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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910631/clonidine-versus-other-adjuncts-added-to-local-anesthetics-for-pediatric-neuraxial-blocks-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Yang Yang, Ling-Yu Yu, Wen-Sheng Zhang
Background: Clonidine is a common adjunct to local anesthetics for pediatric neuraxial block; however, the pros and cons between clonidine and other adjuncts remain unclear. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the efficacy and adverse effects between clonidine and other adjuncts added to local anesthetics. Materials and methods: The systematic search, data extraction, critical appraisal, and pooled analysis were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908723/static-rope-evacuation-by-helicopter-emergency-medical-services-in-rescue-operations-in-southeast-norway
#2
Martin Samdal, Helge H Haugland, Cato Fjeldet, Marius Rehn, Mårten Sandberg
INTRODUCTION: Physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in Norway are an adjunct to existing search and rescue services. Our aims were to study the epidemiological, operational, and medical aspects of HEMS daylight static rope operations performed in the southeastern part of the country and to examine several quality dimensions that are characteristic of this service. METHODS: We reviewed the static rope operations performed at 3 HEMS bases during a 3-y period and applied a set of quality indicators designed for physician-staffed emergency medical services to evaluate the quality of care...
June 13, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896190/therapeutic-potential-of-a-scorpion-venom-derived-antimicrobial-peptide-and-its-homologs-against-antibiotic-resistant-gram-positive-bacteria
#3
Gaomin Liu, Fan Yang, Fangfang Li, Zhongjie Li, Yange Lang, Bingzheng Shen, Yingliang Wu, Wenxin Li, Patrick L Harrison, Peter N Strong, Yingqiu Xie, Keith Miller, Zhijian Cao
The alarming rise in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria poses a unique challenge for the development of effective therapeutic agents. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted a great deal of attention as a possible solution to the increasing problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Marcin-18 was identified from the scorpion Mesobuthus martensii at both DNA and protein levels. The genomic sequence revealed that the marcin-18 coding gene contains a phase-I intron with a GT-AG splice junction located in the DNA region encoding the N -terminal part of signal peptide...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882624/models-of-first-responder-coping-police-officers-as-a-unique-population
#4
Eamonn Arble, Ana M Daugherty, Bengt B Arnetz
The term "first responders" refers to a range of professional occupations, including police officers, fire fighters, search and rescue personnel, ambulance personnel, and military personnel. Research by the present authors has developed empirical models of first responder coping, identifying 2 coping pathways with differential outcomes: approach and avoidance coping. The present investigation considers police officers as a unique group and measures the extent to which police officers differ from other first responders in coping behaviours following trauma, based upon a nationally representative survey of 917 Swedish police officers...
June 8, 2018: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875184/breakthrough-cancer-pain-btcp-management-a-review-of-international-and-national-guidelines
#5
Andrew Neil Davies, Frank Elsner, Marilène Jeanne Filbet, Josep Porta-Sales, Carla Ripamonti, Daniele Santini, Kath Webber
OBJECTIVE: Breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) is common and has a significant impact on the quality of life of patients with cancer. This review compares current national/international BTcP guidelines in order to identify disparities and priorities for further research. METHODS: Relevant guidelines were identified using searches of PubMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse, the internet (commercial search engines), and correspondence with key opinion leaders and relevant pharmaceutical companies...
June 6, 2018: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871972/mir-362-3p-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-through-targeting-mcm5-in-cervical-adenocarcinoma
#6
Dan Wang, Hongyan Wang, Yichun Li, Qian Li
Our previous study suggested that minichromosome maintenance protein 5 (MCM5) overexpression was observed in cervical adenocarcinoma, and closely associated with advanced clinical stage, more metastatic lymph nodes, present distant metastasis, low histological grade and poor prognosis. Down-regulation of MCM5 inhibited cervical adenocarcinoma cell proliferation. The purpose of this study is to search and confirm valuable microRNAs (miRNAs), which target MCM5 to modulate cervical adenocarcinoma cell proliferation...
June 5, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871784/seizure-cluster-definition-prevalence-consequences-and-management
#7
REVIEW
Saba Jafarpour, Lawrence J Hirsch, Marina Gaínza-Lein, Christoph Kellinghaus, Kamil Detyniecki
PURPOSE: To summarize definitions, prevalence, risk factors, consequences, and acute management of seizure clusters using rescue medications. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE for studies that assessed definitions, clinical characteristics, outcomes, and use of rescue medication for aborting seizure clusters. RESULTS: Different clinical and statistical definitions for seizure clusters have been proposed, including: ≥3 seizures in 24 h, ≥2 seizures in 24 h, and ≥2 seizures in 6 h...
