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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911796/egr2-and-egr3-in-regulatory-t-cells-cooperatively-control-systemic-autoimmunity-through-ltbp3-mediated-tgf-%C3%AE-3-production
#1
Kaoru Morita, Tomohisa Okamura, Mariko Inoue, Toshihiko Komai, Shuzo Teruya, Yukiko Iwasaki, Shuji Sumitomo, Hirofumi Shoda, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Keishi Fujio
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypical autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan inflammation induced by autoantibodies. Early growth response gene 2 (Egr2), a transcription factor essential for T-cell anergy induction, controls systemic autoimmunity in mice and humans. We have previously identified a subpopulation of CD4(+) regulatory T cells, CD4(+)CD25(-)LAG3(+) cells, that characteristically express both Egr2 and LAG3 and control mice model of lupus via TGF-β3 production. However, due to the mild phenotype of lymphocyte-specific Egr2-deficient mice, the presence of an additional regulator has been speculated...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902980/gene-expression-profiling-and-functional-characterization-of-macrophages-in-response-to-circulatory-microparticles-produced-during-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-and-chagas-disease
#2
Imran H Chowdhury, Sue-Jie Koo, Shivali Gupta, Lisa Yi Liang, Bojlul Bahar, Laura Silla, Julio Nuñez-Burgos, Natalia Barrientos, Maria Paola Zago, Nisha Jain Garg
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are hallmarks of chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCM). In this study, we determined if microparticles (MPs) generated during Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection carry the host's signature of the inflammatory/oxidative state and provide information regarding the progression of clinical disease. METHODS: MPs were harvested from supernatants of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro incubated with Tc (control: LPS treated), plasma of seropositive humans with a clinically asymptomatic (CA) or symptomatic (CS) disease state (vs...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891578/dual-specificity-phosphatase-15-regulates-erk-activation-in-schwann-cells
#3
José F Rodríguez-Molina, Camila Lopez-Anido, Ki H Ma, Chongyu Zhang, Tyler Olson, Katharina N Muth, Matthias Weider, John Svaren
Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the peripheral and central nervous system, respectively. Despite having different myelin components and different transcription factors driving their terminal differentiation there are shared molecular mechanisms between the two. Sox10 is one common transcription factor required for several steps in development of myelinating glia. However, other factors are divergent as Schwann cells need the transcription factor Egr2/Krox20 and oligodendrocytes require Myrf...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890934/egr2-mutations-define-a-new-clinically-aggressive-subgroup-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#4
E Young, D Noerenberg, L Mansouri, V Ljungström, M Frick, L-A Sutton, S J Blakemore, J Galan-Sousa, K Plevova, P Baliakas, D Rossi, R Clifford, D Roos-Weil, V Navrkalova, B Dörken, C A Schmitt, K E Smedby, G Juliusson, B Giacopelli, J S Blachly, C Belessi, P Panagiotidis, N Chiorazzi, F Davi, A W Langerak, D Oscier, A Schuh, G Gaidano, P Ghia, W Xu, L Fan, O A Bernard, F Nguyen-Khac, L Rassenti, J Li, T J Kipps, K Stamatopoulos, S Pospisilova, T Zenz, C C Oakes, J C Strefford, R Rosenquist, F Damm
Recurrent mutations within EGR2 were recently reported in advanced-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients and associated with a worse outcome. To study their prognostic impact, 2403 CLL patients were examined for mutations in the EGR2 hotspot region including a screening (n=1283) and two validation cohorts (UK CLL4 trial patients, n=366; CLL Research Consortium (CRC) patients, n=490). Targeted deep-sequencing of 27 known/postulated CLL driver genes was also performed in 38 EGR2-mutated patients to assess concurrent mutations...
