought that the Pcdh isoform repertoire determines the binding specificity of synapses. We previously described the cooperative functions of isoforms from all three Pcdh gene clusters in neuronal survival and synapse formation in the spinal cord...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479324/theta-oscillations-during-active-sleep-synchronize-the-developing-rubro-hippocampal-sensorimotor-network
#3
Carlos Del Rio-Bermudez, Jangjin Kim, Greta Sokoloff, Mark S Blumberg
Neuronal oscillations comprise a fundamental mechanism by which distant neural structures establish and express functional connectivity. Long-range functional connectivity between the hippocampus and other forebrain structures is enabled by theta oscillations. Here, we show for the first time that the infant rat red nucleus (RN)-a brainstem sensorimotor structure-exhibits theta (4-7 Hz) oscillations restricted primarily to periods of active (REM) sleep. At postnatal day 8 (P8), theta is expressed as brief bursts immediately following myoclonic twitches; by P12, theta oscillations are expressed continuously across bouts of active sleep...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466069/early-social-isolation-stress-and-perinatal-nmda-receptor-antagonist-treatment-induce-changes-in-the-structure-and-neurochemistry-of-inhibitory-neurons-of-the-adult-amygdala-and-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Esther Castillo-Gómez, Marta Pérez-Rando, María Bellés, Javier Gilabert-Juan, José Vicente Llorens, Héctor Carceller, Clara Bueno-Fernández, Clara García-Mompó, Beatriz Ripoll-Martínez, Yasmina Curto, Noelia Sebastiá-Ortega, María Dolores Moltó, Julio Sanjuan, Juan Nacher
The exposure to aversive experiences during early life influences brain development and leads to altered behavior. Moreover, the combination of these experiences with subtle alterations in neurodevelopment may contribute to the emergence of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Recent hypotheses suggest that imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission, especially in the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, may underlie their etiopathology. In order to understand better the neurobiological bases of these alterations, we studied the impact of altered neurodevelopment and chronic early-life stress on these two brain regions...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408413/distinct-physiological-maturation-of-parvalbumin-positive-neuron-subtypes-in-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#5
Takeaki Miyamae, Kehui Chen, David A Lewis, Guillermo Gonzalez-Burgos
Parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) neurons control the timing of pyramidal cell output in cortical neuron networks. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC), PV(+) neuron activity is involved in cognitive function, suggesting that PV(+) neuron maturation is critical for cognitive development. The two major PV(+) neuron subtypes found in the PFC, chandelier cells (ChCs) and basket cells (BCs), are thought to play different roles in cortical circuits, but the trajectories of their physiological maturation have not been compared...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396282/serotonergic-projections-to-lumbar-levels-and-its-plasticity-following-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Yongzhi Xia, Dan Chen, Haijian Xia, Zhengbu Liao, Wenyuan Tang, Yi Yan
The descending serotonergic pathway, which originates in various populations of brainstem neurons, plays an important role in generating the rhythmic motor pattern associated with locomotor movement. Although the development of its innervation has been studied in rodent spinal cord, it has not been clearly identified how the projection of serotonergic pathway is related to its function. Here, we evaluated the pattern of serotonergic innervation on the lumbar spinal cord from embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) to adulthood...
April 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356470/development-and-long-term-integration-of-mge-lineage-cortical-interneurons-in-the-heterochronic-environment
#7
Phillip Larimer, Julien Spatazza, Michael P Stryker, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, Andrea Rayne Hasenstaub
Interneuron precursors transplanted into visual cortex induce network plasticity during their heterochronic maturation. Such plasticity can have a significant impact on the function of the animal, and is normally present only during a brief critical period in early postnatal development. Elucidating the synaptic and physiological properties of interneuron precursors as they mature is key to understanding how long-term circuit changes are induced by transplants. We studied the development of transplant-derived interneurons and compared it to endogenously-developing interneurons (those which are born and develop in the same animal) at parallel developmental time points using patch-clamp recordings in acute cortical slices...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322793/temporal-relation-between-neural-activity-and-neurite-pruning-on-a-numerical-model-and-a-microchannel-device-with-micro-electrode-array
#8
Yohei Kondo, Yuichiro Yada, Tatsuya Haga, Yuzo Takayama, Takuya Isomura, Yasuhiko Jimbo, Osamu Fukayama, Takayuki Hoshino, Kunihiko Mabuchi
Synapse elimination and neurite pruning are essential processes for the formation of neuronal circuits. These regressive events depend on neural activity and occur in the early postnatal days known as the critical period, but what makes this temporal specificity is not well understood. One possibility is that the neural activities during the developmentally regulated shift of action of GABA inhibitory transmission lead to the critical period. Moreover, it has been reported that the shifting action of the inhibitory transmission on immature neurons overlaps with synapse elimination and neurite pruning and that increased inhibitory transmission by drug treatment could induce temporal shift of the critical period...
