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Jun Fan, Quan Zhou, Zaisheng Qin, Tao Tao
BACKGROUND: Propofol is a widely used intravenous anesthetic that is well-known for its protective effect in various human and animal disease models. However, the effects of propofol on neurogenesis, especially on the development of neural stem cells (NSCs), remains unknown. Related microRNAs may act as important regulators in this process. METHODS: Published Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) DataSets related to propofol were selected and re-analyzed to screen neural development-related genes and predict microRNA (miRNA) expression using bioinformatic methods...
October 13, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Peng Chen, Huasi Zhao, Jingjing Huang, Xizhong Yan, Yunfei Zhang, Yongshun Gao
MicroRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) has previously been reported to play an important role in tumor development and progression. However, it functions differently regarding different kinds of malignant tumor, and its role and mechanism in gastric cancer (GC) still lacks investigation. In this study, we detected the relationship between miR-17-5p and the development of GC by qRT-PCR, and it turned out that the level of miR-17-5p was significantly higher in GC patients than that in normal controls, and the aberrant expression of miR-17-5p was correlated with lymph node metastasis...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
Margherita Tussellino, Raffaele Ronca, Rosa Carotenuto, Maria M Pallotta, Maria Furia, Teresa Capriglione
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide used primarily to control foliage and soil-borne insect pests on a variety of food and feed crops. In mammals, maternal exposure to CPF has been reported to induce dose-related abnormalities such as slower brain growth and cerebral cortex thinning. In lower vertebrates, for example, fish and amphibians, teratogenic activity of this compound is correlated with several anatomical alterations. Little is known about the effects of CPF on mRNA expression of genes involved in early development of the anatomical structures appearing abnormal in embryos...
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Jiantao Zhang, Wenli Zhou, Ying Liu, Nan Li
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common birth defect in children. To investigate the mechanisms of DS, the present study analyzed the bisulfite‑sequencing (seq) data GSE42144, which was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. GSE42144 included DNA methylation data of three DS samples and three control samples, and RNA‑seq data of two DS samples and five control samples. The methylated sites in the bisulfite‑seq data were detected using Bismark and Bowtie2. The BiSeq tool was applied to determine differentially methylated regions and to identify adjacent genes...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yuan Yue, Xingmei Yang, Liang Zhang, Xun Xiao, Neel R Nabar, Yunfeng Lin, Liang Hao, Dongjiao Zhang, Jingyi Huo, Jingle Li, Xiaoxiao Cai, Min Wang
OBJECTIVES: Peripheral nerve injuries are a common occurrence, resulting in considerable patient suffering; it also represents a major economic burden on society. To improve treatment options following peripheral nerve injuries, scientists aim to find a way to promote Schwann cell (SC) myelination to help nerves to carry out their functions effectively. In this study, we investigated myelination ability of SCs, regulated by co-culture with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) or low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), and synergistic effects of combined treatments...
September 14, 2016: Cell Proliferation
Qunzhou Zhang, Phuong Nguyen, Qilin Xu, Wonse Park, Sumin Lee, Akihiro Furuhashi, Anh D Le
: : Regeneration of peripheral nerve injury remains a major clinical challenge. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered as potential candidates for peripheral nerve regeneration; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that human gingiva-derived MSCs (GMSCs) could be directly induced into multipotent NPCs (iNPCs) under minimally manipulated conditions without the introduction of exogenous genes. Using a crush-injury model of rat sciatic nerve, we demonstrate that GMSCs transplanted to the injury site could differentiate into neuronal cells, whereas iNPCs could differentiate into both neuronal and Schwann cells...
September 7, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Elsie Samakai, Robert Hooper, Kayla A Martin, Maya Shmurak, Yi Zhang, Dietmar J Kappes, Italo Tempera, Jonathan Soboloff
Antigen presentation to the T cell receptor leads to sustained cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation, which is critical for T-cell activation. We previously showed that in activated T cells, Ca(2+) clearance is inhibited by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) sensor stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1) via association with the plasma membrane Ca(2+)/ATPase 4 (PMCA4) Ca(2+) pump. Having further observed that expression of both proteins is increased in activated T cells, the current study focused on mechanisms regulating both up-regulation of STIM1 and PMCA4 and assessing how this up-regulation contributes to control of Ca(2+) clearance...