November 28, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890615/egr2-is-a-gonadotropin-induced-survival-factor-that-controls-the-expression-of-ier3-in-ovarian-granulosa-cells
#5
Hanyong Jin, Miae Won, Eunkyoung Shin, Hong-Man Kim, Kangseok Lee, Jeehyeon Bae
Pituitary gonadotropins are key hormones that orchestrate the growth and development of ovarian follicles. However, limited information is available on intra-ovarian factors that mediate the actions of gonadotropins. In this study, we identified that the early growth response 2 gene (EGR2) is a gonadotropin-inducible gene in granulosa cells of rats and humans. Analysis of consensus EGR-binding elements (EBEs) showed that the immediate early response 3 gene (IER3) is a novel transcriptional target gene of EGR2 as confirmed by the luciferase assay, electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and western blot analysis...
November 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889568/fosb-regulates-expression-of-mir-22-during-pma-induced-differentiation-of-k562-cells-to-megakaryocytes
#6
Hafiz M Ahmad, Pamchui Muiwo, Rohini Muthuswami, Alok Bhattacharya
Expression of many miRNAs is altered in different cancers and these changes are thought to play a key role in formation and progression of cancer. In chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) a number of miRNAs are known to be down regulated as compared to normal cells. In this report we have investigated the mechanism of this down regulation by using PMA induced differentiation of CML cell line K562 to megakaryocytes as an experimental system. On treatment with PMA, expression of many down regulated miRNAs including miR-22 is induced...
November 23, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889530/identification-of-proximal-biomarkers-of-pkc-agonism-and-evaluation-of-their-role-in-hiv-reactivation
#7
Sai Vikram Vemula, Jill W Maxwell, Alexey Nefedov, Bang-Lin Wan, Justin Steve, William Newhard, Rosa I Sanchez, David Tellers, Richard J Barnard, Wade Blair, Daria Hazuda, Andrea L Webber, Bonnie J Howell
DESIGN: The HIV latent CD4(+) T cell reservoir is broadly recognized as a barrier to HIV cure. Induction of HIV expression using protein kinase C (PKC) agonists is one approach under investigation for reactivation of latently infected CD4(+) T cells (Beans et al., 2013; Abreu et al., 2014; Jiang et al., 2014; Jiang and Dandekar, 2015). We proposed that an increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of PKC agonists was necessary to inform on biological signaling and pharmacodynamic biomarkers...
November 23, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856665/emerging-roles-of-egr2-and-egr3-in-the-control-of-systemic-autoimmunity
#8
REVIEW
Kaoru Morita, Tomohisa Okamura, Shuji Sumitomo, Yukiko Iwasaki, Keishi Fujio, Kazuhiko Yamamoto
SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by multiple organ damage mediated by autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells. Approaches utilizing genetically engineered mice as well as genome-wide association studies have identified a number of lupus-related genes. Recently, early growth response gene 2 (Egr2) and Egr3 have emerged as regulatory molecules that suppress excessive immune responses. Mice deficient for Egr2 and Egr3 develop a lupus-like disease with dysregulated activation of effector T cells. Furthermore, Egr2 and Egr3 confer suppressive activity to CD4(+) T cells and regulate the production of inhibitory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β1...
December 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805583/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-the-unilateral-hemisphere-of-rat-brain
#9
Jaewon Beom, Jung Chan Lee, Jin Chul Paeng, Tai Ryoon Han, Moon Suk Bang, Byung-Mo Oh
Previous rodent models of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) adopted whole-brain stimulation instead of unilateral hemispheric rTMS, which is unlike the protocols used for human subjects. We report a successful application of rTMS to the unilateral hemisphere of rat brain. The rTMS was delivered with a low-frequency (1 Hz), high-frequency (20 Hz), or sham stimulation protocol to one side of the brain by using a small 25-mm figure-8 coil. We placed the center of the coil 1 cm lateral to the vertex on the biauricular line and angulated the coil 45° to the ground to minimize a potential direct effect of rTMS on the contralateral cortex...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792997/cd99-polymorphisms-significantly-influence-the-probability-to-develop-ewing-sarcoma-in-earlier-age-and-patient-disease-progression
#10
Marcella Martinelli, Alessandro Parra, Luca Scapoli, Paola De Sanctis, Valentina Chiadini, Claudia Hattinger, Piero Picci, Cinzia Zucchini, Katia Scotlandi
Ewing sarcoma (EWS), the second most common primary bone tumor in pediatric age, is known for its paucity of recurrent somatic abnormalities. Apart from the chimeric oncoprotein that derives from the fusion of EWS and FLI genes, recent genome-wide association studies have identified susceptibility variants near the EGR2 gene that regulate DNA binding of EWS-FLI. However, to induce transformation, EWS-FLI requires the presence of additional molecular events, including the expression of CD99, a cell surface molecule with critical relevance for the pathogenesis of EWS...
