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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926869/robust-asymmetric-localization-of-planar-polarity-proteins-is-associated-with-organization-into-signalosome-like-domains-of-variable-stoichiometry
#1
Helen Strutt, Jessica Gamage, David Strutt
In developing epithelia, the core planar polarity proteins physically interact with each other and localize asymmetrically at opposite cell ends, forming intercellular complexes that link the polarity of neighboring cells. Using quantitative imaging to examine the composition of the core protein complex in vivo, we find that complex composition is unexpectedly plastic. The transmembrane proteins Frizzled and Flamingo form a stoichiometric nucleus in the complex, while the relative levels of the other four core proteins can vary independently...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926381/a-review-on-brain-structures-segmentation-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#2
REVIEW
Sandra González-Villà, Arnau Oliver, Sergi Valverde, Liping Wang, Reyer Zwiggelaar, Xavier Lladó
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Automatic brain structures segmentation in magnetic resonance images has been widely investigated in recent years with the goal of helping diagnosis and patient follow-up in different brain diseases. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art of automatic methods available in the literature ranging from structure specific segmentation methods to whole brain parcellation approaches. METHODS: We divide first the algorithms according to their target structures and then we propose a general classification based on their segmentation strategy, which includes atlas-based, learning-based, deformable, region-based and hybrid methods...
October 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925871/no-signal-intensity-increase-in-the-dentate-nucleus-on-unenhanced-t1-weighted-mr-images-after-more-than-20-serial-injections-of-macrocyclic-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents
#3
Alexander Radbruch, Robert Haase, Pascal J Kieslich, Lukas D Weberling, Philipp Kickingereder, Wolfgang Wick, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Martin Bendszus
Purpose To determine the effect of more than 20 serial injections of macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) on the signal intensity (SI) of the dentate nucleus (DN) on unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Materials and Methods In this retrospective, institutional review board-approved study, 33 patients who underwent at least 20 consecutive MR imaging examinations (plus an additional MR imaging for reference) with the exclusive use of macrocyclic GBCAs gadoterate meglumine and gadobutrol were analyzed...
December 7, 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925748/role-of-the-%C3%AE-resonance-in-the-population-of-a-four-nucleon-state-in-the-56-fe%C3%A2-54-fe-reaction-at-relativistic-energies
#4
Zs Podolyák, C M Shand, N Lalović, J Gerl, D Rudolph, T Alexander, P Boutachkov, M L Cortés, M Górska, I Kojouharov, N Kurz, C Louchart, E Merchán, C Michelagnoli, R M Pérez-Vidal, S Pietri, D Ralet, M Reese, H Schaffner, Ch Stahl, H Weick, F Ameil, G de Angelis, T Arici, R Carroll, Zs Dombrádi, A Gadea, P Golubev, M Lettmann, C Lizarazo, D Mahboub, H Pai, Z Patel, N Pietralla, P H Regan, L G Sarmiento, O Wieland, E Wilson, B Birkenbach, B Bruyneel, I Burrows, L Charles, E Clément, F C L Crespi, D M Cullen, P Désesquelles, J Eberth, V González, T Habermann, L Harkness-Brennan, H Hess, D S Judson, A Jungclaus, W Korten, M Labiche, A Maj, D Mengoni, D R Napoli, A Pullia, B Quintana, G Rainovski, P Reiter, M D Salsac, E Sanchis, J J Valiente Dóbon
The ^{54}Fe nucleus was populated from a ^{56}Fe beam impinging on a Be target with an energy of E/A=500  MeV. The internal decay via γ-ray emission of the 10^{+} metastable state was observed. As the structure of this isomeric state has to involve at least four unpaired nucleons, it cannot be populated in a simple two-neutron removal reaction from the ^{56}Fe ground state. The isomeric state was produced in the low-momentum (-energy) tail of the parallel momentum (energy) distribution of ^{54}Fe, suggesting that it was populated via the decay of the Δ^{0} resonance into a proton...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925714/how-many-body-correlations-and-%C3%AE-clustering-shape-6-he
#5
Carolina Romero-Redondo, Sofia Quaglioni, Petr Navrátil, Guillaume Hupin
The Borromean ^{6}He nucleus is an exotic system characterized by two halo neutrons orbiting around a compact ^{4}He (or α) core, in which the binary subsystems are unbound. The simultaneous reproduction of its small binding energy and extended matter and point-proton radii has been a challenge for ab initio theoretical calculations based on traditional bound-state methods. Using soft nucleon-nucleon interactions based on chiral effective field theory potentials, we show that supplementing the model space with ^{4}He+n+n cluster degrees of freedom largely solves this issue...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925687/dna-base-excision-repair-proteins-ape-1-and-xrcc-1-are-overexpressed-in-oral-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
Thalita Santana, Melka Coêlho Sá, Edilmar de Moura Santos, Hébel Cavalcanti Galvão, Ricardo D Coletta, Roseana de Almeida Freitas
BACKGROUND: DNA repair systems play a critical role in protecting the human genome from damage caused by carcinogens. Modifications in DNA repair genes may be responsible for tumor development and resistance of malignant cells to chemotherapeutic agents. The major pathway for oxidative DNA damage repair is the base excision repair pathway. This study aimed to assess the immunoexpression of DNA repair proteins APE-1 and XRCC-1 and its association with clinical, histological and survival parameters in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma in order to investigate a possible role for those proteins in tumor behavior...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925459/quantification-of-type-timing-and-extent-of-cell-body-and-nucleus-deformations-caused-by-the-dimensions-and-hydrophilicity-of-square-prism-micropillars
#7
Onur Hasturk, Abdullah Sivas, Bulent Karasozen, Utkan Demirci, Nesrin Hasirci, Vasif Hasirci
Novel digital analysis strategies are developed for the quantification of changes in the cytoskeletal and nuclear morphologies of mesenchymal stem cells cultured on micropillars. Severe deformations of nucleus and distinct conformational changes of cell body ranging from extensive elongation to branching are visualized and quantified. These deformations are caused mainly by the dimensions and hydrophilicity of the micropillars.
