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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921066/review-of-imaging-network-activities-in-developing-rodent-cerebral-cortex-in-vivo
#1
REVIEW
Heiko J Luhmann
The combination of voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) with multielectrode array (MEA) recordings in the rodent cerebral cortex in vivo allows the simultaneous analysis of large-scale network interactions and electrophysiological single-unit recordings. Using this approach, distinct patterns of spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity can be recorded in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) of newborn rats. Already at the day of birth, gamma oscillations and spindle bursts in the barrel cortex synchronize the activity of a local columnar ensemble, thereby generating an early topographic representation of the sensory periphery...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913431/pro-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-probdnf-mediated-p75ntr-activation-promotes-depolarizing-actions-of-gaba-and-increases-susceptibility-to-epileptic-seizures
#2
Baptiste Riffault, Nazim Kourdougli, Camille Dumon, Nadine Ferrand, Emmanuelle Buhler, Fabienne Schaller, Caroline Chambon, Claudio Rivera, Jean-Luc Gaiarsa, Christophe Porcher
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is synthesized as a precursor, namely proBDNF, which can be processed into mature BDNF (mBDNF). Evidences suggest that proBDNF signaling through p75(NTR) may account for the emergence of neurological disorders. These findings support the view that the relative availability of mBDNF and proBDNF forms is an important mechanism underlying brain circuit formation and cognitive functions. Here we describe novel insights into the proBDNF/p75(NTR) mechanisms and function in vivo in modulating neuronal circuit and synaptic plasticity during the first postnatal weeks in rats...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903733/development-of-activity-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#3
Jing Shen, Matthew T Colonnese
: A comprehensive developmental timeline of activity in the mouse cortex in vivo is lacking. Understanding the activity changes that accompany synapse and circuit formation is important to understand the mechanisms by which activity molds circuits and would help to identify critical checkpoints for normal development. To identify key principles of cortical activity maturation, we systematically tracked spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity with extracellular recordings of primary visual cortex (V1) in nonanesthetized mice...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883343/interhemispheric-connectivity-estimated-from-eeg-time-correlation-analysis-in-preterm-infants-with-normal-follow-up-at-age-of-five
#4
E J Meijer, H J Niemarkt, I P P C Raaijmakers, A M Mulder, C van Pul, P F F Wijn, P Andriessen
Brain connectivity is associated with axonal connections between brain structures. Our goal was to quantify the interhemispheric neuronal connectivity in healthy preterm infants by automated quantitative EEG time-correlation analysis. As with advancing postmenstrual age (PMA, gestational age  +  postnatal age) the neuronal connectivity between left and right hemisphere increases, we expect to observe changes in EEG time-correlation with age. Thirty-six appropriate-for-gestational age preterm infants (PMA between 27-37 weeks) and normal neurodevelopmental follow-up at 5 years of age were included...
November 24, 2016: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880916/nrl-regulated-transcriptome-dynamics-of-developing-rod-photoreceptors
#5
Jung-Woong Kim, Hyun-Jin Yang, Matthew John Brooks, Lina Zelinger, Gökhan Karakülah, Norimoto Gotoh, Alexis Boleda, Linn Gieser, Felipe Giuste, Dustin Thad Whitaker, Ashley Walton, Rafael Villasmil, Jennifer Joanna Barb, Peter Jonathan Munson, Koray Dogan Kaya, Vijender Chaitankar, Tiziana Cogliati, Anand Swaroop
Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) guiding differentiation of cell types and cell assemblies in the nervous system are poorly understood because of inherent complexities and interdependence of signaling pathways. Here, we report transcriptome dynamics of differentiating rod photoreceptors in the mammalian retina. Given that the transcription factor NRL determines rod cell fate, we performed expression profiling of developing NRL-positive (rods) and NRL-negative (S-cone-like) mouse photoreceptors. We identified a large-scale, sharp transition in the transcriptome landscape between postnatal days 6 and 10 concordant with rod morphogenesis...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866201/comparative-analysis-of-gene-regulatory-network-components-in-the-auditory-hindbrain-of-mice-and-chicken
#6
Benjamin Pawlik, Tina Schlüter, Heiner Hartwich, Saskia Breuel, Lennart Heepmann, Hans Gerd Nothwang
The neurons in the mammalian and avian auditory hindbrain nuclei share a number of significant morphological and physiological properties for fast, secure and precise neurotransmission, such as giant synapses, voltage-gated K+ channels and fast AMPA receptors. Based on the independent evolution of the middle ear in these two vertebrate lineages, on different embryonic origins of the nuclei and on marked differences on the circuit level, these similarities are assumed to reflect convergent evolution. Independent acquisition of similar phenotypes can be produced by divergent evolution of genetic mechanisms or by similar molecular mechanisms...