October 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737635/effect-of-propofol-on-microrna-expression-in-rat-primary-embryonic-neural-stem-cells
#11
Jun Fan, Quan Zhou, Zaisheng Qin, Tao Tao
BACKGROUND: Propofol is a widely used intravenous anesthetic that is well-known for its protective effect in various human and animal disease models. However, the effects of propofol on neurogenesis, especially on the development of neural stem cells (NSCs), remains unknown. Related microRNAs may act as important regulators in this process. METHODS: Published Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) DataSets related to propofol were selected and re-analyzed to screen neural development-related genes and predict microRNA (miRNA) expression using bioinformatic methods...
October 13, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725906/microrna-17-5p-promotes-gastric-cancer-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-by-directly-targeting-early-growth-response-2
#12
Peng Chen, Huasi Zhao, Jingjing Huang, Xizhong Yan, Yunfei Zhang, Yongshun Gao
MicroRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) has previously been reported to play an important role in tumor development and progression. However, it functions differently regarding different kinds of malignant tumor, and its role and mechanism in gastric cancer (GC) still lacks investigation. In this study, we detected the relationship between miR-17-5p and the development of GC by qRT-PCR, and it turned out that the level of miR-17-5p was significantly higher in GC patients than that in normal controls, and the aberrant expression of miR-17-5p was correlated with lymph node metastasis...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669663/chlorpyrifos-exposure-affects-fgf8-sox9-and-bmp4-expression-required-for-cranial-neural-crest-morphogenesis-and-chondrogenesis-in-xenopus-laevis-embryos
#13
Margherita Tussellino, Raffaele Ronca, Rosa Carotenuto, Maria M Pallotta, Maria Furia, Teresa Capriglione
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide used primarily to control foliage and soil-borne insect pests on a variety of food and feed crops. In mammals, maternal exposure to CPF has been reported to induce dose-related abnormalities such as slower brain growth and cerebral cortex thinning. In lower vertebrates, for example, fish and amphibians, teratogenic activity of this compound is correlated with several anatomical alterations. Little is known about the effects of CPF on mRNA expression of genes involved in early development of the anatomical structures appearing abnormal in embryos...
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667480/integrated-analysis-of-dna-methylation-and-rna%C3%A2-sequencing-data-in-down-syndrome
#14
Jiantao Zhang, Wenli Zhou, Ying Liu, Nan Li
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common birth defect in children. To investigate the mechanisms of DS, the present study analyzed the bisulfite‑sequencing (seq) data GSE42144, which was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. GSE42144 included DNA methylation data of three DS samples and three control samples, and RNA‑seq data of two DS samples and five control samples. The methylated sites in the bisulfite‑seq data were detected using Bismark and Bowtie2. The BiSeq tool was applied to determine differentially methylated regions and to identify adjacent genes...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625295/low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-upregulates-pro-myelination-indicators-of-schwann-cells-enhanced-by-co-culture-with-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#15
Yuan Yue, Xingmei Yang, Liang Zhang, Xun Xiao, Neel R Nabar, Yunfeng Lin, Liang Hao, Dongjiao Zhang, Jingyi Huo, Jingle Li, Xiaoxiao Cai, Min Wang
OBJECTIVES: Peripheral nerve injuries are a common occurrence, resulting in considerable patient suffering; it also represents a major economic burden on society. To improve treatment options following peripheral nerve injuries, scientists aim to find a way to promote Schwann cell (SC) myelination to help nerves to carry out their functions effectively. In this study, we investigated myelination ability of SCs, regulated by co-culture with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) or low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), and synergistic effects of combined treatments...