December 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925396/arabidopsis-sumo-protease-asp1-positively-regulates-flowering-time-partially-through-regulating-flc-stability
#8
Xiangxiong Kong, Xi Luo, Gao-Ping Qu, Peng Liu, Jing Bo Jin
The initiation of flowering is tightly regulated by the endogenous and environment signals, which is crucial for the reproductive success of flowering plants. It is well known that autonomous and vernalization pathways repress transcription of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a focal floral repressor, but how its protein stability is regulated remains largely unknown. Here, we found that mutations in a novel Arabidopsis SUMO protease 1 (ASP1) resulted in a strong late-flowering phenotype under long-days, but to a lesser extent under short-days...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925200/production-of-macrophage-inhibitory-factor-mif-by-primary-sertoli-cells-its-possible-involvement-in-migration-of-spermatogonial-cells
#9
M Huleihel, M Abofoul-Azab, Y Abarbanel, I Einav, E Levitas, E Lunenfeld
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multifunctional molecule. MIF was originally identified as a T-cell-derived factor responsible for the inhibition of macrophage migration. In testicular tissue of adult rats, MIF is constitutively expressed by Leydig cells under physiological conditions. The aim of this study was to examine MIF levels in testicular homogenates from different aged mice, and the capacity of Sertoli cells to produce it. We also examined MIF involvement in spermatogonial cell migration...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924991/improving-cell-penetration-of-helical-peptides-stabilized-by-n-terminal-crosslinked-aspartic-acids
#10
Hui Zhao, Yanhong Jiang, Yuan Tian, Dan Yang, Xuan Qin, Zigang Li
Cell penetration and nucleus translocation efficiency are important for the cellular activities of peptide therapeutics. For helical peptides stabilized by N-terminal crosslinked aspartic acid, correlations between their penetration efficiency/nucleus translocation and physicochemical properties were studied. An increase in hydrophobicity and isoelectric point will promote cellular uptake and nucleus translocation of stabilized helices.
December 7, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924874/context-and-auditory-fear-are-differentially-regulated-by-hdac3-activity-in-the-lateral-and-basal-subnuclei-of-the-amygdale
#11
Janine L Kwapis, Yasaman Alaghband, Alberto J López, André O White, Rianne R Campbell, Richard T Dang, Diane Rhee, Ashley V Tran, Allison E Carl, Dina P Matheos, Marcelo A Wood
Histone acetylation is a fundamental epigenetic mechanism that is dynamically regulated during memory formation. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) compete to modulate histone acetylation, allowing for rapid changes in acetylation in response to a learning event. HDACs are known to be powerful negative regulators of memory formation, but it is not clear whether this function depends on HDAC enzymatic activity per se. Here, we tested whether the enzymatic activity of an individual Class I HDAC, HDAC3, plays a role in fear memory formation in subregions of the hippocampus and amygdala...
December 7, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924783/functionalized-gold-nanoparticles-manifested-as-potent-carriers-for%C3%A2-nucleolar-targeting
#12
Reza Shahbazi, Ilyas Ozcicek, Gurkan Ozturk, Kezban Ulubayram
It is generally known that gold nanoparticles are localised in the cytoplasm and, if synthesised in small sizes or functionalized with specific proteins, they enter the cell nucleus. However, there is no report emphasising the importance of surface functionalization in their accumulation in the nucleolus. Here, for the first time in the literature, it is proposed that functionalization of gold nanoparticles with a thin layer of polyethyleneimine (PEI) spearheads them to the nucleolus of hard-to-transfect post-mitotic dorsal root ganglion neurones in a size-independent manner...