May 21, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869799/mu-opioid-antagonists-for-opioid-induced-bowel-dysfunction-in-people-with-cancer-and-people-receiving-palliative-care
#8
REVIEW
Bridget Candy, Louise Jones, Victoria Vickerstaff, Philip J Larkin, Patrick Stone
BACKGROUND: Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) is characterised by constipation, incomplete evacuation, bloating, and gastric reflux. It is one of the major adverse events of treatment for pain in cancer and in palliative care, resulting in increased morbidity and reduced quality of life.This is an update of two Cochrane reviews. One was published in 2011, Issue 1 on laxatives and methylnaltrexone for the management of constipation in people receiving palliative care; this was updated in 2015 and excluded methylnaltrexone...
June 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858921/perioperative-antiemetic-efficacy-of-dexamethasone-versus-5-ht3-receptor-antagonists-a-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
REVIEW
Preet Mohinder Singh, Anuradha Borle, Rajesh Panwar, Jeetinder Kaur Makkar, Ian McGrath, Anjan Trikha, Ashish Sinha
BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone has many desirable pharmacologic properties for perioperative use. Its antiemetic potential has been a focus of many recent trials. METHODS: Trials comparing dexamethasone to 5-HT3-receptor antagonists (5HT3-RA) for 24 h postoperative vomiting incidences published till August 2017 were searched in the medical database. Comparisons for antiemetic efficiency variables (vomiting incidence, nausea incidence, rescue antiemetic need, and patients with complete response) during early (until 6 h) and late postoperative phase were made...
June 1, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857951/association-of-injury-pattern-and-entrapment-location-inside-damaged-buildings-in-the-2016-taiwan-earthquake
#10
Shih-Tien Pan, Ya-Yun Cheng, Chen-Long Wu, Ray Hsienho Chang, Chihsin Chiu, Ning-Ping Foo, Pao-Tien Chen, Tai-Yuan Wang, Li-Hsing Chen, Chien-Jung Chen, Roger Ong, Chang-Chih Tsai, Chien-Chin Hsu, Li-Wei Hsieh, Chih-Hsien Chi, Chih-Hao Lin
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To explore the association of patient injury patterns and entrapped locations inside damaged buildings in the 2016 Taiwan earthquake. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using the Tainan incident registry system. Residents inside nine conjunctive, 16-story (49.3 m in height) reinforced concrete buildings were categorized as non-injured, injured, and dead. Residents were classified into different groups according to their entrapped locations in height and the severity of building damage...
May 29, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807436/annals-express-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-tnf-inhibitors-in-the-management-of-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#11
J German Sanchez-Hernandez, Noemi Rebollo, Fernando Muñoz, Ana Martin-Suarez, Maria Victoria Calvo
BACKGROUND: Tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) therapy has drastically changed the management of chronic inflammatory diseases (CID). Some important drawbacks that can cause loss of response during treatment with these drugs are related to their large individual variability, the disease burden and the formation of anti-drug-antibodies (ADA) that increase its clearance. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of these drugs is not yet recommended by all scientific societies, and if so, only in patients with inflammatory symptoms...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804299/unexplained-absence-resulting-in-deaths-of-nursing-home-residents-in-australia-a-13-year-retrospective-study
#12
Marta H Woolford, Lyndal Bugeja, Carolina Weller, Marilyn Johnson, Derek Chong, Joseph E Ibrahim
OBJECTIVES: To examine deaths of Australian nursing home (NH) residents following an unexplained absence. METHODS: Population based cross-sectional study was conducted using coronial data from the National Coronial Information System. Participants are residents of accredited NHs if death followed an unexplained absence and was reported to the Coroner between July 1, 2000 and June 30, 2013. Individual, organisational, environmental, and unexplained absence event factors were extracted from coronial records...
May 27, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796708/should-palonosetron-be-a-preferred-5-ht-3-receptor-antagonist-for-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Ronald Chow, David G Warr, Rudolph M Navari, May Tsao, Marko Popovic, Leonard Chiu, Milica Milakovic, Henry Lam, Carlo DeAngelis
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) continues to be a common side effect of systemic anticancer therapy, decreasing quality of life and increasing resource utilization. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the comparative efficacy and safety of palonosetron relative to other 5-HT3 RAs. METHODS: A literature search was carried out in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Full-text references were then screened and included in this meta-analysis if they were an RCT and had adequate data regarding one of the five primary endpoints-complete response (CR), complete control (CC), no emesis, no nausea, or no rescue medications...
