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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352607/integrated-lung-tissue-mechanics-one-piece-at-a-time-computational-modeling-across-the-scales-of-biology
#1
REVIEW
Kelly S Burrowes, Amin Iravani, Wendy Kang
The lung is a delicately balanced and highly integrated mechanical system. Lung tissue is continuously exposed to the environment via the air we breathe, making it susceptible to damage. As a consequence, respiratory diseases present a huge burden on society and their prevalence continues to rise. Emergent function is produced not only by the sum of the function of its individual components but also by the complex feedback and interactions occurring across the biological scales - from genes to proteins, cells, tissue and whole organ - and back again...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351636/effectiveness-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-immunoprophylaxis-on-bronchiolitis-hospitalizations-among-high-risk-infants
#2
Pingsheng Wu, Gabriel J Escobar, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Kecia N Carroll, Sherian X Li, Eileen M Walsh, Edward F Mitchel, Chantel Sloan, William D Dupont, Chang Yu, Jeffrey R Horner, Tina V Hartert
We sought to determine the real-world effectiveness of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) immunoprophylaxis in a population-based cohort to inform policy. The study population included infants born 1996-2008 and enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. During the RSV season (November-March), RSV immunoprophylaxis administration and the following 30 days were defined as RSV immunoprophylaxis protected period(s), and all other days as unprotected period(s). Bronchiolitis hospitalizations were determined using the International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision codes during RSV season...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351567/whole-thorax-irradiation-of-non-human-primates-induces-persistent-nuclear-damage-and-gene-expression-changes-in-peripheral-blood-cells
#3
Shanaz A Ghandhi, Helen C Turner, Igor Shuryak, Gregory O Dugan, J Daniel Bourland, John D Olson, Janet A Tooze, Shad R Morton, Ines Batinic-Haberle, J Mark Cline, Sally A Amundson
We investigated the cytogenetic and gene expression responses of peripheral blood cells of non-human primates (NHP, Macaca mulatta) that were whole-thorax irradiated with a single dose of 10 Gy. In this model, partial irradiation of NHPs in the thoracic region (Whole Thorax Lung Irradiation, WTLI) allows the study of late radiation-induced lung injury, while avoiding acute radiation syndromes related to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal injury. A transient drop in circulating lymphocytes and platelets was seen by 9 days, followed by elevations in respiratory rate, circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes at 60-100 days, corresponding to computed tomography (CT) and histologic evidence of pneumonitis, and elective euthanasia of four animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351551/periodontal-health-status-and-lung-function-in-two-norwegian-cohorts
#4
Antonio Manuel Pérez Barrionuevo, Francisco Gómez Real, Jannicke Igland, Ane Johannessen, Ernst Omenaas, Karl A Franklin, Laura Pérez Barrionuevo, Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm, Cecilie Svanes, Randi Jacobsen Bertelsen
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The oral cavity is united with the airways, and thus poor oral health may affect respiratory health. However, data on the interaction of periodontal and respiratory health is limited. We aimed to evaluate whether periodontal health status, assessed by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI), was related to lung function among young and middle-aged adults in two Norwegian cohorts. METHODS: Periodontal health status and lung function were measured among 656 participants in the Norwegian part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECHRS III) and the RHINESSA offspring study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351447/cigarette-smoke-dampens-anti-viral-signaling-in-small-airway-epithelial-cells-by-disrupting-tlr3-cleavage
#5
Parker F Duffney, Claire E McCarthy, Aitor Nogales, Thomas H Thatcher, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
Cigarette smokers and people exposed to secondhand smoke are at an increased risk for pulmonary viral infections, yet the mechanism responsible for this heightened susceptibility is not understood. To understand the effect of cigarette smoke on susceptibility to viral infection we used an air-liquid interface culture system, and exposed primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) to whole cigarette smoke followed by treatment with the viral mimetic polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or influenza A virus (IAV)...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351446/mechanisms-and-consequences-of-oxidative-stress-in-lung-disease-therapeutic-implications-for-an-aging-populace
#6
Louise Hecker
The rapid expansion of the elderly population has led to the recent epidemic of age-related diseases, including increased incidence and mortality of chronic and acute lung diseases. Numerous studies have implicated aging and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases; however, despite recent advances in these fields, the specific contributions of aging and oxidative stress remain elusive. This review will discuss the consequences of aging on lung morphology and physiology, and how redox imbalance with aging contributes to lung disease susceptibility...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351441/vx-809-vx-770-treatment-reduces-inflammatory-response-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-primary-differentiated-cystic-fibrosis-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#7
