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Epilepsy cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166136/the-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-b-receptor-gabab-encephalitis-clinical-manifestations-and-response-to-immunotherapy
#1
Junzhao Cui, Hui Bu, Junying He, Zeyan Zhao, Weixin Han, Ruiping Gao, Xiaoqing Li, Qing Li, Xiaosu Guo, Yueli Zou
PURPOSE: We report 11 patients diagnosed with GABAB receptor (GABABR) antibodies encephalitis in China and aim to analyse the clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging findings, therapeutic modalities and outcomes. METHODS: Clinical data from patients diagnosed with anti-GABAB receptor encephalitis in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University from February 2016 to October 2016 January were retrospectively collected and evaluated. RESULTS: Seven of the eleven patients were males, and a mean age at presentation of 63 years (range: 47-79 years)...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159962/expression-profile-of-n-cadherin-and-protocadherin-19-in-postnatal-mouse-limbic-structures
#2
Anne Schaarschuch, Nicole Hertel
Cadherins are a superfamily of calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules that are involved in brain development and organization. Previous genetic studies revealed that mutations in protocadherin-19 (Pcdh19) lead to an epilepsy syndrome with a variable degree of cognitive disability. Seizure origins are located in the frontotemporal and limbic structures. Expression studies of Pcdh19 in mouse confirmed a widespread presence during brain development while the function and the pathogenesis of Pcdh19 are still unknown in mammals...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152735/6%C3%A2-hz-corneal-kindling-in-mice-triggers-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-accompanied-by-relevant-changes-in-c-fos-immunoreactivity-throughout-the-brain
#3
Giulia Albertini, Laura Walrave, Thomas Demuyser, Ann Massie, Dimitri De Bundel, Ilse Smolders
OBJECTIVE: Besides seizures, patients with epilepsy are affected by a variety of cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities that further impair their quality of life. The present study provides an in-depth characterization of the behavioral alterations induced by 6 Hz corneal kindling. Furthermore, we correlate these behavioral changes to alterations in c-Fos protein expression throughout the brain following kindling. METHODS: Adolescent male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice were kindled via repetitive subconvulsive 6 Hz corneal stimulations until they reached the fully kindled state (defined as 10 consecutive generalized seizures)...
November 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152685/cerebral-palsy-an-overview
#4
REVIEW
Sheffali Gulati, Vishal Sondhi
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormalities of muscle tone, movement and motor skills, and is attributed to injury to the developing brain. The clinical features of this entity evolve over time and the specific CP syndrome may be recognizable only after 3-5 y of age; although suggestive signs and symptoms may be present at an earlier age. The management involves neurological rehabilitation (addressing muscle tonal abnormalities, and devising physical and occupational therapies) and diagnosis and management of co-morbidities (including epilepsy, impairment of cognition, vision, hearing, and disturbances of growth and gastrointestinal function)...
November 20, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145183/catastrophe-reaction-and-emotionalism
#5
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
The catastrophic reaction (CR; a disruptive and uncontrolled behavior triggered by anger, irritability, and hostility) and emotionalism (a condition of uncontrolled crying or laughing) are disorders of the emotional regulation and expression, the prevalence of which is underestimated in neurology. Their occurrence is an additional factor of poor outcome for neurologic patients. Although they have been recognized and completely described in their clinical manifestations more than a century ago, many issues remain unsolved regarding their pathogenesis and the respective role of the brain damage and psychological factors...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138358/epileptic-pilocarpine-treated-rats-exhibit-aberrant-hippocampal-epsp-spike-potentiation-but-retain-long-term-potentiation
#6
Ezekiel Carpenter-Hyland, Edyta K Bichler, Mathew Smith, Robert S Sloviter, Morris Benveniste
Hippocampal neuron plasticity is strongly associated with learning, memory, and cognition. In addition to modification of synaptic function and connectivity, the capacity of hippocampal neurons to undergo plasticity involves the ability to change nonsynaptic excitability. This includes altering the probability that EPSPs will generate action potentials (E-S plasticity). Epilepsy is a prevalent neurological disorder commonly associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and cognitive dysfunction. We examined E-S plasticity in chronically epileptic Sprague-Dawley rats 3-10 weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices were assayed by whole-cell current clamp to measure EPSPs evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130289/development-and-pilot-testing-of-a-parent-reported-health-related-quality-of-life-measure-for-children-on-the-ketogenic-diet-the-ketoqol
#7
Katie Barwick, Tamara Parker, Nicole Murphy, Alwyn Todd, Michael Leveritt, Shelley A Wilkinson
AIM: The aim of the present study was to develop a parent-reported tool that will measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children following ketogenic diet (KD) therapies for refractory epilepsy once it has been pilot tested and analysed. METHODS: Parents of children following KD therapies for epilepsy were recruited through a public hospital in Queensland, Australia, in 2012 and 2014. Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted in 2012 with 13 parents who described changes seen in their child's HRQoL while on the KD...