August 15, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Dianming Liu, Xuexin Yu, Shuyuan Wang, Enyu Dai, Leiming Jiang, Jing Wang, Qian Yang, Feng Yang, Shunheng Zhou, Wei Jiang
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common solid tumors in men. However, the molecular mechanism of PC remains unclear. Numerous studies have demonstrated that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) can act as microRNA (miRNA) sponge, one type of competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), which offers a novel viewpoint to elucidate the mechanisms of PC. Here, we proposed an integrative systems biology approach to infer the gain and loss of ceRNAs in PC. First, we re-annotated exon microarray data to obtain lncRNA expression profiles of PC...
August 9, 2016: Oncotarget
Heiner Hartwich, Elena Rosengauer, Lukas Rüttiger, Viviane Wilms, Sarah-Kristin Waterholter, Hans Gerd Nothwang
γ-crystallins are major components of the vertebrate lens but show expression in other tissues as well. Their extralenticular functions remain so far unclear. Here, we explored such roles in the rodent superior olivary complex in which previous analysis demonstrated developmentally regulated expression of Crygd, Cryge and Crygn. Immunohistochemistry with novel antibodies against Crygd/e and Crygn indicate that expression of Crygd/e was moderate and varied between the perinatal superior olivary complex of mice, rats, and gerbils...
2016: PloS One
Dongmei Wang, Ellen S Mitchell
Brain glucose hypometabolism is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that cognition is improved by providing AD patients with an alternate energy source: ketones derived from either ketogenic diet or supplementation with medium chain triglycerides (MCT). Recently, data on the neuroprotective capacity of MCT-derived medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) suggest 8-carbon and 10-carbon MCFA may have cognition-enhancing properties which are not related to ketone production. We investigated the effect of 8 week treatment with MCT8, MCT10 or sunflower oil supplementation (5% by weight of chow diet) in 21 month old Wistar rats...
2016: PloS One
Ting Yao, Qinfu Wang, Wenyong Zhang, Aihong Bian, Jinping Zhang
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults and accounts for ~80% of all kidney cancer cases. However, the pathogenesis of RCC has not yet been fully elucidated. To interpret the pathogenesis of RCC at the molecular level, gene expression data and bio-informatics methods were used to identify RCC associated genes. Gene expression data was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and identified differentially coexpressed genes (DCGs) and dysfunctional pathways in RCC patients compared with controls...
July 2016: Oncology Letters
Thomas G P Grünewald, Olivier Delattre
High-throughput genotyping and sequencing generate comprehensive catalogs of inherited genetic variations and acquired somatic mutations. However, their possible interactions and roles in tumorigenesis remain largely unexplored. We recently reported cooperation between the EWSR1-FLI1 (Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 - Friend leukemia virus integration 1) fusion oncogene and a germline variant that regulates the EGR2 (early growth response 2) Ewing sarcoma susceptibility gene via a GGAA-microsatellite.
May 2016: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Susanne Quintes, Bastian G Brinkmann, Madlen Ebert, Franziska Fröb, Theresa Kungl, Friederike A Arlt, Victor Tarabykin, Danny Huylebroeck, Dies Meijer, Ueli Suter, Michael Wegner, Michael W Sereda, Klaus-Armin Nave
Schwann cell development and peripheral nerve myelination require the serial expression of transcriptional activators, such as Sox10, Oct6 (also called Scip or Pou3f1) and Krox20 (also called Egr2). Here we show that transcriptional repression, mediated by the zinc-finger protein Zeb2 (also known as Sip1), is essential for differentiation and myelination. Mice lacking Zeb2 in Schwann cells develop a severe peripheral neuropathy, caused by failure of axonal sorting and virtual absence of myelin membranes. Zeb2-deficient Schwann cells continuously express repressors of lineage progression...
