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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738408/cgas-surveillance-of-micronuclei-links-genome-instability-to-innate-immunity
#1
Karen J Mackenzie, Paula Carroll, Carol-Anne Martin, Olga Murina, Adeline Fluteau, Daniel J Simpson, Nelly Olova, Hannah Sutcliffe, Jacqueline K Rainger, Andrea Leitch, Ruby T Osborn, Ann P Wheeler, Marcin Nowotny, Nick Gilbert, Tamir Chandra, Martin A M Reijns, Andrew P Jackson
DNA is strictly compartmentalized within the nucleus to prevent autoimmunity; despite this, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), a cytosolic sensor of double-stranded DNA, is activated in autoinflammatory disorders and by DNA damage. Precisely how cellular DNA gains access to the cytoplasm remains to be determined. Here, we report that cGAS localizes to micronuclei arising from genome instability in a mouse model of monogenic autoinflammation, after exogenous DNA damage and spontaneously in human cancer cells. Such micronuclei occur after mis-segregation of DNA during cell division and consist of chromatin surrounded by its own nuclear membrane...
July 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738361/expression-intracellular-localization-and-prognostic-value-of-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-and-pai-1-rna-binding-protein-1-in-primary-and-recurrent-ovarian-cancer-a-study-of-the-tumor-bank-ovarian-cancer-network
#2
Dominique Koensgen, Matthias B Stope, Ivana Tuerbachova, Daniela Bruennert, Thomas Kohlmann, Ioana Braicu, Jalid Sehouli, Carsten Denkert, Silvia Darb-Esfahani, Elmar Stickeler, Dumitru Sofroni, Edgar Dahl, Alexander Mustea
BACKGROUND: The plasminogen activator system plays a key role in ovarian cancer (OC) tumor progression. The plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and the recently identified PAI-1 RNA binding protein 1 (PAI-RBP1) are primary regulators of plasminogen activation and thus are putative biomarkers for OC progression. METHODS: One hundred fifty six OC patients were analyzed to identify the presence of PAI-1 and PAI-RBP1 and subsequently correlated to clinicopathological parameters...
July 22, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738112/central-role-of-protein-kinase-a-in-promoting-trigeminal-nociception-in-an-in-vivo-model-of-temporomandibular-disorders
#3
Lindsey K Koop, Jordan L Hawkins, Lauren E Cornelison, Paul L Durham
AIMS: To investigate cellular changes in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) and trigeminal ganglion (TG) associated with trigeminal nociception mediated by inflammation in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 86) were utilized to investigate cellular and behavioral responses to prolonged TMJ inflammation caused by bilateral injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) in the TMJ capsules. To investigate the cellular effects of protein kinase A (PKA) in the STN, rats were injected intrathecally with the selective PKA inhibitor KT5720 prior to injection of CFA into both TMJ capsules...
July 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737766/endothelial-fibrosis-induced-by-suppressed-stat3-expression-mediated-by-signaling-involving-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-alk5-smad-pathway
#4
Alvaro Becerra, Macarena Rojas, Alejandro Vallejos, Vicente Villegas, Lorena Pérez, Claudio Cabello-Verrugio, Felipe Simon
During systemic inflammatory pathologies, mediators of inflammation circulate in the bloodstream and interact with endothelial cells (ECs), resulting in endothelial dysfunction that maintains and enhances the pathological condition. Inflammatory mediators change the protein expression profile of ECs, which become activated fibroblasts via endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. This process is characterized by downregulated endothelial proteins and strongly upregulated fibrotic-specific genes and extracellular matrix-forming proteins...
July 24, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737709/regulation-and-modulation-of-human-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-activity-and-function
#5
REVIEW
Marietta Y W T Lee, Xiaoxiao Wang, Sufang Zhang, Zhongtao Zhang, Ernest Y C Lee
This review focuses on the regulation and modulation of human DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). The emphasis is on the mechanisms that regulate the activity and properties of Pol δ in DNA repair and replication. The areas covered are the degradation of the p12 subunit of Pol δ, which converts it from a heterotetramer (Pol δ4) to a heterotrimer (Pol δ3), in response to DNA damage and also during the cell cycle. The biochemical mechanisms that lead to degradation of p12 are reviewed, as well as the properties of Pol δ4 and Pol δ3 that provide insights into their functions in DNA replication and repair...