November 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126702/delay-in-pediatric-epilepsy-surgery-a-caregiver-s-perspective
#8
Alice Shen, Kara T Quaid, Brenda E Porter
The timing of epilepsy surgery is complex, and there is not a structured pathway to help families decide whether to continue medical management or pursue surgical treatment. We surveyed caregivers of pediatric epilepsy surgery patients. Fifty-eight respondents answered the majority of questions. Thirty caregivers wished their child had undergone epilepsy surgery earlier compared with twenty who felt surgery was done at the appropriate time, and eight were unsure. In retrospect, caregivers who wished their child's surgery had been performed sooner had a significantly longer duration of epilepsy prior to the surgery [44...
November 7, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118714/advances-in-roles-of-mir-132-in-the-nervous-system
#9
REVIEW
Yun Qian, Jialin Song, Yuanming Ouyang, Qixin Han, Wei Chen, Xiaotian Zhao, Yangmei Xie, Yinghui Chen, Weien Yuan, Cunyi Fan
miR-132 is an endogenous small RNA and controls post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression via controlled degradation of mRNA or transcription inhibition. In the nervous system, miR-132 is significant for regulating neuronal differentiation, maturation and functioning, and widely participates in axon growth, neural migration, and plasticity. The miR-132 is affected by factors like mRNA expression, functional redundancy, and signaling cascades. It targets multiple downstream molecules to influence physiological and pathological neuronal activities...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117924/red-flags-in-epilepsy-surgery-identifying-the-patients-who-pay-a-high-cognitive-price-for-an-unsuccessful-surgical-outcome
#10
Sallie Baxendale, Pamela Thompson
Preoperative estimates of cognitive and seizure outcome must be as accurate as possible if the candidate is to make an informed decision about epilepsy surgery. Significant declines in memory function are reported in approximately 30% of temporal lobe surgery patients. The percentage varies according to the ways in which a postoperative deterioration is defined but since the majority of outcome studies do not take into account the patient's capacity to deteriorate if they are functioning at or close to the floor of a memory test prior to surgery, the published percentages may be an underrepresentation of the true extent of memory decline following epilepsy surgery...
November 5, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116720/the-croatian-model-of-integrative-prospective-management-of-epilepsy-and-pregnancy
#11
Snježana Miškov, Romana Gjergja Juraški, Ivan Mikula, Silvio Bašić, Marija Bošnjak Pašić, Vesna Košec, Zlatko Sabol, Aleksandra Fučić, Tomislav Sajko, Vanja Bašić Kes
Epilepsy is the most common neurological complication in pregnancy. Women with epilepsy have a higher risk of complications in pregnancy. In Croatia, women with epilepsy are treated by neurologists at tertiary centers according to the place of residence. We prospectively followed-up pregnancies in women with epilepsy and healthy controls, and analyzed the factors responsible for their delivery outcomes and development of their babies. Healthy pregnant women had a higher level of education and economic status, but pregnant women with epilepsy took folic acid in a higher proportion than controls, possibly due to timely preconception counseling...
December 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111092/quantitative-neuroimaging-in-mucopolysaccharidoses-clinical-trials
#12
REVIEW
Igor Nestrasil, Leonardo Vedolin
The mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) disorders are rare lysosomal storage disorders caused by mutations in lysosomal enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degradation. The resulting intracellular accumulation of GAGs leads to widespread tissue and organ dysfunction. In addition to somatic signs and symptoms, patients with MPS can present with neurological manifestations such as cognitive decline, behavioral problems (e.g. hyperactivity and aggressiveness), sleep disturbances, and/or epilepsy. These are associated with significant abnormalities of the central nervous system (CNS), including white and gray matter lesions, brain atrophy, ventriculomegaly, and spinal cord compression...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108712/cognitive-functioning-in-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-its-relation-to-motor-function-communication-and-epilepsy
#13
Júlia Ballester-Plané, Olga Laporta-Hoyos, Alfons Macaya, Pilar Póo, Mar Meléndez-Plumed, Esther Toro-Tamargo, Francisca Gimeno, Ana Narberhaus, Dolors Segarra, Roser Pueyo
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of motor function often accompanied by cognitive impairment. There is a paucity of research focused on cognition in dyskinetic CP and on the potential effect of related factors. AIM: To describe the cognitive profile in dyskinetic CP and to assess its relationship with motor function and associated impairments. METHOD: Fifty-two subjects with dyskinetic CP (28 males, mean age 24 y 10 mo, SD 13 y) and 52 typically-developing controls (age- and gender-matched) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment...
October 24, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107831/behavioral-changes-in-models-of-chemoconvulsant-induced-epilepsy-a-review
#14
REVIEW
B Minjarez, H O Camarena, J Haramati, Y Rodríguez-Yañez, S Mena-Munguía, J Buriticá, O García-Leal
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in the general population and affects over 50 million people worldwide. Epilepsy is characterized by the presence of spontaneous recurrent seizures as a result of sudden and abnormal electrical activity in specific areas of the cerebral cortex. However, this condition encompasses much more than simply the presence of seizures. Cognitive problems and behavioral impairments are also frequent actors, as well as mood disorders. These must be precisely described in order to develop more successful pharmacological, or even behavioral, treatments...
