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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605408/casparian-bands-and-suberin-lamellae-in-exodermis-of-lateral-roots-an-important-trait-of-roots-system-response-to-abiotic-stress-factors
#1
Edita Tylová, Eva Pecková, Zuzana Blascheová, Aleš Soukup
Background and Aims: Root absorptive characteristics rely on the presence of apoplastic barriers. However, little is known about the establishment of these barriers within a complex root system, particularly in a major portion of them - the lateral roots. In Zea mays L., the exodermis differentiates under the influence of growth conditions. Therefore, the species presents a suitable model to elucidate the cross-talk among environmental conditions, branching pattern and the maturation of barriers within a complex root system involved in the definition of the plant-soil interface...
June 12, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593693/double-gold-activation-of-1-ethynyl-2-phenylethynyl-benzene-toward-5-exo-dig-and-6-endo-dig-cyclization-reactions
#2
Nery Villegas-Escobara, Mie Hojer Vilhelmsen, Soledad Gutierrez-Oliva, A Stephen K Hashmi, Alejandro Toro-Labbé
In this work, a detailed characterization of the ring closure mechanism of EPB (1-ethynyl-2-(phenylethynyl)benzene) toward the 5-exo-dig and 6-endo-dig cyclization reactions catalyzed by two Au-NHC moieties was carried out. It was found that the 5-exo-dig cyclization takes place with a slightly lower activation barrier and larger exothermicity compared to that of the 6-endo-dig cyclization, in Agreement with the available experimental data. A phenomenological partition (structural and electronic) for rate constants computed using transition state theory and the reaction force analysis was used to shed light into the nature of the activation rate constant...
June 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577093/structure-of-rat-lungs-after-administration-of-magnetomicelles-based-on-the-carbon-coated-iron-nanoparticles
#3
G Yu Vasyukov, I V Sukhodolo, I V Mil'to, I V Mitrofanova
We studied the effects of single administration of a suspension of magnetomicelles based on carbon-coated iron nanoparticles on the structure of rat lungs within 40 days. Histological analysis revealed a complex of hemodynamic alterations in the lungs. Described changes persisted in the lung stroma from day 1 until day 40, but their intensity decreased by the end of the experiment. Using immunohistochemical Perls reaction we identified cells morphologically corresponding to alveolar and interstitial lung macrophages...
June 2, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471652/low-temperature-synthesis-of-heterostructures-of-transition-metal-dichalcogenide-alloys-wxmo1-xs2-and-graphene-with-superior-catalytic-performance-for-hydrogen-evolution
#4
Yu Lei, Srimanta Pakhira, Kazunori Fujisawa, Xuyang Wang, Oluwagbenga Oare Iyiola, Néstor Perea López, Ana Laura Elías, Lakshmy Pulickal Rajukumar, Chanjing Zhou, Bernd Kabius, Nasim Alem, Morinobu Endo, Ruitao Lv, Jose L Mendoza-Cortes, Mauricio Terrones
Large-area (∼cm(2)) films of vertical heterostructures formed by alternating graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) alloys are obtained by wet chemical routes followed by a thermal treatment at low temperature. In particular, we synthesized stacked graphene and WxMo1-xS2 alloy phases that were used as hydrogen evolution catalysts. We observed a Tafel slope of 38.7 mV dec(-1) and 96 mV onset potential (at current density of 10 mA cm(-2)) when the heterostructure alloy was annealed at 300 °C. These results indicate that heterostructures formed by graphene and W0...
May 12, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418277/geographical-variation-in-the-skeletal-morphology-of-red-jungle-fowl
#5
H Endo, N Tsunekawa, M Sonoe, T Sasaki, H Ogawa, T Amano, N T Son, V Phimphachanhvongsod, K Kudo, T Yonezawa, F Akishinonomiya
1. The skulls and postcranial skeletons of the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) were compared osteometrically between the populations from North and South Vietnam, North and Central Laos and Southeast Bangladesh. The populations include the three subspecies of G. g. spadiceus, G. g. gallus and G. g. murghi and were sampled to reveal the geographical morphological variations among populations in G. gallus. 2. The morphometric characteristics of subspecies murghi could be clearly distinguished from those of the other subspecies using a canonical discriminant analysis...
