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Dorina Murgulet, Melissa Trevino, Audrey Douglas, Nicholas Spalt, Xinping Hu, Valeriu Murgulet
We conducted a comprehensive analysis of a variety of geochemical data including total alkalinity (TA), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), major ions, stable isotopes, and submarine groundwater discharge, to understand biogeochemical and hydrologic processes driving the seasonal to annual estuarine buffering capacity in Nueces Bay, Texas. These measurements, together with statistical analysis and geochemical modeling, show large variability of freshwater influence. TA consumption, common to spring seasons, was mainly driven by CaCO3 precipitation and, to some extent, by aerobic respiration...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ulrike Binsker, Raghavendra Palankar, Jan Wesche, Thomas P Kohler, Josephine Prucha, Gerhard Burchhardt, Manfred Rohde, Frank Schmidt, Barbara M Bröker, Uwe Mamat, Jan Pané-Farré, Anica Graf, Patrick Ebner, Andreas Greinacher, Sven Hammerschmidt
Staphylococcus aureus can cause bloodstream infections associated with infective endocarditis (IE) and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC). Both complications involve platelets. In view of an increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains, new approaches to control systemic S. aureus infection are gaining importance. Using a repertoire of 52 recombinant S. aureus proteins in flow cytometry-based platelet activation and aggregation assays, we identified, in addition to the extracellular adherence protein Eap, three secreted staphylococcal proteins as novel platelet activating proteins...
March 19, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Chao Han, Paul N Williams, Jinghua Ren, Zhaode Wang, Xu Fang, Di Xu, Xianchuan Xie, Jinju Geng, Lena Q Ma, Jun Luo
Phosphite (P+III ) is of emerging chemical interest due to its importance within the global phosphorus cycle. Yet, to date, precise/accurate measurements of P+III are still lacking due to the inherent analytical challenges linked to its instability/ease of oxidation and ultra-trace concentration. Here, we present the first in-situ sampling and speciation analysis method, for dissolved P+III , using the diffusive-gradients-in-thin-films (DGT) technique, combined with capillary-column-configured-dual-ion-chromatography (CC-DIC)...
March 13, 2018: Water Research
Takamitsu Masuda, Tomohisa Shoko, Yoshizumi Deguchi
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) often complicates sepsis, and its early treatment is crucial for improving patient outcomes. Coagulation markers may enable earlier diagnosis of DIC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the risk of DIC onset can be predicted using coagulation markers. Patients who showed symptoms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome ≥2 and the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score ≥2 points were investigated. All blood samples collected from the time of hospital admission to 7 days postadmission were investigated...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
Daisuke Kudo, Shigeki Kushimoto, Noriko Miyagawa, Tetsuya Sato, Masatsugu Hasegawa, Fumihito Ito, Sathoshi Yamanouchi, Hiroyuki Honda, Kohkichi Andoh, Hajime Furukawa, Yasuo Yamada, Yuta Tsujimoto, Manabu Okuyama
PURPOSE: Disseminated intravascular coagulations (DIC), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and acute kidney injury (AKI) are major organ dysfunctions that occur in patients with sepsis. This study aimed to elucidate the impact of these organ dysfunctions on mortality in patients with severe sepsis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed in 10 ICUs to obtain data from patients with severe sepsis. Multivariate analyses to examine in-hospital mortality were performed...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Bin Qu, Mika Sillanpää, Shichang Kang, Fangping Yan, Zhiguo Li, Hongbo Zhang, Chaoliu Li
Rivers are critical links in the carbon and nitrogen cycle in aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments. Here riverine carbon and nitrogen exports in nine large rivers on the Tibetan Plateau - the "Water Tower of Asia" - were investigated in the monsoon season from 2013 to 2015. Compared with the world average, concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, 30.7mg/L) were high in river basins of the plateau due to extensive topographic relief and intensive water erosion. Low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 1...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Hongjia Zhang, Tan Sui, Enrico Salvati, Dominik Daisenberger, Alexander J G Lunt, Kai Soon Fong, Xu Song, Alexander M Korsunsky
High energy 2D X-ray powder diffraction experiments are widely used for lattice strain measurement. The 2D to 1D conversion of diffraction patterns is a necessary step used to prepare the data for full pattern refinement, but is inefficient when only peak centre position information is required for lattice strain evaluation. The multi-step conversion process is likely to lead to increased errors associated with the 'caking' (radial binning) or fitting procedures. A new method is proposed here that relies on direct Digital Image Correlation analysis of 2D X-ray powder diffraction patterns (XRD-DIC, for short)...
