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Endo barrier

Michelle E Maxson, Xenia Naj, Teresa R O'Meara, Jonathan D Plumb, Leah E Cowen, Sergio Grinstein
Candida albicans hyphae can reach enormous lengths, precluding their internalization by phagocytes. Nevertheless, macrophages engulf a portion of the hypha, generating incompletely sealed tubular phagosomes. These frustrated phagosomes are stabilized by a thick cuff of F-actin that polymerizes in response to non-canonical activation of integrins by fungal glycan. Despite their continuity, the surface and invaginating phagosomal membranes retain a strikingly distinct lipid composition. PtdIns(4,5)P2 is present at the plasmalemma but is not detectable in the phagosomal membrane, while PtdIns(3)P and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 co-exist in the phagosomes yet are absent from the surface membrane...
March 19, 2018: ELife
Yangmin X Kim, Kosala Ranathunge, Seulbi Lee, Yejin Lee, Deogbae Lee, Jwakyung Sung
The present review examines recent experimental findings in root transport phenomena in terms of the composite transport model (CTM). It has been a well-accepted conceptual model to explain the complex water and solute flows across the root that has been related to the composite anatomical structure. There are three parallel pathways involved in the transport of water and solutes in roots - apoplast, symplast, and transcellular paths. The role of aquaporins (AQPs), which facilitate water flows through the transcellular path, and root apoplast is examined in terms of the CTM...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tino Kreszies, Lukas Schreiber, Kosala Ranathunge
Water is the most important prerequisite for life and plays a major role during uptake and transport of nutrients. Roots are the plant organs that take up the major part of water, from the surrounding soil. Water uptake is related to the root system architecture, root growth, age and species dependent complex developmental changes in the anatomical structures. The latter is mainly attributed to the deposition of suberized barriers in certain layers of cell walls, such as endo- and exodermis. With respect to water permeability, changes in the suberization of roots are most relevant...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Sara Farag, Pamela Frazzini Padilla, Katherine A Smith, Michael L Sprague, Stephen E Zimberg
Surgical adhesions can lead to significant consequences including abdominopelvic pain, bowel obstruction, subfertility, and subsequent surgery. Although laparoscopic surgery is associated with a decreased risk of adhesion formation, methods to further decrease adhesions are warranted. We systematically reviewed literature addressing the management, prevention, and sequelae of adhesions in women undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCOhost, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and found 6566 records...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Aleksandra Gil-Krzewska, Mezida B Saeed, Anna Oszmiana, Elizabeth R Fischer, Kathryn Lagrue, William A Gahl, Wendy J Introne, John E Coligan, Daniel M Davis, Konrad Krzewski
BACKGROUND: Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the LYST gene, resulting in formation of giant lysosomes or lysosome-related organelles in several cell types. The disease is characterized by immunodeficiency and a fatal hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis due to impaired function of cytotoxic lymphocytes, mainly Natural Killer (NK) cells. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the underlying biochemical cause of the impaired cytotoxicity of NK cells in CHS...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Ian Njoroge, Paul A Kempler, Xuanli Deng, Steven T Arnold, G Kane Jennings
Surface-attached polydicyclopentadiene (pDCPD) films were prepared on gold and silicon substrates via surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization (SI-ROMP) of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD). The films were grown utilizing monomer in both the vapor phase and the solution phase with the former process exhibiting rapid kinetics, producing ∼400-nm-thick pDCPD films in less than 1 min of polymerization. No significant differences in thickness were observed for films grown from monomer in the vapor phase with the different isomers (exo and endo) of DCPD...
December 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Yoshifumi Morikawa, Kyoko Kamase, Misato Horinouchi, Yasuhide Sasajima, Koichi Suenami, Kiyohito Sato, Yuji Takekoshi, Satoshi Endo, Ossama El-Kabbani, Akira Ikari
Persistent inhalation of mitragynine (MG), a major alkaloid in the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, causes various systemic adverse effects such as seizure, diarrhea and arthralgias, but its toxicity to endothelial cells and effects on barrier function of the cells are poorly understood. In this study, we compared toxicities of MG and mitraphylline, another constituent of the leaves, against human aortic endothelial (HAE), bronchial BEAS-2B, neuronal SK-N-SH, hepatic HepG2, kidney HEK293, gastric MKN45, colon DLD1, lung A549, breast MCF7 and prostate LNCaP cells, and found that MG, but not mitraphylline, shows higher toxicity to HAE cells compared to the other cells...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Tokiko Endo, Takako Morita, Mikinao Oiwa, Namiko Suda, Yasuyuki Sato, Shu Ichihara, Misaki Shiraiwa, Kazuaki Yoshikawa, Takao Horiba, Hirotoshi Ogawa, Yukie Hayashi, Tomonari Sendai, Takahisa Arai
BACKGROUND: The main barrier to adoption of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus full-field digital mammography (FFDM) is radiation exposure dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of DBT plus FFDM, both with newly developed technology (nd), at a dose comparable to that of the conventional FFDM alone. METHODS: Nine hundred and thirteen participants were recruited from May 2014 to January 2016 consecutively. For each subject, the exposure setting for DBT(nd) + FFDM(nd) was also used for the conventional FFDM alone...
