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Benedetto Farsaci, Renee N Donahue, Italia Grenga, Lauren M Lepone, Peter S Kim, Brendan Dempsey, Janet C Siebert, Nuhad K Ibrahim, Ravi A Madan, Christopher R Heery, James L Gulley, Jeffrey Schlom
Tumor immunoscore analyses, especially for primary colorectal cancer and melanoma lesions, provide valuable prognostic information. Metastatic lesions of many carcinoma types, however, are often not easily accessible. We hypothesized that immune cells in peripheral blood may differ among individual patients with metastatic disease, which, in turn, may influence their response to immunotherapy. We thus analyzed immune cell subsets within peripheral blood mononuclear cells to determine if a "peripheral immunoscore" could have any prognostic significance for patients before receiving immunotherapy...
September 2, 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
Sunil Thomas, George C Prendergast
Vaccine approaches for cancer differ from traditional vaccine approaches for infectious disease in tending to focus on clearing active disease rather than preventing disease. In this review, we provide a brief overview of different types of vaccines and adjuvants that have been investigated for the purpose of controlling cancer burdens in patients, some of which are approved for clinical use or in late-stage clinical trials, such as the personalized dendritic cell vaccine sipuleucel-T (Provenge) and the recombinant viral prostate cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM (Prostvac-VF)...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lisa M Cordes, James L Gulley, Ravi A Madan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent clinical trials, immunotherapeutic agents have demonstrated promising results for the treatment of prostate cancer. This review discusses emerging immunotherapies for prostate cancer and their evolving role in sequencing and combination therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Therapeutic vaccines including PROSTVAC and DCVAC/PCa have completed promising phase 2 trials for the treatment of prostate cancer and phase 3 trials are underway. Recent evidence supports a synergistic relationship between immunotherapy agents themselves, antiandrogens and with cytotoxic chemotherapy...
May 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Parminder Singh, Sumanta K Pal, Anitha Alex, Neeraj Agarwal
PROSTVAC immunotherapy is a heterologous prime-boost regimen of two different recombinant pox-virus vectors; vaccinia as the primary immunotherapy, followed by boosters employing fowlpox, to provoke immune responses against prostate-specific antigen. Both vectors contain transgenes for prostate-specific antigen and a triad of T-cell costimulatory molecules (TRICOM). In a placebo-controlled Phase II trial of men with minimally symptomatic, chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, PROSTVAC was well tolerated and associated with a 44% reduction in death...
2015: Future Oncology
Ida Silvestri, Susanna Cattarino, Anna Maria Aglianò, Giulia Collalti, Alessandro Sciarra
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men. As well in many other human cancers, inflammation and immune suppression have an important role in their development. We briefly describe the host components that interact with the tumor to generate an immune suppressive environment involved in PCa promotion and progression. Different tools provide to overcome the mechanisms of immunosuppression including vaccines and immune checkpoint blockades. With regard to this, we report results of most recent clinical trials investigating immunotherapy in metastatic PCa (Sipuleucel-T, ipilimumab, tasquinimod, Prostvac-VF, and GVAX) and provide possible future perspectives combining the immunotherapy to the traditional therapies...
2015: BioMed Research International
Douglas G McNeel, Yu-Hui Chen, James L Gulley, Alexander J Dwyer, Ravi A Madan, Michael A Carducci, Robert S DiPaola
UNLABELLED: Anti-tumor vaccines have demonstrated efficacy in patients with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer. One vaccine, Prostvac-VF®, using a heterologous prime-boost strategy with vaccinia and fowlpox viral vectors encoding PSA, is currently being evaluated in a registration phase III multinational clinical trial. The current trial was planned to assess the clinical efficacy of this vaccine in patients with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer receiving subsequent docetaxel chemotherapy...
2015: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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June 30, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Constance Thibault, Christophe Massard
Therapeutic arsenal in prostate cancer widens for several years. New hormonal therapies such as acetate abiraterone or enzalutamide were the first molecules to revolutionize the treatment of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. Several other treatments are on trial targeting different pathways: androgene pathway (TAK-007, ARN-509, ODM-201, TOK-001), immune system (sipuleucel, ipilimumab, PROSTVAC-V/F, tasquinimod), but also tumor cell (PARP inhibitor, cabozantinib). The treatment sequencing will therefore soon be problematic, raising the necessity to identify predictive markers of response to the new therapies...
June 2015: Bulletin du Cancer
Ilya Sobol, R H Thompson, Haidong Dong, Christopher Krco, Eugene D Kwon
Immunotherapy for the treatment of malignant neoplasms has made significant progress over the last 20 years. Multiple molecular targets and clinical agents have been developed recently, particularly in the field of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Sipuleucel-T is currently the only FDA approved immunotherapy for prostate cancer. PSA-TRICOM (Prostvac) currently has a phase III randomized trial underway after a phase II trial showed an improvement in overall survival. Interestingly, both these agents showed improvement in overall survival with no measurable change in disease state, leading to significant controversy as the utility of these agents in prostate cancer...
June 2015: Current Urology Reports
Robert O Dillman
In patients with metastatic cancer, therapeutic anticancer vaccines are rarely associated with objective antitumor responses; so, many investigators have focused on progression-free survival (PFS) as a key endpoint for clinical trials. However, it is not clear that PFS is a surrogate for overall survival (OS), and OS may be a more appropriate endpoint because of the effects on long-term memory in the adaptive immune system. Recently, reported vaccine trials were reviewed to determine their primary and secondary endpoints and results...