April 18, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389479/characterization-of-drosophila-saposin-related-mutants-as-a-model-for-lysosomal-sphingolipid-storage-diseases
#6
Julia Sellin, Heike Schulze, Marie Paradis, Dominic Gosejacob, Cyrus Papan, Andrej Shevchenko, Olympia Ekaterina Psathaki, Achim Paululat, Melanie Thielisch, Konrad Sandhoff, Michael Hoch
Sphingolipidoses are inherited diseases belonging to the class of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), which are characterized by the accumulation of indigestible material in the lysosome caused by specific defects in the lysosomal degradation machinery. While some LSDs can be efficiently treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), this is not possible if the nervous system is affected due to the presence of the blood brain barrier. Sphingolipidoses in particular often present as severe, untreatable forms of LSDs with massive sphingolipid and membrane accumulation in lysosomes, neurodegeneration, and very short life expectancy...
April 7, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363126/interaction-between-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio-organic-cation-transporter-1-oct1-and-endo-and-xenobiotics
#7
Ivan Mihaljević, Marta Popović, Roko Žaja, Nikola Maraković, Goran Šinko, Tvrtko Smital
Organic cation transporters (OCTs) serve as uptake transporters of numerous endo- and xenobiotics. They have been in the focus of medical toxicological research for more than a decade due to their key role in absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion due to their expression on basolateral membranes of various barrier tissues. OCTs belong to the SLC22A family within the SLC (Solute carrier) protein superfamily, with three co-orthologs identified in humans (OCT1, 2 and 3), and two Oct orthologs in zebrafish (Oct1 and Oct2)...
June 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359811/delivery-of-doxorubicin-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-into-u87-human-glioblastoma-cells
#8
Yulia Malinovskaya, Pavel Melnikov, Vladimir Baklaushev, Anna Gabashvili, Nadezhda Osipova, Sergey Mantrov, Yulia Ermolenko, Olga Maksimenko, Marina Gorshkova, Vadim Balabanyan, Jörg Kreuter, Svetlana Gelperina
The paramount problem in the therapy of brain tumors is the inability of most drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier. PLGA nanoparticles overcoated with poloxamer 188 could overcome this problem and enabled a high anti-tumoral effect against the very aggressive intracranial 101.8 glioblastoma in rats that closely resembles human grade IV glioblastomas. The basis for the transport of these particles across the blood-brain barrier appears to be adsorption of blood apolipoproteins (ApoE or ApoA-I) on the nanoparticle surface caused by the poloxamer 188-coating, followed by receptor-mediated transcytosis of the nanoparticles...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337939/bidirectional-apical-basal-traffic-of-the-cation-independent-mannose-6-phosphate-receptor-in-brain-endothelial-cells
#9
Piotr Siupka, Maria Ns Hersom, Karin Lykke-Hartmann, Kasper B Johnsen, Louiza B Thomsen, Thomas L Andresen, Torben Moos, N Joan Abbott, Birger Brodin, Morten S Nielsen
Brain capillary endothelium mediates the exchange of nutrients between blood and brain parenchyma. This barrier function of the brain capillaries also limits passage of pharmaceuticals from blood to brain, which hinders treatment of several neurological disorders. Receptor-mediated transport has been suggested as a potential pharmaceutical delivery route across the brain endothelium, e.g. reports have shown that the transferrin receptor (TfR) facilitates transcytosis of TfR antibodies, but it is not known whether this recycling receptor itself traffics from apical to basal membrane in the process...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247160/convection-enhanced-delivery-of-a-hydrophilic-nitrosourea-ameliorates-deficits-and-suppresses-tumor-growth-in-experimental-spinal-cord-glioma-models
#10
Shogo Ogita, Toshiki Endo, Shinichiro Sugiyama, Ryuta Saito, Tomoo Inoue, Akira Sumiyoshi, Hiroi Nonaka, Ryuta Kawashima, Yukihiko Sonoda, Teiji Tominaga
BACKGROUND: Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a technique allowing local infusion of therapeutic agents into the central nervous system, circumventing the blood-brain or spinal cord barrier. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of nimustine hydrochloride (ACNU) CED in controlling tumor progression in an experimental spinal cord glioma model. METHODS: Toxicity studies were performed in 42 rats following the administration of 4 μl of ACNU CED into the mid-thoracic spinal cord at concentrations ranging from 0...