October 28, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106684/frontal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery-in-childhood-and-adolescence-predictors-of-long-term-seizure-freedom-overall-cognitive-and-adaptive-functioning
#15
Georgia Ramantani, Navah Ester Kadish, Hans Mayer, Constantin Anastasopoulos, Kathrin Wagner, Gitta Reuner, Karl Strobl, Susanne Schubert-Bast, Gert Wiegand, Armin Brandt, Rudolf Korinthenberg, Irina Mader, Vera van Velthoven, Josef Zentner, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Thomas Bast
BACKGROUND: Although frontal lobe resections account for one-third of intralobar resections in pediatric epilepsy surgery, there is a dearth of information regarding long-term seizure freedom, overall cognitive and adaptive functioning. OBJECTIVE: To identify outcome predictors and define the appropriate timing for surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 75 consecutive patients aged 10.0 ± 4.9 yr at surgery that had an 8...
July 5, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105073/methodological-standards-and-interpretation-of-video-electroencephalography-in-adult-control-rodents-a%C3%A2-task1-wg1-report-of-the-aes-ilae-translational-task%C3%A2-force-of-the-ilae
#16
Shilpa D Kadam, Raimondo D'Ambrosio, Venceslas Duveau, Corinne Roucard, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Akio Ikeda, Marco de Curtis, Aristea S Galanopoulou, Kevin M Kelly
In vivo electrophysiological recordings are widely used in neuroscience research, and video-electroencephalography (vEEG) has become a mainstay of preclinical neuroscience research, including studies of epilepsy and cognition. Studies utilizing vEEG typically involve comparison of measurements obtained from different experimental groups, or from the same experimental group at different times, in which one set of measurements serves as "control" and the others as "test" of the variables of interest. Thus, controls provide mainly a reference measurement for the experimental test...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105071/identification-and-characterization-of-outcome-measures-reported-in-animal-models-of-epilepsy-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-a-task2-report-of-the-aes-ilae-translational-task-force-of-the-ilae
#17
Michele Simonato, Sloka Iyengar, Amy Brooks-Kayal, Stephen Collins, Antoine Depaulis, David W Howells, Frances Jensen, Jing Liao, Malcolm R Macleod, Manisha Patel, Heidrun Potschka, Matthew Walker, Vicky Whittemore, Emily S Sena
Current antiseizure therapy is ineffective in approximately one third of people with epilepsy and is often associated with substantial side effects. In addition, most current therapeutic paradigms offer treatment, but not cure, and no therapies are able to modify the underlying disease, that is, can prevent or halt the process of epileptogenesis or alleviate the cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities. Preclinical research in the field of epilepsy has been extensive, but unfortunately, not all the animal models being used have been validated for their predictive value...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103838/cognitive-and-behavioral-comorbidities-in-rolandic-epilepsy-and-their-relation-with-default-mode-network-s-functional-connectivity-and-organization
#18
Isabell Ofer, Julia Jacobs, Nathalie Jaiser, Burak Akin, Jürgen Hennig, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Pierre LeVan
OBJECTIVE: Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is characterized by typical interictal-electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns mainly localized in centrotemporal and parietooccipital areas. An aberrant intrinsic organization of the default mode network (DMN) due to repeated disturbances from spike-generating areas may be able to account for specific cognitive deficits and behavioral problems in RE. The aim of the present study was to investigate cognitive development (CD) and socioemotional development (SED) in patients with RE during active disease in relation to DMN connectivity and network topology...
November 2, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103423/autoimmune-epilepsies
#19
Anusha K Yeshokumar, Carlos A Pardo
Autoimmune epilepsies describe clinical syndromes wherein the immune system is suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis of seizures or as a mechanism for neuronal injury following seizures. These diseases typically affect otherwise healthy children and are characterized by explosive onset of focal seizures, encephalopathy, cognitive deterioration, or other focal neurological deficits, or all of these. Traditional neurological diagnostics lack sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsies, and results must be considered in the clinical context...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099058/diverse-effects-of-an-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-donepezil-on-hippocampal-neuronal-death-after-pilocarpine-induced-seizure
#20
Jeong Hyun Jeong, Bo Young Choi, A Ra Kho, Song Hee Lee, Dae Ki Hong, Sang Hwon Lee, Sang Yup Lee, Hong Ki Song, Hui Chul Choi, Sang Won Suh
Epileptic seizures are short episodes of abnormal brain electrical activity. Many survivors of severe epilepsy display delayed neuronal death and permanent cognitive impairment. Donepezil is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and is an effective treatment agent for Alzheimer's disease. However, the role of donepezil in seizure-induced hippocampal injury remains untested. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was induced by intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (25 mg/kg). Donepezil (2.5 mg/kg/day) was administered by gavage in three different settings: (1) pretreatment for three days before the seizure; (2) for one week immediately after the seizure; and (3) for three weeks from three weeks after the seizure...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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