April 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315865/proteomic-analysis-of-mouse-cortex-postsynaptic-density-following-neonatal-brain-hypoxia-ischemia
#9
Guo Shao, Yongqiang Wang, Shenheng Guan, Alma L Burlingame, Fuxin Lu, Renatta Knox, Donna M Ferriero, Xiangning Jiang
Proteomics of the synapses and postsynaptic densities (PSDs) have provided a deep understanding of protein composition and signal networks in the adult brain, which underlie neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative or psychiatric disorders. However, there is a paucity of knowledge about the architecture and organization of PSDs in the immature brain, and how it is modified by brain injury in an early developing stage. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis was performed on PSDs prepared from cortices of postnatal day 9 naïve mice or pups which had suffered hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270749/identifying-candidate-genes-that-underlie-cellular-ph-sensitivity-in-serotonin-neurons-using-transcriptomics-a-potential-role-for-kir5-1-channels
#10
Madeleine M Puissant, Gary C Mouradian, Pengyuan Liu, Matthew R Hodges
Ventilation is continuously adjusted by a neural network to maintain blood gases and pH. Acute CO2 and/or pH regulation requires neural feedback from brainstem cells that encode CO2/pH to modulate ventilation, including but not limited to brainstem serotonin (5-HT) neurons. Brainstem 5-HT neurons modulate ventilation and are stimulated by hypercapnic acidosis, the sensitivity of which increases with increasing postnatal age. The proper function of brainstem 5-HT neurons, particularly during post-natal development is critical given that multiple abnormalities in the 5-HT system have been identified in victims of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265099/neonatal-cx26-removal-impairs-neocortical-development-and-leads-to-elevated-anxiety
#11
Xin Su, Jing-Jing Chen, Lin-Yun Liu, Qian Huang, Li-Zhao Zhang, Xiao-Yang Li, Xiang-Nan He, Wenlian Lu, Shan Sun, Huawei Li, Yong-Chun Yu
Electrical coupling between excitatory neurons in the neocortex is developmentally regulated. It is initially prominent but eliminated at later developmental stages when chemical synapses emerge. However, it remains largely unclear whether early electrical coupling networks broadly contribute to neocortical circuit formation and animal behavior. Here, we report that neonatal electrical coupling between neocortical excitatory neurons is critical for proper neuronal development, synapse formation, and animal behavior...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256583/gene-networks-activated-by-specific-patterns-of-action-potentials-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-neurons
#12
Philip R Lee, Jonathan E Cohen, Dumitru A Iacobas, Sanda Iacobas, R Douglas Fields
Gene regulatory networks underlie the long-term changes in cell specification, growth of synaptic connections, and adaptation that occur throughout neonatal and postnatal life. Here we show that the transcriptional response in neurons is exquisitely sensitive to the temporal nature of action potential firing patterns. Neurons were electrically stimulated with the same number of action potentials, but with different inter-burst intervals. We found that these subtle alterations in the timing of action potential firing differentially regulates hundreds of genes, across many functional categories, through the activation or repression of distinct transcriptional networks...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229088/glutathione-induces-gaba-release-through-p2x7r-activation-on-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#13
Hércules Rezende Freitas, Ricardo A de Melo Reis
The retinal tissue of warm-blooded vertebrates performs surprisingly complex and accurate transduction of visual information. To achieve precision, a multilayered neuroglia structure is established throughout the embryonic development, and the presence of radial Müller (glial) cells ensure differentiation, growth and survival for the neuronal elements within retinal environment. It is assumed that Müller cells serve as a dynamic reservoir of progenitors, capable of expressing transcription factors, differentiating and proliferating as either neuronal or glial cells depending on extrinsic cues...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215300/the-role-of-neurotrophins-in-inflammation-and-allergy
#14
S Manti, P Brown, M K Perez, G Piedimonte
Allergic inflammation is the result of a specific pattern of cellular and humoral responses leading to the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system, which, in turn, results in physiological and structural changes affecting target tissues such as the airways and the skin. Eosinophil activation and the production of soluble mediators such as IgE antibodies are pivotal features in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. In the past few years, however, convincing evidence has shown that neurons and other neurosensory structures are not only a target of the inflammatory process but also participate in the regulation of immune responses by actively releasing soluble mediators...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197551/ephrina5-signaling-is-required-for-the-distinctive-targeting-of-raphe-serotonin-neurons-in-the-forebrain
