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development postnatal network neuron

Chiaki Itami, Fumitaka Kimura
Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) has been demonstrated in a variety of neural circuits. Recent studies reveal that it plays a fundamental role in the formation and remodeling of neuronal circuits. We show here an interaction of two distinct forms of STDP in the mouse barrel cortex causing concurrent, plastic changes, potentially a novel mechanism underlying network remodeling. We previously demonstrated that during the second postnatal week, when layer four (L4) cells are forming synapses onto L2/3 cells, L4-L2/3 synapses exhibit STDP with only long-term potentiation (t-LTP)...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Fazal Wahab, Muhammad Shahab, Rüdiger Behr
A large body of data suggests that body weight influences puberty onset and adult reproduction. However, the underlying mechanism of how body weight influences puberty onset and fertility is not completely understood. The hypothalamic neuronal circuit regulating reproduction is restrained by inhibitory signals during childhood. At the time of puberty, these inhibitory signals are weakened and supplanted by stimulatory signals that, in turn, stimulate the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) - a hypothalamic neuropeptide governing reproduction...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Ania Dabrowski, Hisashi Umemori
Brain development involves multiple levels of molecular coordination in forming a functional nervous system. The hippocampus is a brain area that is important for memory formation and spatial reasoning. During early postnatal development of the hippocampal circuit, Fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) and FGF7 act to establish a balance of excitatory and inhibitory tone. Both FGFs are secreted from CA3 dendrites, acting on excitatory or inhibitory axon terminals formed onto CA3 dendrites, respectively. Mechanistically, FGF22 utilizes FGFR2b and FGFR1b to induce synaptic vesicle recruitment within axons of dentate granule cells (DGCs), and FGF7 utilizes FGFR2b to induce synaptic vesicle recruitment within interneuron axons...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Yuuki Obata, Vassilis Pachnis
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is essential for the absorption of nutrients, induction of mucosal and systemic immune responses, and maintenance of a healthy gut microbiota. Key aspects of gastrointestinal physiology are controlled by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is composed of enteric neurons and glial cells. The ENS is exposed to and interacts with the outer (microbiota, metabolites, and nutrients) and inner (immune cells and stromal cells) microenvironment of the gut. Although the cellular blueprint of the ENS is mostly in place by birth, the functional maturation of intestinal neural networks is completed within the microenvironment of the postnatal gut, under the influence of gut microbiota and the mucosal immune system...
August 10, 2016: Gastroenterology
Beryl Y T Chung, Warren Bignell, Derek L Jacklin, Boyer D Winters, Craig D C Bailey
The hippocampus plays a key role in learning and memory. The normal development and mature function of hippocampal networks supporting these cognitive functions depends on afferent cholinergic neurotransmission mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. While it is well-established that nicotinic receptors are present on GABAergic interneurons and on glutamatergic presynaptic terminals within the hippocampus, the ability of these receptors to mediate postsynaptic signaling in pyramidal neurons is not well understood...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Thulasi Sheela Divya, Soundararajan Lalitha, Surendran Parvathy, Chandramohan Subashini, Rajendran Sanalkumar, Sivadasan Bindu Dhanesh, Vazhanthodi Abdul Rasheed, Mundackal Sivaraman Divya, Shubha Tole, Jackson James
Homeobox gene Tlx3 is known to promote glutamatergic differentiation and is expressed in post-mitotic neurons of CNS. Contrary to this here, we discovered that Tlx3 is expressed in the proliferating progenitors of the external granule layer in the cerebellum, and examined factors that regulate this expression. Using Pax6(-/-)Sey mouse model and molecular interaction studies we demonstrate Pax6 is a key activator of Tlx3 specifically in cerebellum, and induces its expression starting at embryonic day (E)15. By Postnatal day (PN)7, Tlx3 is expressed in a highly restricted manner in the cerebellar granule neurons of the posterior cerebellar lobes, where it is required for the restricted expression of nicotinic cholinergic receptor-α3 subunit (Chrnα3) and other genes involved in formation of synaptic connections and neuronal migration...