March 15, 2018: Materials
Gülsüm Özkan, Gaye Kübra Emeksiz, Reşit Volkan Atar, Samet Sedef, Pınar Sonat Kara, Meltem Öznur, Burhan Turgut
Purpura fulminans associated with antithrombin 3 (AT 3) deficiency is very rare in adults and neonates. It can be categorized into three principal forms - neonatal, idiopathic and acute infectious. Purpura fulminans has been reported to cause cardiac, pulmonary and renal damage in rare cases. We describe an adult case of purpura fulminans developing in association with AT 3 deficiency without infection following a surgical procedure, and acute kidney injury (AKI) developing secondary to rhabdomyolysis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Natalya A Gloushankova, Svetlana N Rubtsova, Irina Y Zhitnyak
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in development and cancer progression. Upon EMT, epithelial cells lose stable cell-cell adhesions and reorganize their cytoskeleton to acquire migratory activity. Recent data demonstrated that EMT drives cancer cells from the epithelial state to a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype with retention of some epithelial markers (in particular, E-cadherin), which is important for cancer cell dissemination. In vitro studies of the effect of growth factors (in particular, epidermal growth factor (EGF)) on cultured cells can be highly advantageous for understanding the details of the early stages of EMT...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mathies Appel Laursen, Julie Brogaard Larsen, Anne-Mette Hvas
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) has a well-examined pathophysiology, yet some essential elements remain undetermined. During DIC, platelets play an important role in the development of micro thrombosis, but changes in platelet function parameters and their association with development of DIC have not been established. The present systematic review investigated reported associations between platelet function (activation, aggregation, and adhesion) and DIC. We performed a literature search in Embase and PubMed, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
March 8, 2018: Platelets
Mineji Hayakawa, Kazuma Yamakawa, Daisuke Kudo, Kota Ono
Low-dose antithrombin supplementation therapy (1500 IU/d for 3 days) improves outcomes in patients with sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). This retrospective study evaluated the optimal antithrombin activity threshold to initiate supplementation, and the effects of supplementation therapy in 1033 patients with sepsis-induced DIC whose antithrombin activity levels were measured upon admission to 42 intensive care units across Japan. Of the 509 patients who had received antithrombin supplementation therapy, in-hospital mortality was significantly reduced only in patients with very low antithrombin activity (≤43%; bottom quartile; adjusted hazard ratio: 0...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
Kota Ouchi, Shin Takahashi, Sonoko Chikamatsu, Shukuei Ito, Yoshikazu Takahashi, Sadayuki Kawai, Akira Okita, Yuki Kasahara, Yoshinari Okada, Hiroo Imai, Keigo Komine, Ken Saijo, Masahiro Takahashi, Hidekazu Shirota, Masanobu Takahashi, Makio Gamoh, Chikashi Ishioka
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM) has been established and introduced in the clinic as a standard treatment for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). However, the efficacy and safety of rTM for DIC associated with solid tumors (DIC-STs) have not been fully established. Here, we performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical outcomes of rTM for DIC-STs and considered a treatment strategy with rTM for DIC-STs. METHODS: Patients with DIC-STs between November 2009 and March 2016 in 2 cancer core hospitals were retrospectively analyzed...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Fei Liu, David Z Zhang, Peng Zhang, Miao Zhao, Salman Jafar
Developments in selective laser melting (SLM) have enabled the fabrication of periodic cellular lattice structures characterized by suitable properties matching the bone tissue well and by fluid permeability from interconnected structures. These multifunctional performances are significantly affected by cell topology and constitutive properties of applied materials. In this respect, a diamond unit cell was designed in particular volume fractions corresponding to the host bone tissue and optimized with a smooth surface at nodes leading to fewer stress concentrations...