August 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Samantha M Adler, Claudia Schmauss
Studies showed that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can reverse cognitive deficits found in neurodegenerative disorders and age-related memory decline. However, the role of HDACs in stress-induced cognitive deficits has not been investigated. In the stress-susceptible mouse strain Balb/c, early life stress triggers a persistent decrease in HDAC expression in the forebrain neocortex, including reduced expression of class I HDACs. The same mice show pronounced cognitive deficits in adulthood, namely deficits in working memory and attention set-shifting...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Ewa Kozela, Ana Juknat, Fuying Gao, Nathali Kaushansky, Giovanni Coppola, Zvi Vogel
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies showed that the non-psychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), ameliorates the clinical symptoms in mouse myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as decreases the memory MOG35-55-specific T cell (TMOG) proliferation and cytokine secretion including IL-17, a key autoimmune factor. The mechanisms of these activities are currently poorly understood. METHODS: Herein, using microarray-based gene expression profiling, we describe gene networks and intracellular pathways involved in CBD-induced suppression of these activated memory TMOG cells...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Enric Domènech-Estévez, Hasna Baloui, Xiaosong Meng, Yanqing Zhang, Katrin Deinhardt, Jeff L Dupree, Steven Einheber, Roman Chrast, James L Salzer
UNLABELLED: The signaling pathways that regulate myelination in the PNS remain poorly understood. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase 1A, activated in Schwann cells by neuregulin and the extracellular matrix, has an essential role in the early events of myelination. Akt/PKB, a key effector of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase 1A, was previously implicated in CNS, but not PNS myelination. Here we demonstrate that Akt plays a crucial role in axon ensheathment and in the regulation of myelin sheath thickness in the PNS...
April 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Seul Gi Kwon, Jung Hye Hwang, Da Hye Park, Tae Wan Kim, Deok Gyeong Kang, Kyung Hee Kang, Il-Suk Kim, Hwa Chun Park, Chong-Sam Na, Jeongim Ha, Chul Wook Kim
Improvement in litter size has become of great interest in the pig industry because fecundity is directly related to sow reproductive life. Improved reproduction has thus been achieved by elucidating the molecular functions of genes associated with fecundity. In the present study, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) via transcriptomic analysis using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) in Berkshire pig placentas from larger (LLG, mean litter size >12) and smaller (SLG, mean litter size < 6.5) litter size groups...
2016: PloS One
Maxime Jouaud, Pierre-Marie Gonnaud, Laurence Richard, Philippe Latour, Elisabeth Ollagnon-Roman, Franck Sturtz, Stéphane Mathis, Laurent Magy, Jean-Michel Vallat
Congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy appears early in life, resulting in a delay of motor and sensory development. Mutations involve genes such as myelin protein zero (MPZ), peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), and early growth response 2 (EGR2). We present a patient with two compound mutations in PMP22: a point mutation causing a premature STOP codon in exon 3 was inherited from the mother on the first allele, and the "typical" PMP22 deletion in the 17p11.2-p12 region was inherited from the father on the other allele...
April 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Yu-Chuan Liang, Meng-Ting Yang, Chuan-Ju Lin, Cicero Lee-Tian Chang, Wen-Chin Yang
Obesity and its complications are a major global health problem. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of an edible plant, Bidens pilosa, and its active constituent. We first assessed the long-term effect of B. pilosa on body composition, body weight, blood parameters in ICR mice. We observed that it significantly decreased fat content and increased protein content in ICR mice. Next, we verified the anti-obesity effect of B. pilosa in ob/ob mice. It effectively and dose-dependently reduced fat content, adipocyte size and/or body weight in mice...
2016: Scientific Reports
Anjali Balakrishnan, Morgan G Stykel, Yacine Touahri, Jo Anne Stratton, Jeff Biernaskie, Carol Schuurmans
Schwann cells (SCs) arise from neural crest cells (NCCs) that first give rise to SC precursors (SCPs), followed by immature SCs, pro-myelinating SCs, and finally, non-myelinating or myelinating SCs. After nerve injury, mature SCs 'de-differentiate', downregulating their myelination program while transiently re-activating early glial lineage genes. To better understand molecular parallels between developing and de-differentiated SCs, we characterized the expression profiles of a panel of 12 transcription factors from the onset of NCC migration through postnatal stages, as well as after acute nerve injury...
2016: PloS One
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