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Elaine Cristina de Campos, Fabiana Sobral Peixoto-Souza, Viviane Cristina Alves, Renata Basso-Vanelli, Marcela Barbalho-Moulim, Rafael Melillo Laurino-Neto, Dirceu Costa
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether weight loss in women with morbid obesity subjected to bariatric surgery alters lung function, respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and the level of habitual physical activity and to investigate the relationship between these variables and changes in both body composition and anthropometrics. METHODS: Twenty-four women with morbid obesity were evaluated with regard to lung function, respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity, body composition, anthropometrics and the level of habitual physical activity two weeks prior to and six months after bariatric surgery...
March 15, 2018: Clinics
Hongyan Li, Heng Weng, Changqing Lan, Hongying Zhang, Xinhang Wang, Jianguang Pan, Lulu Chen, Jinbao Huang
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) and influenza A (H1N1) complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).The clinical data of 18 cases of H7N9 and 26 cases of H1N1 with ARDS were collected and compared in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fujian from March 2014 to December 2016.Patients with H7N9 had a higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation-II score (P < .05) and lung injury score (P < ...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Emmanuel Marret, Raphael Cinotti, Laurence Berard, Vincent Piriou, Jacques Jobard, Benoit Barrucand, Dragos Radu, Samir Jaber, Francis Bonnet
BACKGROUND: Thoracic surgery for lung resection is associated with a high incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications. Controlled ventilation with a large tidal volume has been documented to be a risk factor for postoperative respiratory complications after major abdominal surgery, whereas the use of low tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has a protective effect. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of ventilation with low tidal volume and PEEP on major complications after thoracic surgery...
March 19, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Joshua M Gleason, Bill R Christian, Erik D Barton
Patients requiring emergency airway management may be at greater risk of acute hypoxemic events because of underlying lung pathology, high metabolic demands, insufficient respiratory drive, obesity, or the inability to protect their airway against aspiration. Emergency tracheal intubation is often required before complete information needed to assess the risk of procedural hypoxia is acquired (i.e., arterial blood gas level, hemoglobin value, or chest radiograph). During pre-oxygenation, administering high-flow nasal oxygen in addition to a non-rebreather face mask can significantly boost the effective inspired oxygen...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Chung-I Lin, Chin-Hung Tsai, Yu-Ling Sun, Wen-Yeh Hsieh, Yi-Chang Lin, Cheng-Yi Chen, Chih-Sheng Lin
Inhaled particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 ) can cause lung injury by inducing serious inflammation in lung tissue. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases and regulates inflammatory response. Angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), which is produced through the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II (Ang II) axis, protects against lung disease. However, few studies have focused on the relationships between PM2.5 and ACE2. Therefore, we aimed to explore the role of ACE2 in PM2...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Bon-Hee Gu, Matthew C Madison, David Corry, Farrah Kheradmand
Multicellular organisms synthesize and renew components of their subcellular and scaffolding proteins, collectively known as the extracellular matrix molecules (ECMs). In the lung, ECMs maintain tensile strength, elasticity, and dictate the specialized function of multiple cell lineages. These functions are critical in lung homeostatic processes including cellular migration and proliferation during morphogenesis or in response to repair. Alterations in lung ECMs that expose cells to new cryptic fragments, generated in response to endogenous proteinases or exogenous toxins, are associated with the development of several common respiratory diseases...