2016: Scientific Reports
Bridget A Matikainen-Ankney, Nebojsa Kezunovic, Roxana E Mesias, Yuan Tian, Frances M Williams, George W Huntley, Deanna L Benson
UNLABELLED: Mutations in the gene encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) can cause Parkinson's disease (PD), and the most common disease-associated mutation, G2019S, increases kinase activity. Because LRRK2 expression levels rise during synaptogenesis and are highest in dorsal striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs), we tested the hypothesis that the LRRK2-G2019S mutation would alter development of excitatory synaptic networks in dorsal striatum. To circumvent experimental confounds associated with LRRK2 overexpression, we used mice expressing LRRK2-G2019S or D2017A (kinase-dead) knockin mutations...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Barbara Gellén, Katalin Völgyi, Balázs András Györffy, Boróka Balogh, Zsuzsa Darula, Hunyadi-Gulyás Éva, Péter Baracskay, András Czurkó, István Hernádi, Gábor Juhász, Árpád Dobolyi, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi
: Neonatal rodents chronically treated with the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine show depression-like behavior, which persists throughout adulthood. Therefore, this animal model is suitable to investigate the pathomechanism of depression, which is still largely unknown at the molecular level beyond monoaminergic dysfunctions. Here, we describe protein level changes in the prefrontal cortex of neonatally clomipramine-treated adult rats correlating with behavioral abnormalities. Clomipramine was administered to rat pups twice daily between postnatal days 8-21, while controls received saline injections...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Lorenzo Fabrizi, Madeleine Verriotis, Gemma Williams, Amy Lee, Judith Meek, Sofia Olhede, Maria Fitzgerald
Newborn human infants display robust pain behaviour and specific cortical activity following noxious skin stimulation, but it is not known whether brain processing of nociceptive information differs in infants and adults. Imaging studies have emphasised the overlap between infant and adult brain connectome architecture, but electrophysiological analysis of infant brain nociceptive networks can provide further understanding of the functional postnatal development of pain perception. Here we hypothesise that the human infant brain encodes noxious information with different neuronal patterns compared to adults...
2016: Scientific Reports
Mariel G Kozberg, Ying Ma, Mohammed A Shaik, Sharon H Kim, Elizabeth M C Hillman
UNLABELLED: In the adult brain, increases in neural activity lead to increases in local blood flow. However, many prior measurements of functional hemodynamics in the neonatal brain, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in human infants, have noted altered and even inverted hemodynamic responses to stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that localized neural activity in early postnatal mice does not evoke blood flow increases as in the adult brain, and elucidate the neural and metabolic correlates of these altered functional hemodynamics as a function of developmental age...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Lei Liu, Naoki Watanabe, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Masaki Nishimura
Decrease in brain amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation is a leading strategy for treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the intrinsic mechanism of the regulation of brain Aβ production is largely unknown. Previously, we reported that ILEI (also referred to as FAM3C) binds to the γ-secretase complex and suppresses Aβ production without inhibiting γ-secretase activity. In this study, we examined ILEI expression in mouse brain using immunohistochemistry and subcellular fractionation. Brain ILEI showed widespread expression in neurons and ependymal cells but not in glial and vascular endothelial cells...
August 25, 2016: Neuroscience
M M Hao, J P P Foong, J C Bornstein, Z L Li, P Vanden Berghe, W Boesmans
Co-ordinated gastrointestinal function is the result of integrated communication between the enteric nervous system (ENS) and "effector" cells in the gastrointestinal tract. Unlike smooth muscle cells, interstitial cells, and the vast majority of cell types residing in the mucosa, enteric neurons and glia are not generated within the gut. Instead, they arise from neural crest cells that migrate into and colonise the developing gastrointestinal tract. Although they are "later" arrivals into the developing gut, enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) respond to many of the same secreted signalling molecules as the "resident" epithelial and mesenchymal cells, and several factors that control the development of smooth muscle cells, interstitial cells and epithelial cells also regulate ENCCs...
September 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
Michael Kummer, Knut Kirmse, Chuanqiang Zhang, Jens Haueisen, Otto W Witte, Knut Holthoff
Neuronal network activity in the developing brain is generated in a discontinuous manner. In the visual cortex during the period of physiological blindness of immaturity, this activity mainly comprises retinally triggered spindle bursts or Ca(2+) clusters thought to contribute to the activity-dependent construction of cortical circuits. In spite of potentially important developmental functions, the spatial structure of these activity patterns remains largely unclear. In order to address this issue, we here used three-dimensional two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in the visual cortex of neonatal mice at postnatal days (P) 3-4 in vivo...