September 27, 2017: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
Anisley Suárez, Samuel Suárez-Pantiga, Olalla Nieto-Faza, Roberto Sanz
Gold(III)-catalyzed cycloisomerization of α-bis(indol-3-yl)methyl alkynols selectively affords 1-(indol-3-yl)carbazoles, in a transformation that takes place through a selective 1,2-alkyl vs 1,2-vinyl migration step in the vinyl-gold intermediate generated from the initial 5-endo-spirocyclization. The reaction proceeds well with either tertiary or secondary starting alkynols as well as with a wide variety of alkyne substituents. The key role of the other indol-3-yl substituent for the unexpected selectivity in the 1,2 rearrangement has also been supported by DFT calculations that reveal a low barrier, two-step mechanism in the alkyl migration path where the second indole significantly stabilizes a carbocationic intermediate...
October 6, 2017: Organic Letters
Samantha I Johnson, Harry B Gray, James D Blakemore, William A Goddard
Recent work has shown that Cp*Rh(bpy) [Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, bpy = 2,2'- bipyridine] undergoes endo protonation at the [Cp*] ligand in the presence of weak acid (Et3NH(+); pKa = 18.8 in MeCN). Upon exposure to stronger acid (e.g., DMFH(+); pKa = 6.1), hydrogen is evolved with unity yield. Here, we study the mechanisms by which this catalyst evolves dihydrogen using density functional theory (M06) with polarizable continuum solvation. The calculations show that the complex can be protonated by weak acid first at the metal center with a barrier of 3...
September 1, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Tejas M Dhameliya, Sumit S Chourasiya, Eshan Mishra, Pradeep S Jadhavar, Prasad V Bharatam, Asit K Chakraborti
The cyclocondensation reaction of 2-aminothiophenols with 1,2-biselectrophiles such as ethyl glyoxalate and diethyl oxalate in aqueous medium leads to the formation of benzothiazole-2-carboxylates via the 5-endo-trig process contrary to Baldwin's rule. On the other hand, the reaction of 2-aminophenols/anilines produced the corresponding benzazine-3-ones or benzazine-2,3-diones via the 6-exo-trig process in compliance with Baldwin's rule. The mechanistic insights of these cyclocondensation reactions using the hard-soft acid-base principle, quantum chemical calculations (density functional theory), and orbital interaction studies rationalize the selectivity switch of benzothiazole-2-carboxylates versus benzazine-3-ones/benzazine-2,3-diones...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
M Torabinejad, M Parirokh, P M H Dummer
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a dental material used extensively for vital pulp therapies (VPT), protecting scaffolds during regenerative endodontic procedures, apical barriers in teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices, perforation repairs as well as root canal filling and root-end filling during surgical endodontics. A number of bioactive endodontic cements (BECs) have recently been introduced to the market. Most of these materials have calcium and silicate in their compositions; however, bioactivity is a common property of these cements...
March 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Ziqi Wang, Xinru Li, Dishi Wang, Yang Zou, Xiaoyou Qu, Chuyu He, Yunqiang Deng, Yao Jin, Yuanhang Zhou, Yanxia Zhou, Yan Liu
To concurrently suppress multidrug resistance (MDR) and metastasis of breast cancer cells, paclitaxel (PTX) and honokiol (HNK) were coencapsulated into pH-sensitive polymeric micelles based on poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-poly(d,l-lactide) (PEOz-PLA). The physicochemical properties of dual drug-loaded PEOz-PLA micelles were characterized in size, drug loading and in vitro release. The efficiency of MDR reversal for the micelles was testified by synergetic enhancement of cytotoxicity and uptake by MCF-7/ADR cells...
