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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666956/early-postnatal-development-of-the-lamination-in-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-a-layers-in-cats
#1
Natalia Merkulyeva, Aleksandr Mikhalkin, Pavel Zykin
The early postnatal development of the A-layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) was investigated in kittens aged 0-34 days by immunohistochemistry for the selective marker for neuronal differentiation (NeuN protein) and parvalbumin. We report two new facts about the LGNd development. First, there is a transient stratification of NeuN labelling in layer A, and to a lesser extent in layer A1, in kittens aged 0 and 4 days. Second, a transient population of large cells that are located between the LGNd A-layers (interlaminar cells) showed high expression levels of both NeuN and parvalbumin...
April 17, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576115/inhibition-of-rhoa-reduces-propofol-mediated-growth-cone-collapse-axonal-transport-impairment-loss-of-synaptic-connectivity-and-behavioural-deficits
#2
M L Pearn, J M Schilling, M Jian, J Egawa, C Wu, C D Mandyam, M J Fannon-Pavlich, U Nguyen, J Bertoglio, M Kodama, S K Mahata, C DerMardirossian, B P Lemkuil, R Han, W C Mobley, H H Patel, P M Patel, B P Head
BACKGROUND: Exposure of the developing brain to propofol results in cognitive deficits. Recent data suggest that inhibition of neuronal apoptosis does not prevent cognitive defects, suggesting mechanisms other than neuronal apoptosis play a role in anaesthetic neurotoxicity. Proper neuronal growth during development is dependent upon growth cone morphology and axonal transport. Propofol modulates actin dynamics in developing neurones, causes RhoA-dependent depolymerisation of actin, and reduces dendritic spines and synapses...
April 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532253/transcriptional-and-epigenetic-control-of-mammalian-olfactory-epithelium-development
#3
REVIEW
Godwin Sokpor, Eman Abbas, Joachim Rosenbusch, Jochen F Staiger, Tran Tuoc
The postnatal mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE) represents a major aspect of the peripheral olfactory system. It is a pseudostratified tissue that originates from the olfactory placode and is composed of diverse cells, some of which are specialized receptor neurons capable of transducing odorant stimuli to afford the perception of smell (olfaction). The OE is known to offer a tractable miniature model for studying the systematic generation of neurons and glia that typify neural tissue development. During OE development, stem/progenitor cells that will become olfactory sensory neurons and/or non-neuronal cell types display fine spatiotemporal expression of neuronal and non-neuronal genes that ensures their proper proliferation, differentiation, survival, and regeneration...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520482/leptin-alters-somatosensory-thalamic-networks-by-decreasing-gaba-release-from-reticular-thalamic-nucleus-and-action-potential-frequency-at-ventrobasal-neurons
#4
Paula P Perissinotti, María Celeste Rivero-Echeto, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Verónica Bisagno, Francisco J Urbano
Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that controls appetite and energy expenditure. Leptin receptors are expressed on extra-hypothalamic ventrobasal (VB) and reticular thalamic (RTN) nuclei from embryonic stages. Here, we studied the effects of pressure-puff, local application of leptin on both synaptic transmission and action potential properties of thalamic neurons in thalamocortical slices. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of thalamocortical VB neurons from wild-type (WT) and leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice...
March 8, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508913/active-sleep-promotes-functional-connectivity-in-developing-sensorimotor-networks
#5
Carlos Del Rio-Bermudez, Mark S Blumberg
A ubiquitous feature of active (REM) sleep in mammals and birds is its relative abundance in early development. In rat pups across the first two postnatal weeks, active sleep promotes the expression of synchronized oscillatory activity within and between cortical and subcortical sensorimotor structures. Sensory feedback from self-generated myoclonic twitches - which are produced exclusively during active sleep - also triggers neural oscillations in those structures. We have proposed that one of the functions of active sleep in early infancy is to provide a context for synchronizing developing structures...
March 6, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479699/brainstem-catecholaminergic-neurones-and-breathing-control-during-postnatal-development-in-male-and-female-rats
#6
Luis Gustavo A Patrone, Vivian Biancardi, Danuzia A Marques, Kênia C Bícego, Luciane H Gargaglioni
The respiratory network undergoes significant development during the postnatal phase, including the maturation of the catecholaminergic (CA) system. However, postnatal development of this network and its effect on the control of pulmonary ventilation (V̇E ), is not fully understood. We investigated the involvement of brainstem CA neurones in respiratory control during postnatal (P) development (P7-8, P14-15 and P20-21), in male and female rats, through chemical injury with conjugated saporin anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH-SAP)...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441488/visualization-of-rostral-migratory-stream-in-the-developing-rat-brain-by-in-vivo-electroporation
#7
Yi-Wei Xie, Zhao-Yun Li, Jing Du, Yu Chen, Bing-Yu Chen, Tong-Tong Wang, Zhihui Huang, Shuangxing Hou, Ying Wang
Interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) are generated from neuronal precursor cells migrating from anterior subventricular zone (SVZa) not only in the developing embryo but also throughout the postnatal life of mammals. In the present study, we established an in vivo electroporation assay to label SVZa cells of rat both at embryonic and postnatal ages, and traced SVZa progenitors and followed their migration pathway and differentiation. We found that labeled cells displayed high motility. Interestingly, the postnatal cells migrated faster than the embryonic cells after applying this assay at different ages of brain development...