May 23, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793192/how-did-older-adults-respond-to-challenges-after-an-earthquake-results-from-a-qualitative-study-in-iran
#14
Shokoufeh Ahmadi, Hamidreza Khankeh, Robab Sahaf, Asghar Dalvandi, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Fardin Alipour
OBJECTIVES: In many areas, natural disasters are a major challenge for life and property of people. Earthquake is one of the most devastating natural disasters. This study aimed to explore how older adults responded to challenges after the earthquake in Iran. METHODS: This study was based on qualitative analysis. Data were collected through in-depth and semi-structured interviews. 29 participants including 18 older adult survivors of the earthquake-stricken areas, four lay caregivers, and three health professionals in disasters, one social worker, two relief worker and one disaster psychologist were interviewed...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789458/flying-real-time-network-to-coordinate-disaster-relief-activities-in-urban-areas-%C3%A2
#15
Matias Micheletto, Vinicius Petrucci, Rodrigo Santos, Javier Orozco, Daniel Mosse, Sergio F Ochoa, Roc Meseguer
While there have been important advances within wireless communication technology, the provision of communication support during disaster relief activities remains an open issue. The literature in disaster research reports several major restrictions to conducting first response activities in urban areas, given the limitations of telephone networks and radio systems to provide digital communication in the field. In search-and-rescue operations, the communication requirements are increased, since the first responders need to rely on real-time and reliable communication to perform their activities and coordinate their efforts with other teams...
May 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789025/tethered-balloon-technology-in-design-solutions-for-rescue-and-relief-team-emergency-communication-services
#16
Saeed Hamood Alsamhi, Mohd Samar Ansari, Ou Ma, Faris Almalki, Sachin Kumar Gupta
The actions taken at the initial times of a disaster are critical. Catastrophe occurs because of terrorist acts or natural hazards which have the potential to disrupt the infrastructure of wireless communication networks. Therefore, essential emergency functions such as search, rescue, and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be disabled. We propose tethered balloon technology to provide efficient emergency communication services and reduce casualty mortality and morbidity for disaster recovery...
May 23, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784845/interaction-of-bacterial-phenazines-with-colistimethate-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#17
Valeri V Mossine, Deborah L Chance, James K Waters, Thomas P Mawhinney
Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are being increasingly treated in clinics with polymyxins, a class of antibiotics associated with adverse effects in the kidney, nervous system, or airways of a significant proportion of human and animal patients. Although many of the resistant pathogens display enhanced virulence, a hazard of cytotoxic interactions between polymyxin antibiotics and bacterial virulence factors (VFs) has not been assessed, to date. We report here on testing paired combinations of four Pseudomonas aeruginosa VF phenazine toxins, pyocyanin (PYO), 1-hydroxyphenazine (1-HP), phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), and two commonly prescribed polymyxin drugs, colistimethate (CMS)/colistin and polymyxin B, in three human airway cell lines, BEAS-2B, HBE-1, and CFT-1...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771731/effect-of-intravenous-dexmedetomidine-during-general-anesthesia-on-acute-postoperative-pain-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#18
Xiuqin Wang, Naifu Liu, Jinlong Chen, Zan Xu, Fumei Wang, Chuan Ding
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine has been shown to have an analgesic effect. However, no consensus was reached in previous studies. METHODS: Electronic databases such as PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The relative risk (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) were used to analyze the outcomes. Random-effects model was used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: Compared to the normal saline group, patients using dexmedetomidine showed a significantly decreased pain intensity within 6 hours (WMD=-0...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768077/strategy-to-address-private-location-cardiac-arrest-a-public-safety-survey
#19
Jennifer Blackwood, Mickey Eisenberg, Dawn Jorgenson, James Nania, Bryan Howard, Bryan Collins, Peter Connell, Tim Day, Cody Rohrbach, Thomas Rea
OBJECTIVE: Most cardiac arrests occur in the private setting where response is often delayed and outcomes are poor. We surveyed public safety personnel to determine if they would volunteer to respond into private locations and/or be equipped with a personal automated external defibrillator (AED) as part of a vetted responder program that would use smart geospatial technology. METHODS: We conducted an anonymized survey among personnel from fire-based emergency medical services (EMS) and search and rescue organizations from Washington State...
May 16, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763604/attenuation-of-macrophage-accumulation-and-polarisation-in-obese-diabetic-mice-by-a-small-molecule-significantly-improved-insulin-sensitivity
#20
Sandip Mukherjee, Snehasis Das, Dipanjan Chattopadhyay, Shuvasree Sarkar, Subhendu Kumar Chatterjee, Dhrubajyoti Talukdar, Sutapa Mukherjee, Subeer S Majumder, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, Mihir K Chaudhuri, Samir Bhattacharya
Accumulation and polarization of anti-inflammatory M2 to proinflammatory M1 macrophage in the adipose tissue of obese diabetic mice is an important pathogenic signature. It worsens lipid induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Here we demonstrate that a small molecule, a peroxyvanadate compound i.e. DmpzH [VO(O2 )2 (dmpz)] or dmp, could robustly decrease macrophage infiltration, accumulation and their polarization in high fat diet (HFD) induced obese diabetic mice. In searching the underlying mechanism it was revealed that SIRT1 level was strikingly low in the inflamed adipose tissue of HFD mice as compared to mice fed with standard diet (SD)...
May 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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