August 28, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Yosuke Hashimoto, Keisuke Shirakura, Yoshiaki Okada, Hiroyuki Takeda, Kohki Endo, Maki Tamura, Akihiro Watari, Yoshifusa Sadamura, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Takefumi Doi, Kiyohito Yagi, Masuo Kondoh
A current bottleneck in the development of central nervous system (CNS) drugs is the lack of drug delivery systems targeting the CNS. The intercellular space between endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is sealed by complex protein-based structures called tight junctions (TJs). Claudin-5 (CLDN-5), a tetra-transmembrane protein is a key component of the TJ seal that prevents the paracellular diffusion of drugs into the CNS. In the present study, to investigate whether CLDN-5 binders can be used for delivery of drugs to the CNS, we generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to the extracellular domains of CLDN-5...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Nora Gehne, Agathe Lamik, Martin Lehmann, Reiner F Haseloff, Anuska V Andjelkovic, Ingolf E Blasig
Claudins (Cldns) are transmembrane tight junction (TJ) proteins that paracellularly seal endo- and epithelial barriers by their interactions within the TJs. However, the mechanisms allowing TJ remodeling while maintaining barrier integrity are largely unknown. Cldns and occludin are heterophilically and homophilically cross-over endocytosed into neighboring cells in large, double membrane vesicles. Super-resolution microscopy confirmed the presence of Cldns in these vesicles and revealed a distinct separation of Cldns derived from opposing cells within cross-over endocytosed vesicles...
2017: PloS One
Vladimir Kubyshkin, Nediljko Budisa
Amide rotation of peptidyl-prolyl fragments is an important factor in backbone structure organization of proteins. Computational studies have indicated that this rotation preferentially proceeds through a defined transition-state structure (syn/exo). Here, we complement the computational findings by determining the amide bond rotation barriers for derivatives of the two symmetric proline analogues, meso and racemic pyrrolidine-2,5-dicarboxylic acids. The rotations around these residues represent syn/exo-syn/exo and anti/endo-syn/exo hybrid transition states for the meso and racemic diastereomer, respectively...
August 16, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Fengling Wang, Wei Sun, Lian Li, Lijia Li, Yuanyuan Liu, Zhi-Rong Zhang, Yuan Huang
Mitochondrial-oriented delivery of anticancer drugs has been considered as a promising strategy to improve the antitumor efficiency of chemotherapeutics. However, the physiological and biological barriers from the injection site to the final mitochondrial action site remain great challenges. Herein, a novel mitochondrial-targeted multifunctional nanocomplex based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers (MPC) is designed to enhance drug accumulation in mitochondria. MPC possesses various functions such as extracellular pH response, superior cellular uptake, lysosomal escape, and mitochondrial targeting...
August 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Keisuke Sato, Naoki Takahashi, Tamotsu Kato, Yumi Matsuda, Mai Yokoji, Miki Yamada, Takako Nakajima, Naoki Kondo, Naoto Endo, Reiko Yamamoto, Yuichiro Noiri, Hiroshi Ohno, Kazuhisa Yamazaki
Porhyromonas gingivalis, a causative bacterium of periodontitis, is implicated in the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), mainly because of expressing peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) that generates RA-related autoantigens. However, compared with other periodontopathic bacteria, the precise role of P. gingivalis in RA is largely unknown. We found that orally administered P. gingivalis changed the gut microbiome with concomitant elevation of serum endotoxin and inflammatory markers, and impairment of the gut barrier function...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Takeshi Suto, Masahiko Watanabe, Takeshi Endo, Koji Komori, Masayuki Ohue, Yukihide Kanemitsu, Masaaki Itou, Yasumasa Takii, Toshimasa Yatsuoka, Manabu Shiozawa, Tetsushi Kinugasa, Hideki Ueno, Tadatoshi Takayama, Tadahiko Masaki, Hiroyuki Masuko, Hisanaga Horie, Masafumi Inomata
BACKGROUND: Postoperative adhesions are the major cause of postoperative complications including intestinal obstruction, infertility, and chronic pelvic pain. In order to reduce postoperative adhesions, Terumo Corporation (Tokyo, Japan) has developed an adhesion barrier system (TCD-11091) which is easy to use at the treatment site in various surgical procedures including laparoscopic surgeries. We conducted a prospective randomized single-blind study in patients who underwent laparotomy with ileostomy...
October 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Chi Zhang, Maria B Lai, Lavan Khandan, Lindsey A Lee, Zhe Chen, Harald J Junge
Angiogenesis and blood-brain barrier formation are required for normal central nervous system (CNS) function. Both processes are controlled by Wnt or Norrin (NDP) ligands, Frizzled (FZD) receptors, and β-catenin-dependent signalling in vascular endothelial cells. In the retina, FZD4 and the ligand NDP are critical mediators of signalling and are mutated in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Here, we report that NDP is a potent trigger of FZD4 ubiquitination and induces internalization of the NDP receptor complex into the endo-lysosomal compartment...
July 4, 2017: Nature Communications
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