May 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247028/localization-and-pneumococcal-alteration-of-junction-proteins-in-the-human-alveolar-capillary-compartment
#11
Andrea Peter, Diana Fatykhova, Olivia Kershaw, Achim D Gruber, Jens Rueckert, Jens Neudecker, Mario Toennies, Torsten T Bauer, Paul Schneider, Maria Schimek, Stephan Eggeling, Norbert Suttorp, Andreas C Hocke, Stefan Hippenstiel
Loss of alveolar barrier function with subsequent respiratory failure is a hallmark of severe pneumonia. Although junctions between endo- and epithelial cells regulate paracellular fluid flux, little is known about their composition and regulation in the human alveolar compartment. High autofluorescence of human lung tissue in particular complicates the determination of subcellular protein localization. By comparing conventional channel mode confocal imaging with spectral imaging and linear unmixing, we demonstrate that background fluorescent spectra and fluorophore signals could be rigorously separated resulting in complete recovery of the specific signal at a high signal-to-noise ratio...
March 1, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110958/enhanced-in-cell-folding-of-reversibly-cationized-transcription-factor-using-amphipathic-peptide
#12
Midori Futami, Tomoki Nakano, Mayu Yasunaga, Masahiro Makihara, Takashi Asama, Yoshihisa Hagihara, Yoshihiro Nakajima, Junichiro Futami
The intracellular delivery of functionally active transcription factor proteins is emerging as a promising technique for artificial regulation of cellular functions. However, in addition to the cell membrane, which acts as a barrier to macromolecules, the aggregation-favored properties of structurally flexible transcription factor proteins limit the application of this method. In-cell folding technique can be used to overcome these issues. This technique solubilizes denatured protein by reversible alkyl-disulfide cationization (S-cationization), and simultaneously endows efficient intracellular delivery and folding to the biologically active conformation in the reducing environment of the cytosol...
April 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049337/fourier-transform-microwave-spectroscopy-of-dimethyl-substituted-criegee-intermediate-ch3-2coo
#13
Masakazu Nakajima, Yasuki Endo
Pure rotational transitions of the dimethyl-substituted Criegee intermediate (dimethyl carbonyl oxide, acetone oxide), (CH3)2COO, were observed in the discharge plasma of a C(CH3)2I2/O2 gas mixture by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. The observed spectra show small splittings due to the internal rotations of the two methyl groups. Precise rotational constants of the molecule and the barrier heights of the methyl internal rotations were experimentally determined.
December 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984907/conformational-analysis-of-ethyl-substituted-criegee-intermediate-by-ftmw-spectroscopy
#14
Carlos Cabezas, Jean-Claude Guillemin, Yasuki Endo
Ethyl-substituted Criegee intermediate, C2H5CHOO, has been generated in the discharged plasma of a 1,1-diiodopropane/O2 gas mixture and spectroscopically characterized by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in a pulsed supersonic jet. The comparison between the experimental rotational constants and those calculated ab initio unambiguously confirms the identification of three conformers, providing the definitive probe for their molecular structures. Some of the observed pure rotational transitions show small splittings corresponding to the A/E components due to the threefold methyl internal rotation, which made it possible to determine the barrier heights of the hindered methyl rotation...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979612/long-term-cilostazol-administration-ameliorates-memory-decline-in-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8-samp8-through-a-dual-effect-on-camp-and-blood-brain-barrier
#15
Shuichi Yanai, Jun Toyohara, Kiichi Ishiwata, Hideki Ito, Shogo Endo
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which hydrolyze and inactivate 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), play an important role in synaptic plasticity that underlies memory. Recently, several PDE inhibitors were assessed for their possible therapeutic efficacy in treating cognitive disorders. Here, we examined how cilostazol, a selective PDE3 inhibitor, affects brain functions in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), an animal model of age-related cognitive impairment...