November 19, 2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844056/hyperpolarization-activated-currents-and-subthreshold-resonance-in-granule-cells-of-the-olfactory-bulb
#7
Ruilong Hu, Katie A Ferguson, Christina B Whiteus, Dimphna H Meijer, Ricardo C Araneda
An important contribution to neural circuit oscillatory dynamics is the ongoing activation and inactivation of hyperpolarization-activated currents (Ih). Network synchrony dynamics play an important role in the initial processing of odor signals by the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). In the mouse olfactory bulb, we show that Ih is present in granule cells (GCs), the most prominent inhibitory neuron in the olfactory bulb, and that Ih underlies subthreshold resonance in GCs. In accord with the properties of Ih, the currents exhibited sensitivity to changes in extracellular K(+) concentration and ZD7288 (4-ethylphenylamino-1,2-dimethyl-6-methylaminopyrimidin chloride), a blocker of Ih...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829159/dixdc1-phosphorylation-and-control-of-dendritic-morphology-are-impaired-by-rare-genetic-variants
#8
Vickie Kwan, Durga Praveen Meka, Sean H White, Claudia L Hung, Nicholas T Holzapfel, Susan Walker, Nadeem Murtaza, Brianna K Unda, Birgit Schwanke, Ryan K C Yuen, Kendra Habing, Chloe Milsom, Kristin J Hope, Ray Truant, Stephen W Scherer, Froylan Calderon de Anda, Karun K Singh
The development of neural connectivity is essential for brain function, and disruption of this process is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). DIX domain containing 1 (DIXDC1) has previously been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, but its role in postnatal brain function remains unknown. Using a knockout mouse model, we determined that DIXDC1 is a regulator of excitatory neuron dendrite development and synapse function in the cortex. We discovered that MARK1, previously linked to ASDs, phosphorylates DIXDC1 to regulate dendrite and spine development through modulation of the cytoskeletal network in an isoform-specific manner...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807169/p39-is-responsible-for-increasing-cdk5-activity-during-postnatal-neuron-differentiation-and-governs-neuronal-network-formation-and-epileptic-responses
#9
Wenqi Li, Megan E Allen, Yanfang Rui, Li Ku, Guanglu Liu, Andrew N Bankston, James Q Zheng, Yue Feng
: Two distinct protein cofactors, p35 and p39, independently activate Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), which plays diverse roles in normal brain function and the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases. The initial discovery that loss of p35 impairs neuronal migration in the embryonic brain prompted intensive research exploring the function of p35-dependent Cdk5 activity. In contrast, p39 expression is restricted to the postnatal brain and its function remains poorly understood. Despite the robustly increased Cdk5 activity during neuronal differentiation, which activator is responsible for enhancing Cdk5 activation and how the two distinct activators direct Cdk5 signaling to govern neuronal network formation and function still remains elusive...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726220/concurrently-induced-plasticity-due-to-convergence-of-distinct-forms-of-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-in-the-developing-barrel-cortex
#10
Chiaki Itami, Fumitaka Kimura
Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) has been demonstrated in a variety of neural circuits. Recent studies reveal that it plays a fundamental role in the formation and remodeling of neuronal circuits. We show here an interaction of two distinct forms of STDP in the mouse barrel cortex causing concurrent, plastic changes, potentially a novel mechanism underlying network remodeling. We previously demonstrated that during the second postnatal week, when layer four (L4) cells are forming synapses onto L2/3 cells, L4-L2/3 synapses exhibit STDP with only long-term potentiation (t-LTP)...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692156/hypothesis-irisin-is-a-metabolic-trigger-for-the-activation-of-the-neurohormonal-axis-governing-puberty-onset
#11
Fazal Wahab, Muhammad Shahab, Rüdiger Behr
