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Endo barrier

Midori Futami, Tomoki Nakano, Mayu Yasunaga, Masahiro Makihara, Takashi Asama, Yoshihisa Hagihara, Yoshihiro Nakajima, Junichiro Futami
The intracellular delivery of functionally active transcription factor proteins is emerging as a promising technique for artificial regulation of cellular functions. However, in addition to the cell membrane, which acts as a barrier to macromolecules, the aggregation-favored properties of structurally flexible transcription factor proteins limit the application of this method. In-cell folding technique can be used to overcome these issues. This technique solubilizes denatured protein by reversible alkyl-disulfide cationization (S-cationization), and simultaneously endows efficient intracellular delivery and folding to the biologically active conformation in the reducing environment of the cytosol...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Masakazu Nakajima, Yasuki Endo
Pure rotational transitions of the dimethyl-substituted Criegee intermediate (dimethyl carbonyl oxide, acetone oxide), (CH3)2COO, were observed in the discharge plasma of a C(CH3)2I2/O2 gas mixture by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. The observed spectra show small splittings due to the internal rotations of the two methyl groups. Precise rotational constants of the molecule and the barrier heights of the methyl internal rotations were experimentally determined.
December 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Carlos Cabezas, Jean-Claude Guillemin, Yasuki Endo
Ethyl-substituted Criegee intermediate, C2H5CHOO, has been generated in the discharged plasma of a 1,1-diiodopropane/O2 gas mixture and spectroscopically characterized by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in a pulsed supersonic jet. The comparison between the experimental rotational constants and those calculated ab initio unambiguously confirms the identification of three conformers, providing the definitive probe for their molecular structures. Some of the observed pure rotational transitions show small splittings corresponding to the A/E components due to the threefold methyl internal rotation, which made it possible to determine the barrier heights of the hindered methyl rotation...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Shuichi Yanai, Jun Toyohara, Kiichi Ishiwata, Hideki Ito, Shogo Endo
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which hydrolyze and inactivate 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), play an important role in synaptic plasticity that underlies memory. Recently, several PDE inhibitors were assessed for their possible therapeutic efficacy in treating cognitive disorders. Here, we examined how cilostazol, a selective PDE3 inhibitor, affects brain functions in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), an animal model of age-related cognitive impairment...
December 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Youzhi Miao, Pan Li, Guangqi Li, Dongyang Liu, Irina S Druzhinina, Christian P Kubicek, Qirong Shen, Ruifu Zhang
The recalcitrance of lignocellulose forms a strong barrier for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass in chemical or biofuel industries. Filamentous fungi are major plant biomass decomposer, and capable of forming all the required enzymes. Here, we characterized the GH10 and GH11 endo-xylanases and a CE1 acetyl-xylan esterase (Axe1) from a superior biomass-degrading strain, Aspergillus fumigatus Z5, and examined how they interact in xylan degradation. Cellulose-binding (CBM1) domain inhibited GH10 xylanase activities for pure xylan, but afforded them an ability to hydrolyze washed corncob particles (WCCP)...
November 23, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Kyungyeun Song, Giulia Russo, Michael Krauss
Septins constitute a family of GTP-binding proteins, which assemble into non-polar filaments in a nucleotide-dependent manner. These filaments can be recruited to negatively charged membrane surfaces. When associated with membranes septin filaments can act as diffusion barriers, which confine subdomains of distinct biological functions. In addition, they serve scaffolding roles by recruiting cytosolic proteins and other cytoskeletal elements. Septins have been implicated in a large variety of membrane-dependent processes, including cytokinesis, signaling, cell migration, and membrane traffic, and several family members have been implicated in disease...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Naoko Fujii, Yukinobu Matsuo, Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Satoshi Endo, Hideki Sakai, Masahiko Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro Yamazaki, Junko Sugatani, Akira Ikari
Hypotonic stress decreased claudin-1 and -2 expression levels in renal tubular epithelial HK-2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Here, we examined the regulatory mechanism involved in this decrease. The hypotonicity-induced decrease in claudin expression was inhibited by the following: SB202190, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, but not by U0126, a MEK inhibitor; Go6983, a protein kinase C inhibitor; or SP600125, a Jun N-terminal protein kinase inhibitor. Hypotonic stress increased transepithelial electrical resistance, which was inhibited by SB202190...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hiroki Tanigawa, Keishi Miyata, Zhe Tian, Jun Aoi, Tsuyoshi Kadomatsu, Satoshi Fukushima, Aki Ogata, Naoki Takeda, Jiabin Zhao, Shunshun Zhu, Kazutoyo Terada, Motoyoshi Endo, Jun Morinaga, Taichi Sugizaki, Michio Sato, Masaki Suimye Morioka, Ichiro Manabe, Youichi Mashimo, Akira Hata, Yoshitaka Taketomi, Kei Yamamoto, Makoto Murakami, Kimi Araki, Masatoshi Jinnin, Hironobu Ihn, Yuichi Oike