Manon Ruffin, Lucie Roussel, Émilie Maillé, Simon Rousseau, Emmanuelle Brochiero
Cystic fibrosis patients exhibit chronic P. aeruginosa respiratory infections and sustained pro-inflammatory state favoring lung tissue damage and remodeling, ultimately leading to respiratory failure. Loss of CFTR function is associated with MAPK hyper-activation and increased cytokines expression, such as the interleukin 8 (CXCL8). Recently, new therapeutic strategies directly targeting the basic CFTR defect have been developed and ORKAMBI (Vx-809/Vx-770 combination) is the only FDA-approved treatment for CF patients homozygous for the F508del mutation...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351433/%C3%AE-nitrostyrene-derivatives-attenuate-lps-mediated-acute-lung-injury-via-the-inhibition-of-neutrophil-platelet-interactions-and-net-release
#8
Yao-Wen Chang, Ching-Ping Tseng, Chih-Hsun Lee, Tsong-Long Hwang, Yu-Li Chen, Mei-Tzu Su, Kowit-Yu Chong, Ying-Wei Lan, Chin-Chung Wu, Kung-Ju Chen, Fen-Hua Lu, Hsiang-Ruei Liao, Chuen Hsueh, Pei-Wen Hsieh
Acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are high-mortality and life-threatening diseases that are associated with neutrophil activation and accumulation within lung tissue. Emerging evidence indicates that neutrophil-platelet aggregates (NPAs) at sites of injury increases acute inflammation and contributes to the development of ALI. Even though numerous studies have increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of ALI, there is still a lack of innovative and useful treatments that reduce mortality, emphasizing that there is an urgent need for novel treatment strategies...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351405/acute-down-regulation-of-mir-199a-attenuates-sepsis-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-targeting-sirt1
#9
Yang Liu, Hao Guan, Ju-Lei Zhang, Zhao Zheng, Hong-Tao Wang, Ke Tao, Shi-Chao Han, Lin-Lin Su, Dahai Hu
MiR-199a is a novel gene regulator with an important role in inflammation and lung injury. However, its role in the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is currently unknown. Our study explored the role of miR-199a in sepsis-induced ARDS and its mechanism of action. First, we found that LPS could up-regulate miR-199a in alveolar macrophages. Down-regulation of miR-199a inhibited the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines in alveolar macrophages and induced the remission of histopathologic changes, the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the up-regulation of apoptosis protein expression in an ARDS lung, showing a protective role for miR-199a...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350567/pretreatment-of-ferulic-acid-attenuates-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-rat-model-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#10
Sheng Zhang, Pengyu Wang, Pengxin Zhao, Dong Wang, Yanwei Zhang, Junhui Wang, Lixia Chen, Wenping Guo, Hui Gao, Yalou Jiao
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a fatal clinical condition that can be caused by pulmonary and non-pulmonary diseases. Oxidative stress and inflammation play key roles in the development of ARDS. In this study, we investigated whether ferulic acid (FA), an anti-oxidant, was beneficial for prophylaxis of ARDS. We established an ARDS rat model using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Lung injury was assessed by lung wet/dry ratio and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to evaluate the histological changes of the lungs...
January 2018: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349730/ccn5-in-alveolar-epithelial-proliferation-and-differentiation-during-neonatal-lung-oxygen-injury
#11
Najla Fiaturi, Joshua W Russo, Heber C Nielsen, John J Castellot
Lung immaturity is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants, especially those born <28 weeks of gestation. These infants are at high risk of developing respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), a lung disease caused by insufficient surfactant production and immaturity of saccular/alveolar type II epithelial cells in the lung. RDS treatment includes oxygen and respiratory support that improve survival but also increase the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease characterized by arrested alveolarization, airway hyperreactivity, and pulmonary hypertension...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349348/the-effect-of-tulobuterol-patches-on-the-respiratory-system-after-endotracheal-intubation
#12
Do-Won Lee, Eun-Soo Kim, Wang-Seok Do, Han-Bit Lee, Eun-Jung Kim, Cheul-Hong Kim
Background: Endotracheal intubation during anesthesia induction may increase airway resistance (Raw) and decrease dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn). We hypothesized that prophylactic treatment with a transdermal β2-agonist tulobuterol patch (TP) would help to reduce the risk of bronchospasm after placement of the endotracheal tube. Methods: Eighty-two American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) category I or II adult patients showing obstructive patterns were divided randomly into a control and a TP group (n = 41 each)...
December 2017: Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349092/cathepsin-b-plays-a-key-role-in-optimal-production-of-the-influenza-a-virus
#13
Macon D Coleman, Soon-Duck Ha, S M Mansour Haeryfar, Stephen Dominic Barr, Sung Ouk Kim
Background: Influenza A virus (IAV) is the etiologic agent of the febrile respiratory illness, commonly referred to as 'flu'. The lysosomal protease cathepsin B (CTSB) has shown to be involved in the lifecycle of various viruses. Here, we examined the role of CTSB in the IAV lifecycle. Methods: CTSB-deficient (CTSB-/-) macrophages and the human lung epithelial cell line A549 cells treated with CA-074Me were infected with the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 strain of IAV (IAV-PR8)...