March 17, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Panagiotis Azmanis, Antonio di Somma, Lucia Pappalardo, Christu-Das Silvanose, Berit Bangoura
Cryptosporidiosis in raptors and falcons is well-known to be caused by Cryptosporidium baileyi and associated mainly with respiratory pathology. This report presents the diagnosis of an atypical cryptosporidiosis event caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, that to the authors' knowledge, is a case observed for the first time in falcons. Two falcons (Gyrfalcon x Peregrine hybrids) were presented for annual check without any clinical signs. Hematology, biochemistry, fecal and crop parasitology, radiographic and endoscopic examinations were performed...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Bo-Young Hong, Joseph N Paulson, O Colin Stine, George M Weinstock, Jorge L Cervantes
The lung microbiota has received less attention compared to other body sites, in part because its study carries special technological difficulties related to obtaining reliable samples as compared to other body niches. The limited number of studies on the sputum microbiota on TB patients and controls available so far have reported inconsistent, and sometimes, contradictory results. Aiming to clarify if changes in the lung microbiota composition are associated with pulmonary TB, we performed a meta-analysis of available data on microbiota of the lower respiratory tract in TB patients and healthy controls...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
Ross J Thomson, Nay Aung, Mihir M Sanghvi, Jose Miguel Paiva, Aaron M Lee, Filip Zemrak, Kenneth Fung, Paul E Pfeffer, Alexander J Mackay, Tricia M McKeever, Elena Lukaschuk, Valentina Carapella, Young Jin Kim, Charlotte E Bolton, Stefan K Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Steffen E Petersen
BACKGROUND: Reduced lung function is common and associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, even in asymptomatic individuals without diagnosed respiratory disease. Previous studies have identified relationships between lung function and cardiovascular structure in individuals with pulmonary disease, but the relationships in those free from diagnosed cardiorespiratory disease have not been fully explored. METHODS: UK Biobank is a prospective cohort study of community participants in the United Kingdom...
2018: PloS One
Cindy Wenke, Janina Pospiech, Tobias Reutter, Bettina Altmann, Uwe Truyen, Stephanie Speck
Biosecurity is defined as the implementation of measures that reduce the risk of disease agents being introduced and/or spread. For pig production, several of these measures are routinely implemented (e.g. cleaning, disinfection, segregation). However, air as a potential vector of pathogens has long been disregarded. Filters for incoming and recirculating air were installed into an already existing ventilation plant at a fattening piggery (3,840 pigs at maximum) in Saxony, Germany. Over a period of three consecutive fattening periods, we evaluated various parameters including air quality indices, environmental and operating parameters, and pig performance...
2018: PloS One
Tamara L Sheldon, Chandini Sankaran
Between 1990 and 2015, Indonesia lost nearly 25 percent of its forests, largely due to intentional burning to clear land for cultivation of palm oil and timber plantations.1 The neighboring "victim countries" experienced severe deteriorations in air quality as a result of these fires. For example, Singapore experienced record air pollution levels in June of 2013 and again in September of 2015 as a result of the Indonesian forest fires.2 This air pollution is associated with increased incidences of upper respiratory tract infections, acute conjunctivitis, lung disease, asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and pneumonia, among other ailments...
May 2017: American Economic Review
Flora Pirozzi, Kai Ren, Alessandra Murabito, Alessandra Ghigo
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive respiratory disorder characterized by irreversible chronic inflammation and airflow obstruction. It affects more than 64 million patients worldwide and it is predicted to become the third cause of death in the industrialized world by 2030. Current available therapies are not able to block disease progression and to reduce mortality, underlying the need of a better understanding of COPD pathophysiological mechanisms to identify new molecular therapeutic targets...
March 20, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Panagiotis Misthos, Maria Chorti, Vlasios Skopas, Alexandra Nakou, Napoleon Karagianidis, Achilleas Lioulias, Vasiliki Filaditaki
Pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) is a developmental anomaly of the lung parenchyma, characterized by a decrease in the number and size of airways, alveoli and vessels. We present a case of a 31-year-old patient with a history of chronic productive cough and frequent respiratory infections, who was referred for investigation of abnormal chest x-ray. The combination of chest computed tomography (CT) and bronchoscopy set the diagnosis of left pulmonary hypoplasia and the patient was treated surgically with a left pneumonectomy...
January 29, 2018: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Xin Dai, Gayan Bowatte, Adrian J Lowe, Melanie C Matheson, Lyle C Gurrin, John A Burgess, Shyamali C Dharmage, Caroline J Lodge
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes are involved in oxidative stress management and may modify the impact of indoor air pollution. We aimed to assess the influence of GST genes on the relationship between indoor air pollution and allergy/lung function. RECENT FINDINGS: Our systematic review identified 22 eligible studies, with 15 supporting a gene-environment interaction. Carriers of GSTM1/T1 null and GSTP1 val genotypes were more susceptible to indoor air pollution exposures, having a higher risk of asthma and lung function deficits...