#15
Teng Teng, Afsaneh Gaillard, Aude Muzerelle, Patricia Gaspar
Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission in the brain relies on a widespread axon terminal network originating from the hindbrain raphe nuclei. These projections are topographically organized such that the dorsal (DR), and median raphe (MnR) nuclei have different brain targets. However, the guidance molecules involved in this selective targeting in development are unknown. Here, we show the implication of ephrinA5 signaling in this process. We find that the EphA5 gene is selectively expressed in a subset of 5-HT neurons during embryonic and postnatal development...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169319/early-life-stress-impairs-recognition-memory-and-perturbs-the-functional-maturation-of-prefrontal-hippocampal-perirhinal-networks
#16
Samuel A J Reincke, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz
Early life exposure to stressful situations impairs cognitive performance of adults and contributes to the etiology of several psychiatric disorders. Most of affected cognitive abilities rely on coupling by synchrony within complex neuronal networks, including prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HP), and perirhinal cortex (PRH). Yet it remains poorly understood how early life stress (ELS) induces dysfunction within these networks during the course of development. Here we used intermittent maternal separation during the first 2 postnatal weeks to mimic ELS and monitored the recognition memory and functional coupling within prefrontal-hippocampal-perirhinal circuits in juvenile rats...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154241/stellate-cells-drive-maturation-of-the-entorhinal-hippocampal-circuit
#17
Flavio Donato, R Irene Jacobsen, May-Britt Moser, Edvard I Moser
The neural representation of space relies on a network of entorhinal-hippocampal cell types with firing patterns tuned to different abstract features of the environment. To determine how this network is set up during early postnatal development, we monitored markers of structural maturation in developing mice, both in naïve animals and after temporally restricted pharmacogenetic silencing of specific cell populations. We found that entorhinal stellate cells provide an activity-dependent instructive signal that drives maturation sequentially and unidirectionally through the intrinsic circuits of the entorhinal-hippocampal network...
March 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133476/neuronal-activity-controls-the-development-of-interneurons-in-the-somatosensory-cortex
#18
Rachel Babij, Natalia De Marco Garcia
BACKGROUND: Neuronal activity in cortical areas regulates neurodevelopment by interacting with defined genetic programs to shape the mature central nervous system. Electrical activity is conveyed to sensory cortical areas via intracortical and thalamocortical neurons, and includes oscillatory patterns that have been measured across cortical regions. OBJECTIVE: In this work, we review the most recent findings about how electrical activity shapes the developmental assembly of functional circuitry in the somatosensory cortex, with an emphasis on interneuron maturation and integration...
December 2016: Frontiers in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108491/transcriptome-analysis-identifies-multifaceted-regulatory-mechanisms-dictating-a-genetic-switch-from-neuronal-network-establishment-to-maintenance-during-postnatal-prefrontal-cortex-development
#19
Yvet Kroeze, Martin Oti, Ellen van Beusekom, Roel H M Cooijmans, Hans van Bokhoven, Sharon M Kolk, Judith R Homberg, Huiqing Zhou
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is one of the latest brain regions to mature, which allows the acquisition of complex cognitive abilities through experience. To unravel the underlying gene expression changes during postnatal development, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) in the rat medial PFC (mPFC) at five developmental time points from infancy to adulthood, and analyzed the differential expression of protein-coding genes, long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs), and alternative exons. We showed that most expression changes occur in infancy, and that the number of differentially expressed genes reduces toward adulthood...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038945/role-of-the-adhesion-molecule-f3-contactin-in-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory
#20
REVIEW
Walter Gulisano, Antonella Bizzoca, Gianfranco Gennarini, Agostino Palmeri, Daniela Puzzo
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) have a pivotal role in building and maintaining synaptic structures during brain development participating in axonal elongation and pathfinding, glial guidance of neuronal migration, as well as myelination. CAMs expression persists in the adult brain particularly in structures undergoing postnatal neurogenesis and involved in synaptic plasticity and memory as the hippocampus. Among the neural CAMs, we have recently focused on F3/Contactin, a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, involved in neuronal development, synaptic maintenance and organization of neuronal networks...
December 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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