February 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427655/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-are-associated-with-ketamine-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-developing-rat-retina
#8
Lingqi Gao, Junde Han, Jie Bai, Jing Dong, Sen Zhang, Mazhong Zhang, Jijian Zheng
Early synchronized spontaneous network activity is a hallmark of the brain growth spurt period, during which general anesthetics cause widespread neuronal apoptosis and subsequent cognitive dysfunction. However, the relationship of such activity to anesthetic-induced neuronal apoptosis remains to be determined. In this study, we utilized patch-clamp electrophysiological recording, immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL assays to investigate the potential roles of spontaneous network activity in ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis during early development...
February 7, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384449/similar-nicotinic-excitability-responses-across-the-developing-hippocampal-formation-are-regulated-by-small-conductance-calcium-activated-potassium-channels
#9
Beryl Y T Chung, Craig D C Bailey
The hippocampal formation forms a cognitive circuit that is critical for learning and memory. Cholinergic input to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors plays an important role in the normal development of principal neurons within the hippocampal formation. However, the ability of nicotinic receptors to stimulate principal neurons across all regions of the developing hippocampal formation has not been determined. We show here that heteromeric nicotinic receptors mediate direct inward current and depolarization responses in principal neurons across the hippocampal formation of the young postnatal mouse...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374136/prepubertal-development-of-gabaergic-transmission-to-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-neurons-and-postsynaptic-response-are-altered-by-prenatal-androgenization
#10
Tova Berg, Marina A Silveira, Suzanne M Moenter
GnRH neurons regulate reproduction through pulsatile GnRH release. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have persistently elevated LH release frequency reflecting GnRH release; this exacerbates hyperandrogenemia and disrupted reproductive cycles characteristic of this disorder. Clinical evidence suggests neuroendocrine features of PCOS may manifest peripubertally. Adult mice prenatally exposed to androgens (PNA) mimic several reproductive features of PCOS. GnRH neurons from these mice have increased firing activity and receive increased GABAergic transmission, which is excitatory...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352997/microglia-and-neonatal-brain-injury
#11
Carina Mallard, Marie-Eve Tremblay, Zinaida S Vexler
Microglial cells are now recognized as the "gate-keepers" of healthy brain microenvironment with their disrupted functions adversely affecting neurovascular integrity, neuronal homeostasis, and network connectivity. The perception that these cells are purely toxic under neurodegenerative conditions has been challenged by a continuously increasing understanding of their complexity, the existence of a broad array of microglial phenotypes, and their ability to rapidly change in a context-dependent manner to attenuate or exacerbate injuries of different nature...
January 17, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196444/temporal-analysis-of-hippocampal-ca3-gene-coexpression-networks-in-a-rat-model-of-febrile-seizures
#12
Hatylas Azevedo, Nathália Amato Khaled, Paula Santos, Fernanda Bernardi Bertonha, Carlos Alberto Moreira-Filho
Complex febrile seizures during infancy constitute an important risk factor for development of epilepsy. However, little is known about the alterations induced by febrile seizures that make the brain susceptible to epileptic activity. In this context, the use of animal models of hyperthermic seizures (HS) could allow the temporal analysis of brain molecular changes that arise after febrile seizures. Here, we investigated temporal changes in hippocampal gene coexpression networks during the development of rats submitted to HS...
