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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346555/modulation-of-the-cooperativity-in-the-assembly-of-multistranded-supramolecular-polymers
#1
Cristiana Campanella, Elkin Lopez-Fontal, Lilia Milanesi, Salvador Tomas
It is highly desirable that supramolecular polymers self-assemble following small changes in the environment. The degree of responsiveness depends on the degree of cooperativity at play during the assembly. Understanding how to modulate and quantify cooperativity is therefore highly desirable for the study and design of responsive polymers. Here we show that the cooperative assembly of a porphyrin-based, double-stranded polymer is triggered by changes in building blocks and in salt concentration. We develop a model that accounts for this responsiveness by assuming the binding of the salt countercations to the double-stranded polymer...
March 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346356/microinjection-of-antibodies-targeting-the-lamin-a-c-histone-binding-site-blocks-mitotic-entry-and-reveals-separate-chromatin-interactions-with-hp1-cenpb-and-pml
#2
Charles R Dixon, Melpomeni Platani, Alexandr A Makarov, Eric C Schirmer
Lamins form a scaffold lining the nucleus that binds chromatin and contributes to spatial genome organization; however, due to the many other functions of lamins, studies knocking out or altering the lamin polymer cannot clearly distinguish between direct and indirect effects. To overcome this obstacle, we specifically targeted the mapped histone-binding site of A/C lamins by microinjecting antibodies specific to this region predicting that this would make the genome more mobile. No increase in chromatin mobility was observed; however, interestingly, injected cells failed to go through mitosis, while control antibody-injected cells did...
March 25, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345732/comparative-analysis-in-continuous-expansion-of-bovine-and-human-primary-nucleus-pulposus-cells-for-tissue-repair-applications
#3
D H Rosenzweig, J Tremblay Gravel, D Bisson, J A Ouellet, M H Weber, L Haglund
Autologous NP cell implantation is a potential therapeutic avenue for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. However, monolayer expansion of cells isolated from surgical samples may negatively impact matrix production by way of dedifferentiation. Previously, we have used a continuous expansion culture system to successfully preserve a chondrocyte phenotype. In this work, we hypothesised that continuous expansion culture could also preserve nucleus pulposus (NP) phenotype. We confirmed that serial passaging drove NP dedifferentiation by significantly decreasing collagen type II, aggrecan and chondroadherin (CHAD) gene expression, compared to freshly isolated cells...
March 24, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345672/cyclophilins-and-nucleoporins-are-required-for-infection-mediated-by-capsids-from-circulating-hiv-2-primary-isolates
#4
João I Mamede, Florence Damond, Ariel de Bernardo, Sophie Matheron, Diane Descamps, Jean-Luc Battini, Marc Sitbon, Valérie Courgnaud
HIV-2 groups have emerged from sooty mangabey SIV and entered the human population in Africa on several separate occasions. Compared to world pandemic HIV-1 that arose from the chimpanzee SIVcpz virus, the SIVsm-derived HIV-2, largely confined to West Africa, is less replicative, less transmissible and less pathogenic. Here, we evaluated the interactions between host cellular factors, which control HIV-1 infection and target the capsid, and HIV-2 capsids obtained from primary isolates from patients with different disease progression status...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345663/nuclear-localization-of-beclin-1-promotes-radiation-induced-dna-damage-repair-independent-of-autophagy
#5
Fei Xu, Yixuan Fang, Lili Yan, Lan Xu, Suping Zhang, Yan Cao, Li Xu, Xiaoying Zhang, Jialing Xie, Gaoyue Jiang, Chaorong Ge, Ni An, Daohong Zhou, Na Yuan, Jianrong Wang
Beclin 1 is a well-established core mammalian autophagy protein that is embryonically indispensable and has been presumed to suppress oncogenesis via an autophagy-mediated mechanism. Here, we show that Beclin 1 is a prenatal primary cytoplasmic protein but rapidly relocated into the nucleus during postnatal development in mice. Surprisingly, deletion of beclin1 in in vitro human cells did not block an autophagy response, but attenuated the expression of several DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair proteins and formation of repair complexes, and reduced an ability to repair DNA in the cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR)...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345622/comprehensive-track-structure-based-evaluation-of-dna-damage-by-light-ions-from-radiotherapy-relevant-energies-down-to-stopping