September 14, 2016: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604215/neural-progenitor-like-cells-induced-from-human-gingiva-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-regulate-myelination-of-schwann-cells-in-rat-sciatic-nerve-regeneration
#16
Qunzhou Zhang, Phuong Nguyen, Qilin Xu, Wonse Park, Sumin Lee, Akihiro Furuhashi, Anh D Le
: : Regeneration of peripheral nerve injury remains a major clinical challenge. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered as potential candidates for peripheral nerve regeneration; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that human gingiva-derived MSCs (GMSCs) could be directly induced into multipotent NPCs (iNPCs) under minimally manipulated conditions without the introduction of exogenous genes. Using a crush-injury model of rat sciatic nerve, we demonstrate that GMSCs transplanted to the injury site could differentiate into neuronal cells, whereas iNPCs could differentiate into both neuronal and Schwann cells...
September 7, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528628/novel-stim1-dependent-control-of-ca2-clearance-regulates-nfat-activity-during-t-cell-activation
#17
Elsie Samakai, Robert Hooper, Kayla A Martin, Maya Shmurak, Yi Zhang, Dietmar J Kappes, Italo Tempera, Jonathan Soboloff
Antigen presentation to the T-cell receptor leads to sustained cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation, which is critical for T-cell activation. We previously showed that in activated T cells, Ca(2+) clearance is inhibited by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) sensor stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1) via association with the plasma membrane Ca(2+)/ATPase 4 (PMCA4) Ca(2+) pump. Having further observed that expression of both proteins is increased in activated T cells, the current study focused on mechanisms regulating both up-regulation of STIM1 and PMCA4 and assessing how this up-regulation contributes to control of Ca(2+) clearance...
November 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528026/the-gain-and-loss-of-long-noncoding-rna-associated-competing-endogenous-rnas-in-prostate-cancer
#18
Dianming Liu, Xuexin Yu, Shuyuan Wang, Enyu Dai, Leiming Jiang, Jing Wang, Qian Yang, Feng Yang, Shunheng Zhou, Wei Jiang
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common solid tumors in men. However, the molecular mechanism of PC remains unclear. Numerous studies have demonstrated that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) can act as microRNA (miRNA) sponge, one type of competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), which offers a novel viewpoint to elucidate the mechanisms of PC. Here, we proposed an integrative systems biology approach to infer the gain and loss of ceRNAs in PC. First, we re-annotated exon microarray data to obtain lncRNA expression profiles of PC...
August 9, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517863/functional-role-of-%C3%AE-crystallin-n-in-the-auditory-hindbrain
#19
Heiner Hartwich, Elena Rosengauer, Lukas Rüttiger, Viviane Wilms, Sarah-Kristin Waterholter, Hans Gerd Nothwang
γ-crystallins are major components of the vertebrate lens but show expression in other tissues as well. Their extralenticular functions remain so far unclear. Here, we explored such roles in the rodent superior olivary complex in which previous analysis demonstrated developmentally regulated expression of Crygd, Cryge and Crygn. Immunohistochemistry with novel antibodies against Crygd/e and Crygn indicate that expression of Crygd/e was moderate and varied between the perinatal superior olivary complex of mice, rats, and gerbils...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517611/cognition-and-synaptic-plasticity-related-changes-in-aged-rats-supplemented-with-8-and-10-carbon-medium-chain-triglycerides
#20
Dongmei Wang, Ellen S Mitchell
Brain glucose hypometabolism is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that cognition is improved by providing AD patients with an alternate energy source: ketones derived from either ketogenic diet or supplementation with medium chain triglycerides (MCT). Recently, data on the neuroprotective capacity of MCT-derived medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) suggest 8-carbon and 10-carbon MCFA may have cognition-enhancing properties which are not related to ketone production. We investigated the effect of 8 week treatment with MCT8, MCT10 or sunflower oil supplementation (5% by weight of chow diet) in 21 month old Wistar rats...
2016: PloS One
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