A large body of data suggests that body weight influences puberty onset and adult reproduction. However, the underlying mechanism of how body weight influences puberty onset and fertility is not completely understood. The hypothalamic neuronal circuit regulating reproduction is restrained by inhibitory signals during childhood. At the time of puberty, these inhibitory signals are weakened and supplanted by stimulatory signals that, in turn, stimulate the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) - a hypothalamic neuropeptide governing reproduction...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605441/buttressing-a-balanced-brain-target-derived-fgf-signaling-regulates-excitatory-inhibitory-tone-and-adult-neurogenesis-within-the-maturating-hippocampal-network
#12
COMMENT
Ania Dabrowski, Hisashi Umemori
Brain development involves multiple levels of molecular coordination in forming a functional nervous system. The hippocampus is a brain area that is important for memory formation and spatial reasoning. During early postnatal development of the hippocampal circuit, Fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) and FGF7 act to establish a balance of excitatory and inhibitory tone. Both FGFs are secreted from CA3 dendrites, acting on excitatory or inhibitory axon terminals formed onto CA3 dendrites, respectively. Mechanistically, FGF22 utilizes FGFR2b and FGFR1b to induce synaptic vesicle recruitment within axons of dentate granule cells (DGCs), and FGF7 utilizes FGFR2b to induce synaptic vesicle recruitment within interneuron axons...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521479/the-effect-of-microbiota-and-the-immune-system-on-the-development-and-organization-of-the-enteric-nervous-system
#13
Yuuki Obata, Vassilis Pachnis
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is essential for the absorption of nutrients, induction of mucosal and systemic immune responses, and maintenance of a healthy gut microbiota. Key aspects of gastrointestinal physiology are controlled by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is composed of enteric neurons and glial cells. The ENS is exposed to and interacts with the outer (microbiota, metabolites, and nutrients) and inner (immune cells and stromal cells) microenvironment of the gut. Although the cellular blueprint of the ENS is mostly in place by birth, the functional maturation of intestinal neural networks is completed within the microenvironment of the postnatal gut, under the influence of gut microbiota and the mucosal immune system...
August 10, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489367/postsynaptic-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-facilitate-excitation-of-developing-ca1-pyramidal-neurons
#14
Beryl Y T Chung, Warren Bignell, Derek L Jacklin, Boyer D Winters, Craig D C Bailey
The hippocampus plays a key role in learning and memory. The normal development and mature function of hippocampal networks supporting these cognitive functions depends on afferent cholinergic neurotransmission mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Whereas it is well-established that nicotinic receptors are present on GABAergic interneurons and on glutamatergic presynaptic terminals within the hippocampus, the ability of these receptors to mediate postsynaptic signaling in pyramidal neurons is not well understood...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452274/regulation-of-tlx3-by-pax6-is-required-for-the-restricted-expression-of-chrn%C3%AE-3-in-cerebellar-granule-neuron-progenitors-during-development
#15
Thulasi Sheela Divya, Soundararajan Lalitha, Surendran Parvathy, Chandramohan Subashini, Rajendran Sanalkumar, Sivadasan Bindu Dhanesh, Vazhanthodi Abdul Rasheed, Mundackal Sivaraman Divya, Shubha Tole, Jackson James
Homeobox gene Tlx3 is known to promote glutamatergic differentiation and is expressed in post-mitotic neurons of CNS. Contrary to this here, we discovered that Tlx3 is expressed in the proliferating progenitors of the external granule layer in the cerebellum, and examined factors that regulate this expression. Using Pax6(-/-)Sey mouse model and molecular interaction studies we demonstrate Pax6 is a key activator of Tlx3 specifically in cerebellum, and induces its expression starting at embryonic day (E)15. By Postnatal day (PN)7, Tlx3 is expressed in a highly restricted manner in the cerebellar granule neurons of the posterior cerebellar lobes, where it is required for the restricted expression of nicotinic cholinergic receptor-α3 subunit (Chrnα3) and other genes involved in formation of synaptic connections and neuronal migration...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383589/altered-development-of-synapse-structure-and-function-in-striatum-caused-by-parkinson-s-disease-linked-lrrk2-g2019s-mutation