#6
W Friedland, E Schmitt, P Kundrát, M Dingfelder, G Baiocco, S Barbieri, A Ottolenghi
Track structures and resulting DNA damage in human cells have been simulated for hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and neon ions with 0.25-256 MeV/u energy. The needed ion interaction cross sections have been scaled from those of hydrogen; Barkas scaling formula has been refined, extending its applicability down to about 10 keV/u, and validated against established stopping power data. Linear energy transfer (LET) has been scored from energy deposits in a cell nucleus; for very low-energy ions, it has been defined locally within thin slabs...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345451/the-impact-of-advanced-proteomics-in-the-search-for-markers-and-therapeutic-targets-of-bladder-cancer
#7
Hongshuo Zhang, Yue Fan, Lingling Xia, Chunhui Gao, Xin Tong, Hanfu Wang, Lili Sun, Tuo Ji, Mingyu Jin, Bing Gu, Bo Fan
Bladder cancer is the most common cancer of the urinary tract and can be avoided through proper surveillance and monitoring. Several genetic factors are known to contribute to the progression of bladder cancer, many of which produce molecules that serve as cancer biomarkers. Blood, urine, and tissue are commonly analyzed for the presence of biomarkers, which can be derived from either the nucleus or the mitochondria. Recent advances in proteomics have facilitated the high-throughput profiling of data generated from bladder cancer-related proteins or peptides in parallel with high sensitivity and specificity, providing a wealth of information for biomarker discovery and validation...
March 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345342/the-role-of-strain-in-the-homoaromatization-of-semibullvalenes
#8
Richard Vaughan Williams, Abdullah G Al-Sehemi, Amanda K Meier, Zachary Z Brown, John R Armantrout
The low activation barrier to the Cope rearrangement of semibullvalenes has been attributed to the inherent ring-strain of this nucleus. Appropriate, Dewar-Hoffmann, substitution of semibullvalene results in the stabilization of the transition state and a further lowering of the Cope barrier. An alternative proposal for lowering/eliminating this barrier is the use of strain to destabilize the localized semibullvalene. Using density functional and Hartree Fock calculations, we predict that additionally straining the semibullvalene nucleus, by small ring annelations, will lead to a lowering of the Cope barrier and ultimately to ground state neutral homoaromatics...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345262/purebreeding-of-red-maasai-and-crossbreeding-with-dorper-sheep-in-different-environments-in-kenya
#9
E Zonabend König, E Strandberg, J M K Ojango, T Mirkena, A M Okeyo, J Philipsson
The aim of this article was to study opportunities for improvement of the indigenous and threatened Red Maasai sheep (RM) in Kenya, by comparing purebreeding with crossbreeding with Dorper sheep (D) as a terminal breed, in two different environments (Env. A and a harsher Env. B), assuming different levels of genotype-by-environment interaction (G × E). Breeding goals differed between environments and breeds. Four scenarios of nucleus breeding schemes were stochastically simulated, with the nucleus in Env...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345164/comparing-functional-mri-protocols-for-small-iron-rich-basal-ganglia-nuclei-such-as-the-subthalamic-nucleus-at-7-t-and-3-t
#10
Gilles de Hollander, Max C Keuken, Wietske van der Zwaag, Birte U Forstmann, Robert Trampel
The basal ganglia (BG) form a network of subcortical nuclei. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the BG could provide insight in its functioning and the underlying mechanisms of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). However, fMRI of the BG with high specificity is challenging, because the nuclei are small and variable in their anatomical location. High resolution fMRI at field strengths of 7 Tesla (T) could help resolve these challenges to some extent. A set of MR protocols was developed for functional imaging of the BG nuclei at 3 T and 7 T...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345128/rs9-a-novel-nrf2-activator-attenuates-light-induced-death-of-cells-of-photoreceptor-cells-and-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-cells
#11
Yuki Inoue, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Yasuhiro Noda, Ryota Nagano, Tomohiro Otsuka, Yoshiki Kuse, Yukimichi Nakano, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Yasuhiro Nakagami, Hideaki Hara