January 13, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924567/the-nuclear-translocation-of-erk
#13
Denise A Berti, Rony Seger
The ERK1 and ERK2 (ERK1/2) cascade is a central signaling pathway activated by a wide variety of extracellular agents that transmit the messages of G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) and Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs). Being such a central pathway, the activity of the cascade is well regulated, including by dynamic changes of the subcellular localization of components of the ERK1/2 cascade. In resting cells, ERK1/2 are localized in the cytosol due to their interactions with different anchoring proteins. After stimulation, ERK1/2 are phosphorylated by MEK1/2 on their regulatory TEY motif, which permits their detachment from the anchoring proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924565/analysis-of-ras-erk-compartmentalization-by-subcellular-fractionation
#14
Lorena Agudo-Ibañez, Piero Crespo, Berta Casar
A vast number of stimuli use the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade to transmit signals from their cognate receptors, in order to regulate multiple cellular functions, including key processes such as proliferation, cell cycle progression, differentiation, and survival. The duration, intensity and specificity of the responses are, in part, controlled by the compartmentalization/subcellular localization of the signaling intermediaries. Ras proteins are found in different plasma membrane microdomains and endomembranes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924563/high-throughput-in-vitro-identification-of-direct-mapk-erk-substrates
#15
Rona Grossman, Ze'ev Paroush
Phosphorylation mediated by cellular protein kinases is an effective mechanism employed by an organism to regulate central processes such as cell-cycle progression, metabolic pathways, cytoskeletal function, cell migration and differentiation. Thus, for example, various signaling pathways utilize sequential phosphorylation events to relay external cues from the cell surface to the nucleus, where eventually gene expression profiles are altered and, consequently, changes in cell fates and function are induced...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924560/assaying-activation-and-subcellular-localization-of-erk-in-cells-and-tissues
#16
Carme Caelles, Carles Bayod, Melisa Morcillo
The extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are the focus of many studies due to their involvement in numerous physiological and pathological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation, and oncogenic transformation, respectively. ERK1/2 belong to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) family, which are serine/threonine kinases that participate in signal transduction and are activated by dual phosphorylation in the Thr-X-Tyr motif located in their activation loop...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924555/how-genetics-has-helped-piece-together-the-mapk-signaling-pathway
#17
Dariel Ashton-Beaucage, Marc Therrien
Cells respond to changes in their environment, to developmental cues, and to pathogen aggression through the action of a complex network of proteins. These networks can be decomposed into a multitude of signaling pathways that relay signals from the microenvironment to the cellular components involved in eliciting a specific response. Perturbations in these signaling processes are at the root of multiple pathologies, the most notable of these being cancer. The study of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling led to the first description of a mechanism whereby an extracellular signal is transmitted to the nucleus to induce a transcriptional response...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924522/expression-of-%C3%AE-catenin-protein-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-its-relationship-with-alpha-fetoprotein
#18
Ya-Jun Ren, Tao Huang, Hong-Lu Yu, Li Zhang, Qian-Jin He, Zhi-Fan Xiong, Hua Peng
This study aimed to investigate the expression of β-catenin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and its relationship with α-fetoprotein (AFP) in HCC. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of β-catenin in normal liver tissues (n=10), liver cirrhosis tissues (n=20), and primary HCC tissues (n=60). The relationship between β-catenin expression and clinical parameters of HCC was investigated. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of β-catenin in the liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 transfected with a plasmid encoding AFP, and also the mRNA and protein expression levels of β-catenin were measured in the liver cancer cell line Huh7 before and after the transfection with AFP shRNA plasmids...
December 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924516/carbon-monoxide-inhibits-the-nuclear-cytoplasmic-translocation-of-hmgb1-in-an-in-vitro-oxidative-stress-injury-model-of-mouse-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells
#19
Yu Jia, Lu Wang, Guang-Yuan Zhao, Zhi-Qiang Wang, Song Chen, Gang Chen
Carbon monoxide (CO), as a vital small molecule in signaling pathways, is found to be involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in renal transplantation. CO-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2), a CO-releasing molecule, is a type of metal carbonyl complexes which can quickly release CO in vivo. In this study, an in vitro oxidative stress injury model was established to examine the effect of CORM-2 pretreatment on the nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in mouse primary renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs)...
December 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924190/network-analysis-of-human-post-mortem-microarrays-reveals-novel-genes-micrornas-and-mechanistic-scenarios-of-potential-importance-in-fighting-huntington-s-disease
#20
Sreedevi Chandrasekaran, Danail Bonchev
Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor disturbances, cognitive decline, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this study, we utilized network-based analysis in an attempt to explore and understand the underlying molecular mechanism and to identify critical molecular players of this disease condition. Using human post-mortem microarrays from three brain regions (cerebellum, frontal cortex and caudate nucleus) we selected in a four-step procedure a seed set of highly modulated genes...
2016: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
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