September 2016: NeuroImage
Hiram Tendilla-Beltrán, Luis Enrique Arroyo-García, Alfonso Diaz, Israel Camacho-Abrego, Fidel de la Cruz, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno, Gonzalo Flores
Amphetamines (AMPH) are psychostimulants widely used for therapy as well as for recreational purposes. Previous results of our group showed that AMPH exposure in pregnant rats induces physiological and behavioral changes in the offspring at prepubertal and postpubertal ages. In addition, several reports have shown that AMPH are capable of modifying the morphology of neurons in some regions of the limbic system. These modifications can cause some psychiatric conditions. However, it is still unclear if there are changes to behavioral and morphological levels when low doses of AMPH are administered at a juvenile age...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Jianfeng Xiao, Satya R Vemula, Yi Xue, Mohammad M Khan, Korah P Kuruvilla, Esther M Marquez-Lona, Madison R Cobb, Mark S LeDoux
A missense mutation in CIZ1 (c.790A>G, p.S264G) was linked to autosomal dominant cervical dystonia in a large multiplex Caucasian pedigree (OMIM614860, DYT23). CIZ1 is a p21((Cip1/Waf1)) -interacting zinc finger protein, widely expressed in neural and extra-neural tissues, and plays a role in DNA synthesis at the G1/S cell-cycle checkpoint. The role of CIZ1 in the nervous system and relative contributions of gain- or loss- of function to the pathogenesis of CIZ1-associated dystonia remain indefinite. Using relative quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR, cerebellum showed the highest expression levels of Ciz1 in adult mouse brain, over two fold higher than liver, and higher than striatum, midbrain and cerebral cortex...
September 2016: Experimental Neurology
Ayumi Konno, Akiko Nishimura, Shiro Nakamura, Ayako Mochizuki, Atsushi Yamada, Ryutaro Kamijo, Tomio Inoue, Takehiko Iijima
The neurotoxicity of anesthetics on the developing brain has drawn the attention of anesthesiologists. Several studies have shown that apoptosis is enhanced by exposure to anesthesia during brain development. Although apoptosis is a physiological developmental step occurring before the maturation of neural networks and the integration of brain function, pathological damage also involves apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that prolonged exposure to anesthetics causes apoptosis. Exactly when the apoptotic cascade starts in the brain remains uncertain...
April 26, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Soraya Doubi-Kadmiri, Charlotte Benoit, Xavier Benigni, Guillaume Beaumont, Claire-Marie Vacher, Mohammed Taouis, Anne Baroin-Tourancheau, Laurence Amar
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) modulate gene expression in male germ cells and somatic tissues of mammals on a genome-wide scale. Hundreds of miRNAs are encoded by mammalian genomes, a large fraction of which is expressed in brain. Here we have investigated the complexity and dynamics of miRNA transcriptomes that associate with neuronal network maturation of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and median eminence (ARC/ME) in rat by analysing more than 300 miRNAs from 3-7 biological replicates at 5 postnatal time-points. The network connecting ARC/ME to other hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic regions maturates in an environment-dependent manner...
2016: Scientific Reports
Shinji Miyata, Hiroshi Kitagawa
The brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is involved in several aspects of neuronal development, plasticity, and pathophysiology. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), consisting of core proteins with covalently attached chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains, are essential components of the brain ECM. During late postnatal development, CSPGs condense around parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV-cells) and form lattice-like ECM structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). Enzymatic or genetic manipulation of PNNs reactivates neuronal plasticity in the adult brain, probably by resetting the excitatory/inhibitory balance in neural networks...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Archana Gengatharan, Rodrigo R Bammann, Armen Saghatelyan
In mammals, new neurons in the adult olfactory bulb originate from a pool of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Adult-born cells play an important role in odor information processing by adjusting the neuronal network to changing environmental conditions. Olfactory bulb neurogenesis is supported by several non-neuronal cells. In this review, we focus on the role of astroglial cells in the generation, migration, integration, and survival of new neurons in the adult forebrain...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Andrew P Holmes, Shi Quan Wong, Michela Pulix, Kirsty Johnson, Niamh S Horton, Patricia Thomas, João Pedro de Magalhães, Antonius Plagge
BACKGROUND: Neuronal and glial differentiation in the murine hypothalamus is not complete at birth, but continues over the first two weeks postnatally. Nutritional status and Leptin deficiency can influence the maturation of neuronal projections and glial patterns, and hypothalamic gliosis occurs in mouse models of obesity. Gnasxl constitutes an alternative transcript of the genomically imprinted Gnas locus and encodes a variant of the signalling protein Gαs, termed XLαs, which is expressed in defined areas of the hypothalamus...
2016: Molecular Brain
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