2018: Journal of Virology & Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348862/digital-gene-expression-analysis-in-mice-lung-with-coinfection-of-influenza-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#14
Jun Luo, Linlin Zhou, Hongren Wang, Zhen Qin, Li Xiang, Jie Zhu, Xiaojun Huang, Yuan Yang, Wanyi Li, Baoning Wang, Mingyuan Li
Influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) are two major upper respiratory tract pathogens that can also cause infection in polarized bronchial epithelial cells to exacerbate disease in coinfected individuals which may result in significant morbidity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we employed BALB/c ByJ mice inflected with SP, IAV, IAV followed by SP (IAV+SP) and PBS (Control) as models to survey the global gene expression using digital gene expression (DGE) profiling...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348195/morbidity-and-mortality-in-small-for-gestational-age-infants-at-22-to-29-weeks-gestation
#15
Nansi S Boghossian, Marco Geraci, Erika M Edwards, Jeffrey D Horbar
OBJECTIVES: To identify the relative risks of mortality and morbidities for small for gestational age (SGA) infants in comparison with non-SGA infants born at 22 to 29 weeks' gestation. METHODS: Data were collected (2006-2014) on 156 587 infants from 852 US centers participating in the Vermont Oxford Network. We defined SGA as sex-specific birth weight <10th centile for gestational age (GA) in days. Binomial generalized additive models with a thin plate spline term on GA by SGA were used to calculate the adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for outcomes by GA...
January 18, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348183/neurophysiological-mechanisms-of-exertional-dyspnoea-in-fibrotic-interstitial-lung-disease
#16
Michele R Schaeffer, Christopher J Ryerson, Andrew H Ramsook, Yannick Molgat-Seon, Sabrina S Wilkie, Satvir S Dhillon, Reid A Mitchell, A William Sheel, Nasreen Khalil, Pat G Camp, Jordan A Guenette
Our understanding of the mechanisms of dyspnoea in fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) is incomplete. The aims of this study were two-fold: 1) to determine whether dyspnoea intensity is better predicted by neural respiratory drive (NRD) or neuromechanical uncoupling (NMU) of the respiratory system in fibrotic ILD, and 2) to examine the effect of breathing 60% oxygen on NRD, NMU and dyspnoea ratings.Fourteen patients with fibrotic ILD were included. Visit 1 comprised a familiarisation incremental cycle exercise test, Visit 2 comprised a normoxic incremental cycling test to address Aim 1, and Visits 3 and 4 consisted of constant-load cycling while breathing room air or 60% oxygen to address Aim 2...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348151/ahrr-hypomethylation-lung-function-lung-function-decline-and-respiratory-symptoms
#17
Jakob B Kodal, Camilla J Kobylecki, Signe Vedel-Krogh, Børge G Nordestgaard, Stig E Bojesen
Introduction: Epigenome wide association studies have shown a consistent association between smoking exposure and hypomethylation in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor(AHRR) gene(cg05575921). We tested the hypothesis that AHRR hypomethylation is associated with low lung function, steeper lung function decline, and respiratory symptoms in the general population.Methods:AHRR methylation extent was measured in 9113 individuals from the 1991-1994 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, using bisulfite treated leucocyte DNA...
January 18, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346420/initial-acquisition-and-succession-of-the-cystic-fibrosis-lung-microbiome-is-associated-with-disease-progression-in-infants-and-preschool-children
#18
Marianne S Muhlebach, Bryan T Zorn, Charles R Esther, Joseph E Hatch, Conor P Murray, Lidija Turkovic, Sarath C Ranganathan, Richard C Boucher, Stephen M Stick, Matthew C Wolfgang
The cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiome has been studied in children and adults; however, little is known about its relationship to early disease progression. To better understand the relationship between the lung microbiome and early respiratory disease, we characterized the lower airways microbiome using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples obtained from clinically stable CF infants and preschoolers who underwent bronchoscopy and chest computed tomography (CT). Cross-sectional samples suggested a progression of the lower airways microbiome with age, beginning with relatively sterile airways in infancy...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346418/the-relationship-of-lung-function-with-ambient-temperature
#19
Joseph M Collaco, Lawrence J Appel, John McGready, Garry R Cutting
BACKGROUND: Lung function is complex trait with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to variation. It is unknown how geographic factors such as climate affect population respiratory health. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ambient air temperature is associated with lung function (FEV1) in the general population. DESIGN/SETTING: Associations between spirometry data from two National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) periods representative of the U...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346225/validating-lung-models-using-the-asl-5000-breathing-simulator
#20
Amanda Dexter, Neil McNinch, Destiny Kaznoch, Teresa A Volsko
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to validate pediatric models with normal and altered pulmonary mechanics. METHODS: PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for studies directly measuring pulmonary mechanics of healthy infants and children, infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia and neuromuscular disease. The ASL 5000 was used to construct models using tidal volume (VT), inspiratory time (TI), respiratory rate, resistance, compliance, and esophageal pressure gleaned from literature...
January 17, 2018: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
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