March 3, 2018: Materials
Catherine S Chang, Brian L Chang, Michael Lanni, Anthony J Wilson, Jacob Beer, Ivona Percec
Background: The perioral region is the most dynamic anatomic area of the face and subject to complex and dramatic changes during aging. Successful treatment for perioral rejuvenation has yet to be identified, and prior studies have reported only subjective outcomes. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to utilize our validated dynamic three-dimensional imaging technology to determine whether conservative neuromodulation combined with hyaluronic acid filler volumization can decrease perioral strain and increase volume with significant patient satisfaction...
March 1, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Takashi Ishihara, Keiji Nogami, Yasufumi Takeshita, Satoshi Ochi, Midori Shima
Thrombosis and hemorrhage are serious complications in pediatric patients with solid tumors, and enhanced fibrinolysis associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is often observed. Fibrinolytic enzymes also play an important role in metastasis. Limited information is available, however, on the assessment of overall hemostatic function in children with malignant solid tumors. Methods We have investigated comprehensive hemostatic potential in these circumstances using simultaneous thrombin/plasmin generation assay (T/P-GA)...
March 5, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Amy Y Xu, Ebru Kizilay, Slawomir P Madro, Justin Z Vadenais, Kianan W McDonald, Paul L Dubin
"Self-suppression", the instability of complex coacervates at high concentration, is well-known for polycation-polyanion systems, but the transient nature of those complexes impedes development of a convincing model. The stable polyelectrolyte-micelle complexes of the polycation poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) with mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/Triton X-100 (TX100); and the stable complexes of PDADMAC with bovine serum albumin (BSA) can be characterized and identified as coacervate precursors...
March 5, 2018: Soft Matter
Siavash Maraghechi, Johan P M Hoefnagels, Ron H J Peerlings, Marc G D Geers
High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) is nowadays very popular for different applications in different fields. However, SEM images may exhibit a considerable amount of imaging artifacts, which induce significant errors if the images are used to measure geometrical or kinematical fields. This error is most pronounced in case of full field deformation measurements, for instance by digital image correlation (DIC). One family of SEM artifacts result from positioning errors of the scanning electron beam, creating artifactual shifts in the images perpendicular to the scan lines (scan line shifts)...
February 3, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Laura Freije-Carrelo, Laura Alonso Sobrado, Mariella Moldovan, Jorge Ruiz Encinar, Jose Ignacio Garcia-Alonso
Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is one of the most important parameters to be measured in seawaters for climate change studies. Its quantitative assessment requires analytical methodologies with overall uncertainties around 0.05% RSD for clear evaluation of temporal trends. Herein, two alternative Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) methodologies (on-line and species-specific) using an Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) and two calculation procedures for each methodology have been compared. As a result, a new method for the determination of DIC in seawaters, based on species-specific IDMS with Isotope Pattern Deconvolution calculation, was developed and validated...
March 2, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
M Port, B Pieper, H D Dörr, A Hübsch, M Majewski, M Abend
The degree of severity of hematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS) may vary across the range of radiation doses, such that dose alone may be a less reliable predictor of clinical course. We sought to elucidate the relationship between absorbed dose and risk of clinically relevant HARS in humans. We used the database SEARCH (System for Evaluation and Archiving of Radiation Accidents based on Case Histories), which contains the histories of radiation accident victims. From 153 cases we extracted data on dose estimates using the dicentric assay to measure individual biological dosimetry...
March 1, 2018: Radiation Research
Motohiro Banno, Takayuki Kondo, Hiroharu Yui
Development of a differential interference contrast (DIC) stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope is presented. In the apparatus, a coherent SRS signal generated from the sample is overlapped with a reference beam that is also focused on the same sample. The signal intensity correlates with the height difference between the point generating the SRS signal and the focal point of the reference beam. We applied the developed apparatus for imaging of Si surfaces with structures with heights of 50-350 nm. We also obtained the DIC-SRS image of the Si surface buried by liquid crystal...
March 1, 2018: Optics Letters
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