December 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878934/two-degradation-strategies-for-overcoming-the-recalcitrance-of-natural-lignocellulosic-xylan-by-polysaccharides-binding-gh10-and-gh11-xylanases-of-filamentous-fungi
#16
Youzhi Miao, Pan Li, Guangqi Li, Dongyang Liu, Irina S Druzhinina, Christian P Kubicek, Qirong Shen, Ruifu Zhang
The recalcitrance of lignocellulose forms a strong barrier for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass in chemical or biofuel industries. Filamentous fungi are major plant biomass decomposer, and capable of forming all the required enzymes. Here, they characterized the GH10 and GH11 endo-xylanases and a CE1 acetyl-xylan esterase (Axe1) from a superior biomass-degrading strain, Aspergillus fumigatus Z5, and examined how they interact in xylan degradation. Cellulose-binding (CBM1) domain inhibited GH10 xylanase activities for pure xylan, but afforded them an ability to hydrolyze washed corncob particles (WCCP)...
November 23, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857942/septins-as-modulators-of-endo-lysosomal-membrane-traffic
#17
REVIEW
Kyungyeun Song, Giulia Russo, Michael Krauss
Septins constitute a family of GTP-binding proteins, which assemble into non-polar filaments in a nucleotide-dependent manner. These filaments can be recruited to negatively charged membrane surfaces. When associated with membranes septin filaments can act as diffusion barriers, which confine subdomains of distinct biological functions. In addition, they serve scaffolding roles by recruiting cytosolic proteins and other cytoskeletal elements. Septins have been implicated in a large variety of membrane-dependent processes, including cytokinesis, signaling, cell migration, and membrane traffic, and several family members have been implicated in disease...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733684/hypotonic-stress-induced-down-regulation-of-claudin-1-and-2-mediated-by-dephosphorylation-and-clathrin-dependent-endocytosis-in-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells
#18
Naoko Fujii, Yukinobu Matsuo, Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Satoshi Endo, Hideki Sakai, Masahiko Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro Yamazaki, Junko Sugatani, Akira Ikari
Hypotonic stress decreased claudin-1 and -2 expression levels in renal tubular epithelial HK-2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Here, we examined the regulatory mechanism involved in this decrease. The hypotonicity-induced decrease in claudin expression was inhibited by the following: SB202190, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, but not by U0126, a MEK inhibitor; Go6983, a protein kinase C inhibitor; or SP600125, a Jun N-terminal protein kinase inhibitor. Hypotonic stress increased transepithelial electrical resistance, which was inhibited by SB202190...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698489/upregulation-of-angptl6-in-mouse-keratinocytes-enhances-susceptibility-to-psoriasis
#19
Hiroki Tanigawa, Keishi Miyata, Zhe Tian, Jun Aoi, Tsuyoshi Kadomatsu, Satoshi Fukushima, Aki Ogata, Naoki Takeda, Jiabin Zhao, Shunshun Zhu, Kazutoyo Terada, Motoyoshi Endo, Jun Morinaga, Taichi Sugizaki, Michio Sato, Masaki Suimye Morioka, Ichiro Manabe, Youichi Mashimo, Akira Hata, Yoshitaka Taketomi, Kei Yamamoto, Makoto Murakami, Kimi Araki, Masatoshi Jinnin, Hironobu Ihn, Yuichi Oike
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease marked by aberrant tissue repair. Mutant mice modeling psoriasis skin characteristics have provided useful information relevant to molecular mechanisms and could serve to evaluate therapeutic strategies. Here, we found that epidermal ANGPTL6 expression was markedly induced during tissue repair in mice. Analysis of mice overexpressing ANGPTL6 in keratinocytes (K14-Angptl6 Tg mice) revealed that epidermal ANGPTL6 activity promotes aberrant epidermal barrier function due to hyperproliferation of prematurely differentiated keratinocytes...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618546/comprehensive-conformational-and-rotational-analyses-of-the-butyl-group-in-cyclic-cations-dft-calculations-for-imidazolium-pyridinium-pyrrolidinium-and-piperidinium
#20
Takatsugu Endo, Shinpei Hoshino, Yuichi Shimizu, Kozo Fujii, Keiko Nishikawa
The flexibility and conformational variety of the butyl group in cations of ionic liquids (ILs) play an important role in dictating the macroscopic and microscopic properties of ILs. Here we calculate potential energy surfaces for the dihedral angles of the butyl group in four different types of cyclic cations, imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, and piperidinium, using the density functional theory method. The calculation results highlight the role of the butyl group in these cations by comparison of five-membered and six-membered rings, and of aromatic and alicyclic rings, in terms of stable conformations and rotational barriers...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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