May 2015: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Robert S DiPaola, Yu-Hui Chen, Glenn J Bubley, Mark N Stein, Noah M Hahn, Michael A Carducci, Edmund C Lattime, James L Gulley, Philip M Arlen, Lisa H Butterfield, George Wilding
BACKGROUND: E9802 was a phase 2 multi-institution study conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of vaccinia and fowlpox prostate-specific antigen (PSA) vaccine (step 1) followed by combination with androgen ablation therapy (step 2) in patients with PSA progression without visible metastasis. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that vaccine therapy in this early disease setting will be safe and have a biochemical effect that would support future studies of immunotherapy in patients with minimal disease burden...
September 2015: European Urology
Junji Yatsuda, Masatoshi Eto
Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are three major therapies for cancer. But now, hope is being gathered in immunotherapy as a treatment for fourth. Immunotherapy has been done than before, but they are non-specific immunotherapy. Those that have become hot topics are specific immunotherapies targeting certain molecules or antigens. In this chapter, current status and prospects of immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are described. As concrete examples, Sipuleucel-T(Provenge), GVAX, PROSTVAC-VF, Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4 mAb), anti-PD-1 mAb and anti-PSMA mAb are cited...
December 2014: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Stefanie J Mandl, Ryan B Rountree, Tracy B Dela Cruz, Susan P Foy, Joseph J Cote, Evan J Gordon, Erica Trent, Alain Delcayre, Alex Franzusoff
BACKGROUND: PROSTVAC®, an active immunotherapy currently studied for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), consists of a heterologous prime-boost regimen with two different poxvirus-based vectors to provoke productive immune responses against prostate specific antigen (PSA) as the target tumor antigen. A Phase 2 study of PROSTVAC immunotherapy showed significantly improved median overall survival by 8.5 months and is currently being validated in a global Phase 3 study (PROSPECT; NCT01322490)...
2014: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Baijun Dong, Laurie J Minze, Wei Xue, Wenhao Chen
Using a patient's own immune system to fight cancer is a highly active area of cancer research. Four years ago, sipuleucel-T became the first approved cancer vaccine, which was developed to enhance T-cell immunity against metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Other prostate cancer vaccines, including a viral-based vaccine PROSTVAC-VF and a cellular vaccine GVAX, are in development. Moreover, several clinical trials are investigating the role of immune checkpoint blockade in the treatment of prostate cancer...
November 2014: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Ravi A Madan, Christopher R Heery, James L Gulley
Prostvac is a poxviral-based vaccine designed to target prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer patients. Recently, the potential toxicity and immunological impact of this immunotherapy were reviewed in the context of new clinical data. Our findings suggest that Prostvac is safe and elicits anticancer immune responses, both alone and in combinatorial approaches.
2014: Oncoimmunology
Thomas D Szucs, Daniele Puri, Patricia R Blank
PURPOSE: Existing health technology assessment methods can be time-consuming and complicated to use in practice. EValuation of pharmaceutical Innovations with regard to Therapeutic Advantage (EVITA) is a recently developed drug assessment strategy that provides a detailed and clinically relevant evaluation of new agents compared to standard therapies. We therefore sought to use EVITA to evaluate eight novel agents recently introduced to clinical practice or in late-stage trials for the treatment of prostate cancer, metastatic melanoma, or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
August 2014: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
James L Gulley, Ravi A Madan, Kwong Y Tsang, Caroline Jochems, Jennifer L Marté, Benedetto Farsaci, Jo A Tucker, James W Hodge, David J Liewehr, Seth M Steinberg, Christopher R Heery, Jeffrey Schlom
PSA-TRICOM (PROSTVAC) is a novel vector-based vaccine designed to generate a robust immune response against prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-expressing tumor cells. The purpose of this report is to present an overview of both published studies and new data in the evaluation of immune responses to the PSA-TRICOM vaccine platform, currently in phase III testing. Of 104 patients tested for T-cell responses, 57% (59/104) demonstrated a ≥ 2-fold increase in PSA-specific T cells 4 weeks after vaccine (median 5-fold increase) compared with pre-vaccine, and 68% (19/28) of patients tested mounted post-vaccine immune responses to tumor-associated antigens not present in the vaccine (antigen spreading)...
February 2014: Cancer Immunology Research
Neal D Shore
Targeted immunotherapies represent a valid strategy for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. A randomized, double-blind, Phase II clinical trial of PROSTVAC® demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in overall survival and a large, global, Phase III trial with overall survival as the primary end point is ongoing. PROSTVAC immunotherapy contains the transgenes for prostate-specific antigen and three costimulatory molecules (designated TRICOM). Research suggests that PROSTVAC not only targets prostate-specific antigen, but also other tumor antigens via antigen cascade...
2014: Immunotherapy
Christopher T Campbell, James L Gulley, Oyindasola Oyelaran, James W Hodge, Jeffrey Schlom, Jeffrey C Gildersleeve
Therapeutic cancer vaccines can be effective for treating patients, but clinical responses vary considerably from patient to patient. Early indicators of a favorable response are crucial for making individualized treatment decisions and advancing vaccine design, but no validated biomarkers are currently available. In this study, we used glycan microarrays to profile antiglycan antibody responses induced by PROSTVAC-VF, a poxvirus-based cancer vaccine currently in phase III clinical trials. Although the vaccine is designed to induce T-cell responses to prostate-specific antigen, we demonstrate that this vaccine also induces humoral responses to a carbohydrate on the poxvirus, the Forssman disaccharide (GalNAcα1-3GalNAcβ)...
April 29, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nancy A Dawson, Erin E Roesch
INTRODUCTION: Immunotherapy represents an emerging modality of treatment utilized in patients with prostate cancer, among various other malignancies. AREAS COVERED: Sipuleucel-T is an autologous active cellular immunotherapy that has demonstrated improved survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The IMPACT trial led to the FDA approval of sipuleucel-T as first-line treatment for men with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic mCRPC...
May 2014: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
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