#16
Bridget A Matikainen-Ankney, Nebojsa Kezunovic, Roxana E Mesias, Yuan Tian, Frances M Williams, George W Huntley, Deanna L Benson
UNLABELLED: Mutations in the gene encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) can cause Parkinson's disease (PD), and the most common disease-associated mutation, G2019S, increases kinase activity. Because LRRK2 expression levels rise during synaptogenesis and are highest in dorsal striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs), we tested the hypothesis that the LRRK2-G2019S mutation would alter development of excitatory synaptic networks in dorsal striatum. To circumvent experimental confounds associated with LRRK2 overexpression, we used mice expressing LRRK2-G2019S or D2017A (kinase-dead) knockin mutations...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371348/proteomic-investigation-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-the-rat-clomipramine-model-of-depression
#17
Barbara Gellén, Katalin Völgyi, Balázs András Györffy, Boróka Balogh, Zsuzsa Darula, Hunyadi-Gulyás Éva, Péter Baracskay, András Czurkó, István Hernádi, Gábor Juhász, Árpád Dobolyi, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi
: Neonatal rodents chronically treated with the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine show depression-like behavior, which persists throughout adulthood. Therefore, this animal model is suitable to investigate the pathomechanism of depression, which is still largely unknown at the molecular level beyond monoaminergic dysfunctions. Here, we describe protein level changes in the prefrontal cortex of neonatally clomipramine-treated adult rats correlating with behavioral abnormalities. Clomipramine was administered to rat pups twice daily between postnatal days 8-21, while controls received saline injections...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345331/encoding-of-mechanical-nociception-differs-in-the-adult-and-infant-brain
#18
Lorenzo Fabrizi, Madeleine Verriotis, Gemma Williams, Amy Lee, Judith Meek, Sofia Olhede, Maria Fitzgerald
Newborn human infants display robust pain behaviour and specific cortical activity following noxious skin stimulation, but it is not known whether brain processing of nociceptive information differs in infants and adults. Imaging studies have emphasised the overlap between infant and adult brain connectome architecture, but electrophysiological analysis of infant brain nociceptive networks can provide further understanding of the functional postnatal development of pain perception. Here we hypothesise that the human infant brain encodes noxious information with different neuronal patterns compared to adults...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335402/rapid-postnatal-expansion-of-neural-networks-occurs-in-an-environment-of-altered-neurovascular-and-neurometabolic-coupling
#19
Mariel G Kozberg, Ying Ma, Mohammed A Shaik, Sharon H Kim, Elizabeth M C Hillman
UNLABELLED: In the adult brain, increases in neural activity lead to increases in local blood flow. However, many prior measurements of functional hemodynamics in the neonatal brain, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in human infants, have noted altered and even inverted hemodynamic responses to stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that localized neural activity in early postnatal mice does not evoke blood flow increases as in the adult brain, and elucidate the neural and metabolic correlates of these altered functional hemodynamics as a function of developmental age...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256505/neuronal-expression-of-ilei-fam3c-and-its-reduction-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Lei Liu, Naoki Watanabe, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Masaki Nishimura
Decrease in brain amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation is a leading strategy for treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the intrinsic mechanism of the regulation of brain Aβ production is largely unknown. Previously, we reported that ILEI (also referred to as FAM3C) binds to the γ-secretase complex and suppresses Aβ production without inhibiting γ-secretase activity. In this study, we examined ILEI expression in mouse brain using immunohistochemistry and subcellular fractionation. Brain ILEI showed widespread expression in neurons and ependymal cells but not in glial and vascular endothelial cells...
August 25, 2016: Neuroscience
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