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease marked by aberrant tissue repair. Mutant mice modeling psoriasis skin characteristics have provided useful information relevant to molecular mechanisms and could serve to evaluate therapeutic strategies. Here, we found that epidermal ANGPTL6 expression was markedly induced during tissue repair in mice. Analysis of mice overexpressing ANGPTL6 in keratinocytes (K14-Angptl6 Tg mice) revealed that epidermal ANGPTL6 activity promotes aberrant epidermal barrier function due to hyperproliferation of prematurely differentiated keratinocytes...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Takatsugu Endo, Shinpei Hoshino, Yuichi Shimizu, Kozo Fujii, Keiko Nishikawa
The flexibility and conformational variety of the butyl group in cations of ionic liquids (ILs) play an important role in dictating the macroscopic and microscopic properties of ILs. Here we calculate potential energy surfaces for the dihedral angles of the butyl group in four different types of cyclic cations, imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, and piperidinium, using the density functional theory method. The calculation results highlight the role of the butyl group in these cations by comparison of five-membered and six-membered rings, and of aromatic and alicyclic rings, in terms of stable conformations and rotational barriers...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Yago García-Rodeja, Israel Fernández
The factors controlling the reactivity and endo/exo selectivity of the Diels-Alder reactions involving 1,2-azaborines have been computationally explored within the density functional theory framework. It is found that the AlCl3-catalyzed [4 + 2]-cycloaddition reaction between these dienes and N-methylmaleimide proceeds concertedly and leads almost exclusively to the corresponding endo cycloadduct, which is in good agreement with previous experimental observations. In addition, the effect of the substituent directly attached to the boron atom of the 1,2-azaborine on the process is also analyzed in detail...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
R Lassnig, B Striedinger, A O F Jones, B Scherwitzl, A Fian, E D Głowacl, B Stadlober, A Winkler
We report on in situ performance evaluations as a function of layer thickness and substrate temperature for bottom-gate, bottom-gold contact epindolidione organic thin-film transistors on various gate dielectrics. Experiments were carried out under ultra-high vacuum conditions, enabling quasi-simultaneous electrical and surface analysis. Auger electron spectroscopy and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) were applied to characterize the quality of the substrate surface and the thermal stability of the organic films...
August 2016: Synthetic Metals
Mengistu Gemech Menkir, Shyi-Long Lee
The mechanism and regioselectivity of the intramolecular hydroarylation of phenyl propargyl ether catalyzed by indium in gas and solvent phases were investigated by means of the density functional theory method. The computed results revealed that the reaction proceeds through initial π-coordination of the propargyl moiety to the catalyst, which triggers the nucleophilic attack of the phenyl ring via an exo- or endo-dig pathway in a Friedel-Crafts type mechanism. Calculation results obtained employing InI2(+) as the possible catalyst show similar activation energies for the 5-exo-dig and 6-endo-dig pathways...
July 6, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Zhao-Wan Yang, Yan-Hua Jiang, Chuang Ma, Guido Silvestri, Steven E Bosinger, Bai-Lian Li, Ambrose Jong, Yan-Hong Zhou, Sheng-He Huang
To explore the differences between the extreme SIV infection phenotypes, nonprogression (BEN: benign) to AIDS in sooty mangabeys (SMs) and progression to AIDS (MAL: malignant) in rhesus macaques (RMs), we performed an integrated dual positive-negative connectivity (DPNC) analysis of gene coexpression networks (GCN) based on publicly available big data sets in the GEO database of NCBI. The microarray-based gene expression data sets were generated, respectively, from the peripheral blood of SMs and RMs at several time points of SIV infection...
2016: PloS One
M Fischer, E Schmutzhard
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome refers to a neurological disorder characterized by headache, disorders of consciousness, visual disturbances, epileptic seizures, and subcortical vasogenic edema. About two thirds of patients develop neurological symptoms, which are associated with blood pressure fluctuations. One hypothesis is that hypertensive episodes cause autoregulatory failure, and values above the upper limit of cerebral autoregulation result in a breakthrough followed by hyperperfusion and blood-brain barrier dysfunction...