January 29, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184486/differential-postnatal-expression-of-neuronal-maturation-markers-in-the-dentate-gyrus-of-mice-and-rats
#13
Tijana Radic, Lara Frieß, Aruvi Vijikumar, Tassilo Jungenitz, Thomas Deller, Stephan W Schwarzacher
The dentate gyrus (DG) is a unique structure of the hippocampus that is distinguished by ongoing neurogenesis throughout the lifetime of an organism. The development of the DG, which begins during late gestation and continues during the postnatal period, comprises the structural formation of the DG as well as the establishment of the adult neurogenic niche in the subgranular zone (SGZ). We investigated the time course of postnatal maturation of the DG in male C57BL/6J mice and male Sprague-Dawley rats based on the distribution patterns of the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX) and a marker for mature neurons, calbindin (CB)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070632/retracing-your-footsteps-developmental-insights-to-spinal-network-plasticity-following-injury
#14
C Jean-Xavier, S A Sharples, K A Mayr, A P Lognon, P J Whelan
During development of the spinal cord, a precise interaction occurs between descending projections and sensory afferents, with spinal networks that lead to expression of coordinated motor output. In the rodent, during the last embryonic week, motor output first occurs as regular bursts of spontaneous activity, progressing to stochastic patterns of episodes that express bouts of coordinated rhythmic activity perinatally. Locomotor activity becomes functionally mature in the 2nd postnatal wk and is heralded by the onset of weight-bearing locomotion on the 8th and 9th postnatal day...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060314/network-mediated-responses-of-on-ganglion-cells-to-electric-stimulation-become-less-consistent-across-trials-during-retinal-degeneration
#15
Jae-Ik Lee, Shelley I Fried, Maesoon Im
Microelectronic retinal prostheses are being developed to restore sight in individuals blinded by outer retinal degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Unfortunately, the quality of vision restored by these devices is still limited. To improve the quality of elicited vision, our group studies the responses of retinal neurons to electric stimulation. Our previous work showed that responses mediated through the retinal network are reproducible with high temporal precision, even for spikes that occur >100 ms after stimulus onset...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024713/a-lack-of-glun2a-containing-nmda-receptors-confers-a-vulnerability-to-redox-dysregulation-consequences-on-parvalbumin-interneurons-and-their-perineuronal-nets
#16
Romain Cardis, Jan-Harry Cabungcal, Daniella Dwir, Kim Q Do, Pascal Steullet
The GluN2A subunit of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) plays a critical role during postnatal brain development as its expression increases while Glun2B expression decreases. Mutations and polymorphisms in GRIN2A gene, coding for GluN2A, are linked to developmental brain disorders such as mental retardation, epilepsy, schizophrenia. Published data suggest that GluN2A is involved in maturation and phenotypic maintenance of parvalbumin interneurons (PVIs), and these interneurons suffer from a deficient glutamatergic neurotransmission via GluN2A-containing NMDARs in schizophrenia...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974382/dual-effect-of-serotonin-on-the-dendritic-growth-of-cultured-hippocampal-neurons-involvement-of-5-ht1a-and-5-ht7-receptors
#17
P S Rojas, F Aguayo, D Neira, M Tejos, E Aliaga, J P Muñoz, C S Parra, J L Fiedler
Serotonin acts through its receptors (5-HTRs) to shape brain networks during development and modulates essential functions in mature brain. The 5-HT1AR is mainly located at soma of hippocampal neurons early during brain development and its expression gradually shifts to dendrites during postnatal development. The 5-HT7R expressed early during hippocampus development, shows a progressive reduction in its expression postnatally. Considering these changes during development, we evaluated in cultured hippocampal neurons whether the 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R change their expression, modulate dendritic growth, and activate signaling pathways such as ERK1/2, AKT/GSK3β and LIMK/cofilin, which may sustain dendrite outgrowth by controlling cytoskeleton dynamics...
September 30, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968898/loss-of-trkb-signaling-in-parvalbumin-expressing-basket-cells-results-in-network-activity-disruption-and-abnormal-behavior
#18
Dionysios Xenos, Marija Kamceva, Simone Tomasi, Jessica A Cardin, Michael L Schwartz, Flora M Vaccarino
The GABAergic system is regulated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) pathway, but the cell-intrinsic role of TrkB signaling in parvalbumin cortical interneuron development and function is unclear. We performed conditional ablation of the TrkB receptor in parvalbumin-expressing (PV) interneurons to study whether postnatal loss of TrkB in parvalbumin cells affects their survival, connectivity, spontaneous and evoked neuronal activity and behavior. Using in vivo recordings of local field potentials, we found reduced gamma oscillations in the sensory cortex of PVcre+; TrkBF/F conditional knockout mice (TrkB cKO), along with increased firing of putative excitatory neurons...
August 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905487/endogenous-neurosteroids-influence-synaptic-gabaa-receptors-during-post-natal-development
#19
REVIEW
Delia Belelli, Adam R Brown, Scott J Mitchell, Ben G Gunn, Murray B Herd, Grant Phillips, Mohsen Seifi, Jerome D Swinny, Jeremy J Lambert
GABA plays a key role in both embryonic and neonatal brain development. For example, during early neonatal nervous system maturation, synaptic transmission, mediated by GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs), undergoes a temporally specific form of synaptic plasticity, to accommodate the changing requirements of maturing neural networks. Specifically, the duration of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), resulting from vesicular GABA activating synaptic GABAA Rs, is reduced, permitting neurons to appropriately influence the window for postsynaptic excitation...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899717/early-patterns-of-activity-in-the-developing-cortex-focus-on-the-sensorimotor-system
#20
REVIEW
Roustem Khazipov, Mathieu Milh
Early development of somatotopic cortical maps occurs during the fetal period in humans and during the postnatal period in rodents. During this period, the sensorimotor cortex expresses transient patterns of correlated neuronal activity including delta waves, gamma- and spindle-burst oscillations. These early activity patterns are largely driven by the thalamus and triggered, in a topographic manner, by sensory feedback resulting from spontaneous movements. Early cortical activities are instrumental for competitive interactions between sensory inputs for the cortical territories, they prevent cortical neurons from apoptosis and their alteration may lead to disturbances in cortical network development in a number of neurodevelopmental diseases...
September 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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