March 20, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Katerina M Antoniou, Konstantinos Karagiannis, Eliza Tsitoura, Eleni Bibaki, Ismini Lasithiotaki, Athanasia Proklou, Demetrios A Spandidos, Nikos Tzanakis
Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that have the ability to modulate immune response to tissue injury and promote repair in vivo . The therapeutic potential of ex vivo expanded MSCs are currently under investigation for a variety of chronic and acute lung diseases. This review summarizes the encouraging results regarding the safety of MSCs administration from recent and current clinical trials for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Cheng Fu, Jie Luo, Shaotang Ye, Ziguo Yuan, Shoujun Li
Avian-like H5N1 canine influenza virus (CIV) causes severe respiratory infections in dogs. However, the mechanism underlying H5N1 CIV infection in dogs is unknown. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs in the lungs and trachea in H5N1 CIV-infected dogs through a next-generation sequencing-based method. Eighteen 40-day-old beagles were inoculated intranasally with CIV, A/canine/01/Guangdong/2013 (H5N1) at a tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50 ) of 106 , and lung and tracheal tissues were harvested at 3 and 7 d post-inoculation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tariq A Bhat, Suresh Gopi Kalathil, Paul N Bogner, Austin Miller, Paul V Lehmann, Thomas H Thatcher, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime, Yasmin Thanavala
Despite advocacy to reduce smoking-related diseases, >1 billion people worldwide continue to smoke. Smoking is immunosuppressive and an important etiological factor in the development of several human disorders including respiratory diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, there is a critical gap in the knowledge of the role of secondhand smoke (SHS) in inflammation and immunity. We therefore studied the influence of SHS on pulmonary inflammation and immune responses to respiratory infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) recurrently found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Risa Inagawa, Hideshi Okada, Genzou Takemura, Kodai Suzuki, Chihiro Takada, Hirohisa Yano, Yoshiaki Ando, Takahiro Usui, Yasuaki Hotta, Nagisa Miyazaki, Akiko Tsujimoto, Ryogen Zaikokuji, Atsumu Matsumoto, Tomonori Kawaguchi, Tomoaki Doi, Takahiro Yoshida, Shozo Yoshida, Keisuke Kumada, Hiroaki Ushikoshi, Izumi Toyoda, Shinji Ogura
BACKGROUND: The most recent diagnostic criteria for sepsis includes organ failure. Microvascular endothelial injury is thought to lead to the multiple organ failure seen in sepsis, although the precise mechanism is still controversial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the primary complication during the sequential development of multiple organ dysfunction in sepsis, and endothelial injury is deeply involved. Sugar-protein glycocalyx coats all healthy vascular endothelium, and its disruption is one factor thought to contribute to microvascular endothelial dysfunction during sepsis...
March 16, 2018: Chest
Omar Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi, Nour Al-Sawalha, Mohammad Bani Ahmad, Alan Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
PURPOSE: Acute exposure of experimental animals to waterpipe tobacco smoke has been shown to induce lung inflammation and injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic exposure to waterpipe smoke on inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in the mouse lung. METHOD: Using a whole-body exposure system, animals were exposed to waterpipe smoke for 6 weeks with a one-hour daily exposure for 5 days a week. RESULTS: Exposure to waterpipe tobacco smoke induced the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the airway...
March 16, 2018: Life Sciences
Graciela Rodríguez-Sevilla, Marta García-Coca, David Romera-García, John Jairo Aguilera-Correa, Ignacio Mahíllo-Fernández, Jaime Esteban, Concepción Pérez-Jorge
Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by the progressive colonization of the respiratory tract by different bacteria, which develop polymicrobial biofilms. In the past decades, there has been an increase in the number of CF patients infected with Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM). Although Mycobacterium abscessus is the main NTM isolated globally, little is known about M. abscessus multispecies biofilm formation. In the present study we developed an in vitro model to study the phenotypic characteristics of biofilms formed by M...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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