June 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Andrew J Clark, Dennis P Curran, David J Fox, Franco Ghelfi, Collette S Guy, Benjamin Hay, Natalie James, Jessica M Phillips, Fabrizio Roncaglia, Philip B Sellars, Paul Wilson, Hanmo Zhang
The barrier to rotation around the N-alkenyl bond of 38 N-alkenyl-N-alkylacetamide derivatives was measured (ΔG(⧧) rotation varied between <8.0 and 31.0 kcal mol(-1)). The most important factor in controlling the rate of rotation was the level of alkene substitution, followed by the size of the nitrogen substituent and, finally, the size of the acyl substituent. Tertiary enamides with four alkenyl substituents exhibited half-lives for rotation between 5.5 days and 99 years at 298 K, sufficient to isolate enantiomerically enriched atropisomers...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Yoko Endo-Takahashi, Kotomi Ooaku, Kazuma Ishida, Ryo Suzuki, Kazuo Maruyama, Yoichi Negishi
In the development of therapeutic approaches for central nervous system diseases, a significant obstacle is efficient drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier owing to its low permeability. Various nanocarriers have been developed for brain-targeted drug delivery by modification with specific ligands. We have previously developed polyethylene glycol-modified liposomes (Bubble liposomes [BLs]) that entrap ultrasound (US) contrast gas and can serve as both plasmid DNA or small interfering RNA carriers and US contrast agents...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Qian Jiang, Dong Yue, Yu Nie, Xianghui Xu, Yiyan He, Shiyong Zhang, Ernst Wagner, Zhongwei Gu
Cationic lipid based assemblies provide a promising platform for effective gene condensation into nanosized particles, and the peripheral properties of the assemblies are vital for complexation and interaction with physical barriers. Here, we report three cationic twin head lipids, and each of them contains a dioleoyl-glutamate hydrophobic tail and a twin polar head of lysine, arginine, or histidine. Such lipids were proven to self-assemble in aqueous solution with well-defined nanostructures and residual amino-, guanidine-, or imidazole-rich periphery, showing strong buffering capacity and good liquidity...
May 12, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Takuya Ishitsuka, Yasuhiro Okuda, Robert K Szilagyi, Seiji Mori, Yasushi Nishihara
Potential energy surface mapping was completed for the entire catalytic cycle of palladium-catalysed cyanoesterification onto norbornene (NBE) using density functional theory calculations. We found that after the oxidative addition step of the reagent methyl cyanoformate, the reaction proceeds through an insertion of olefin into a Pd(II)-COOMe bond first. Subsequently, reductive elimination occurs by transferring the cyanide group from the Pd center to NBE. This rearrangement is triggered by the rotation of the ester group into a π-interaction with the Pd(II) centre...
May 4, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Aya Narita, Kentarou Shirai, Shinji Itamura, Atsue Matsuda, Akiko Ishihara, Kumi Matsushita, Chisako Fukuda, Norika Kubota, Rumiko Takayama, Hideo Shigematsu, Anri Hayashi, Tomohiro Kumada, Kotaro Yuge, Yoriko Watanabe, Saori Kosugi, Hiroshi Nishida, Yukiko Kimura, Yusuke Endo, Katsumi Higaki, Eiji Nanba, Yoko Nishimura, Akiko Tamasaki, Masami Togawa, Yoshiaki Saito, Yoshihiro Maegaki, Kousaku Ohno, Yoshiyuki Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase. Although enzyme-replacement and substrate-reduction therapies are available, their efficacies in treating the neurological manifestations of GD are negligible. Pharmacological chaperone therapy is hypothesized to offer a new strategy for treating the neurological manifestations of this disease. Specifically, ambroxol, a commonly used expectorant, has been proposed as a candidate pharmacological chaperone...
March 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Nijia Song, Lijuan Zhou, Jiehua Li, Zhicheng Pan, Xueling He, Hong Tan, Xinyuan Wan, Jianshu Li, Rong Ran, Qiang Fu
A multifunctional drug delivery system (DDS) for cancer therapy still faces great challenges due to multiple physiological barriers encountered in vivo. To increase the efficacy of current cancer treatment a new anticancer DDS mimicking the response of nonenveloped viruses, triggered by acidic pH to escape endo-lysosomes, is developed. Such a smart DDS is self-assembled from biodegradable pH-sensitive polyurethane containing hydrazone bonds in the backbone, named pHPM. The pHPM exhibits excellent micellization characteristics and high loading capacity for hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs...
April 14, 2016: Nanoscale
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