The retina is highly sensitive to oxidative stress because of its high consumption of oxygen associated with the phototransductional processes. Recent findings have suggested that oxidative stress is involved in the pathology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a progressive degeneration of the central retina. A well-known environmental risk factor is light exposure, as excessive and continuous light exposure can damage photoreceptors. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcriptional factor that controls antioxidative responses and phase 2 enzymes...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344588/atlsg1-2-regulates-leaf-growth-by-affecting-cell-proliferation-and-the-onset-of-endoreduplication-and-synergistically-interacts-with-atnmd3-during-cell-proliferation-process
#12
Huayan Zhao, Shiyou Lü, Liming Xiong
AtLSG1-2 is a circularly permuted GTPase required for ribosome biogenesis and recently shown to be involved in early leaf development, although it was unclear how AtLSG1-2 affects leaf growth. Here, we found that atlsg1-2 mutants had reduced leaf size as a result of decreased cell size and cell number. Leaf kinematic analysis and CYCB1;1::GUS expression pattern in atlsg1-2 mutant indicated that loss of function of AtLSG1-2 delays the transition from cell division to cell expansion. Decreases in ploidy levels and trichome branch number suggest that AtLSG1-2 deficiency suppresses endoreduplication...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344571/translation-initiation-factor-eif4e-and-eifiso4e-are-both-required-for-peanut-stripe-virus-infection-in-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l
#13
Manlin Xu, Hongfeng Xie, Juxiang Wu, Lianhui Xie, Jinguang Yang, Yucheng Chi
Peanut stripe virus (PStV) belongs to the genus Potyvirus and is the most important viral pathogen of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The eukaryotic translation initiation factor, eIF4E, and its isoform, eIF(iso)4E, play key roles during virus infection in plants, particularly Potyvirus. In the present study, we cloned the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E homologs in peanut and named these as PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that these two genes were expressed during all growth periods and in all peanut organs, but were especially abundant in young leaves and roots...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344570/tanycytes-as-regulators-of-seasonal-cycles-in-neuroendocrine-function
#14
REVIEW
Jo E Lewis, Francis J P Ebling
Annual cycles of physiology and behavior are highly prevalent in organisms inhabiting temperate and polar regions. Examples in mammals include changes in appetite and body fat composition, hibernation and torpor, growth of antlers, pelage and horns, and seasonal reproduction. The timing of these seasonal cycles reflects an interaction of changing environmental signals, such as daylength, and intrinsic rhythmic processes: circannual clocks. As neuroendocrine signals underlie these rhythmic processes, the focus of most mechanistic studies has been on neuronal systems in the hypothalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344081/plasma-membrane-crpk1-mediated-phosphorylation-of-14-3-3-proteins-induces-their-nuclear-import-to-fine-tune-cbf-signaling-during-cold-response
#15
Ziyan Liu, Yuxin Jia, Yanglin Ding, Yiting Shi, Zhen Li, Yan Guo, Zhizhong Gong, Shuhua Yang
In plant cells, changes in fluidity of the plasma membrane may serve as the primary sensor of cold stress; however, the precise mechanism and how the cell transduces and fine-tunes cold signals remain elusive. Here we show that the cold-activated plasma membrane protein cold-responsive protein kinase 1 (CRPK1) phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins. The phosphorylated 14-3-3 proteins shuttle from the cytosol to the nucleus, where they interact with and destabilize the key cold-responsive C-repeat-binding factor (CBF) proteins...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344074/aberrant-distributions-of-nuclear-pore-complex-proteins-in-als-mice-and-als-patients
#16
Jingwei Shang, Toru Yamashita, Yumiko Nakano, Ryuta Morihara, Xianghong Li, Tian Feng, Xia Liu, Yong Huang, Yusuke Fukui, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yasuyuki Ohta, Koji Abe
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) play important roles in traffic of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, aberrant distributions of components of NPCs were demonstrated in C9orf72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9-ALS) patients, but it is elusive whether such abnormities are also the case with other cause of ALS disease. In the present study, we investigated the spatiotemporal distributions of RanGAP1 and 4 representative nucleoporins (GP210, NUP205, NUP107 and NUP50) of NPCs in human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase-1 mutation transgenic (SOD1-Tg) mice and sporadic ALS patients...
March 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344041/stat5-signaling-in-kisspeptin-cells-regulates-the-timing-of-puberty
#17
Marina Augusto Silveira, Isadora C Furigo, Thais T Zampieri, Tabata M Bohlen, Daniella G de Paula, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Jose Donato, Renata Frazao
Previous studies have shown that kisspeptin neurons are important mediators of prolactin's effects on reproduction. However, the cellular mechanisms recruited by prolactin to affect kisspeptin neurons remain unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of brain slices from kisspeptin reporter mice, we observed that 20% of kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus was indirectly depolarized by prolactin via an unknown population of prolactin responsive neurons. This effect required the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway...
March 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343966/astrocytes-regulate-daily-rhythms-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-and-behavior
#18
Chak Foon Tso, Tatiana Simon, Alison C Greenlaw, Tanvi Puri, Michihiro Mieda, Erik D Herzog
Astrocytes are active partners in neural information processing [1, 2]. However, the roles of astrocytes in regulating behavior remain unclear [3, 4]. Because astrocytes have persistent circadian clock gene expression and ATP release in vitro [5-8], we hypothesized that they regulate daily rhythms in neurons and behavior. Here, we demonstrated that daily rhythms in astrocytes within the mammalian master circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), determine the period of wheel-running activity. Ablating the essential clock gene Bmal1 specifically in SCN astrocytes lengthened the circadian period of clock gene expression in the SCN and in locomotor behavior...
March 18, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343248/uncovering-specific-changes-in-network-wiring-underlying-the-primate-cerebrotype
#19
Salah Hamodeh, Ayse Bozkurt, Haian Mao, Fahad Sultan
Regular scaling of brain networks during evolution has been proposed to be the major process leading to enlarged brains. Alternative views, however, suggest that deviations from regular scaling were crucial to the evolution of the primate brain and the emergence of different cerebrotypes. Here, we examined the scaling within the major link between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex by studying the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). We compared the major axonal and dendritic wiring in the DCN of rodents and monkeys in search of regular scaling...
March 25, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343235/transcription-dependent-radial-distribution-of-tcf7l2-regulated-genes-in-chromosome-territories
#20
Keyvan Torabi, Darawalee Wangsa, Immaculada Ponsa, Markus Brown, Anna Bosch, Maria Vila-Casadesús, Tatiana S Karpova, Maria Calvo, Antoni Castells, Rosa Miró, Thomas Ried, Jordi Camps
Human chromosomes occupy distinct territories in the interphase nucleus. Such chromosome territories (CTs) are positioned according to gene density. Gene-rich CTs are generally located in the center of the nucleus, while gene-poor CTs are positioned more towards the nuclear periphery. However, the association between gene expression levels and the radial positioning of genes within the CT is still under debate. In the present study, we performed three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments in the colorectal cancer cell lines DLD-1 and LoVo using whole chromosome painting probes for chromosomes 8 and 11 and BAC clones targeting four genes with different expression levels assessed by gene expression arrays and RT-PCR...
March 25, 2017: Chromosoma
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