July 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737365/vim-thalamotomy-in-the-treatment-of-holmes-tremor-secondary-to-hiv-associated-midbrain-lesion-a-case-report
#6
José O Oliveira, Soraya A Jorge Cecilio, Matheus Fernandes Oliveira, Leonardo R Takahashi, Alexandro R Galassi, Vanessa M Holanda, José M Rotta
Holmes' tremor (rubral tremor, cerebellar outflow tremor) is characterized by rest, intention and postural tremor, often localized to one upper extremity, associated with ipsilateral dysmetria and dysdiadochokinesia. We describe a case of successful treatment of Holmes' tremor with unilateral nucleus ventralis intermedius (VIM) thalamotomy. The subject is a 43-year-old woman with unremarkable previous medical history. She presented with complete left hemiparesis in the context of human immunodeficiency syndrome and the magnetic resonance image disclosed a contrast-enhancing lesion in right brain peduncle, in topography of red nucleus...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736520/combined-effects-of-feedforward-inhibition-and-excitation-in-thalamocortical-circuit-on-the-transitions-of-epileptic-seizures
#7
Denggui Fan, Lixia Duan, Qian Wang, Guoming Luan
The mechanisms underlying electrophysiologically observed two-way transitions between absence and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures in cerebral cortex remain unknown. The interplay within thalamocortical network is believed to give rise to these epileptic multiple modes of activity and transitions between them. In particular, it is thought that in some areas of cortex there exists feedforward inhibition from specific relay nucleus of thalamus (TC) to inhibitory neuronal population (IN) which has even more stronger functions on cortical activities than the known feedforward excitation from TC to excitatory neuronal population (EX)...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736380/-association-of-fasl-844t-c-gene-polymorphism-with-fasl-expression-in-the-nucleus-pulposus-of-degenerative-lumbar-intervertebral-discs
#8
Zheng-Ming Sun, Pengmaojiacuo Pengmaojiacuo, Hong-Hai Xu, Yan-Hai Chang, Xue-Yuan Wu, Xiang-Hui Dong, Ming Ling
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of FasL-844T/C gene polymorphism with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and FasL expression in the nucleus pulposus of degenerative lumbar intervertebral discs. METHODS: Lumbar MRI data, venous blood and nucleus pulposus were collected from 105 patients with lumbar disc herniation. The genotypes of FasL-844T/C gene of the patients were determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
July 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736332/5-hydroxytryptamine-2a-receptors-of-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-mediate-panic-like-behaviours-and-fear-induced-antinociception-elicited-by-neuronal-activation-in-the-central-nucleus-of-the-inferior-colliculus
#9
Raimundo da Silva Soares, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Tayllon Dos Anjos-Garcia, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
It has been established that chemical stimulation of the inferior colliculus (IC) of laboratory animals evokes fear-related defensive responses, which are considered panic attack-like behaviours. In addition, there is evidence that defensive reactions provoked by chemical stimulation of midbrain tectum neurons may induce an antinociceptive response. Morphologically, the IC receives projections from other mesencephalic structures, such as the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), a region rich in serotonergic neurons that play a critical role in the control of defensive behaviours...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736330/impaired-microglia-fractalkine-signaling-affects-stress-reaction-and-coping-style-in-mice
#10
Zsuzsanna Winkler, Dániel Kuti, Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztina Gulyás, Ágnes Polyák, Krisztina J Kovács
Microglia, resident immune cells of the CNS are sensitive to various perturbations of the environment, such as stress exposure, and may be involved in translating these changes to behavior. Among the pathways mediating stress-related neuronal cues to microglia, the fractalkine-fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) signaling plays a crucial role. Using mice, in which the CX3CR1 gene was deleted, we explored hormonal and behavioral responses to acute and chronic stress along with changes in hypothalamic microglia. CX3CR1(-/-) animals display active escape in forced swim- and tail suspension tests, exaggerated neuronal activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and increased corticosterone release in response to restraint...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736307/local-striatal-reward-signals-can-be-predicted-from-corticostriatal-connectivity
#11
Peter Smittenaar, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Siawoosh Mohammadi, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Raymond J Dolan
A defining feature of the basal ganglia is their anatomical organization into multiple cortico-striatal loops. A central tenet of this architecture is the idea that local striatal function is determined by its precise connectivity with cortex, creating a functional topography that is mirrored within cortex and striatum. Here we formally test this idea using both human anatomical and functional imaging, specifically asking whether within striatal subregions one can predict between-voxel differences in functional signals based on between-voxel differences in corticostriatal connectivity...
July 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736241/oxytocin-release-via-activation-of-trpm2-and-cd38-in-the-hypothalamus-during-hyperthermia-in-mice-implication-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Haruhiro Higashida, Teruko Yuhi, Shirin Akther, Sarwat Amina, Jing Zhong, Mingkun Liang, Tomoko Nishimura, Hong-Xiang Liu, Olga Lopatina
Oxytocin (OT) is a critical molecule for social recognition that mediates social and emotional behaviors. OT is released during stress and acts as an anxiolytic factor. To know the precise molecular mechanisms underlying OT release into the brain during stress is important. It has been reported that intracellular concentrations of free calcium in the hypothalamic neurons are elevated by simultaneous stimulation of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and heat. We have reported in vitro and in vivo data that supports the idea that release of OT in the brain of male mice is regulated by cADPR and fever in relation to stress conditions...
July 20, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736154/retinoic-acid-induces-differentiation-of-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-embryonic-stem-cells-into-germ-cells
#13
Syed Mohmad Shah, Suresh Kumar Singla, Prabhat Palta, Radhey Sham Manik, Manmohan Singh Chauhan
Development of precise and reproducible culture system for in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into germ cells counts as a major leap forward for understanding not only the remarkable process of gametogenesis, otherwise obscured by limited availability of precursor primordial germ cells (PGCs), but in finally treating the catastrophic infertility. Taking into account the significant role of retinoic acid (RA) during in vivo gametogenesis, we designed the present study to investigate the effects of its stimulation on directing the differentiation of ES cells into germ cells...
July 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736149/methylmercury-augments-nrf2-activity-by-downregulation-of-the-src-family-kinase-fyn
#14
Megan Culbreth, Ziyan Zhang, Michael Aschner
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent developmental neurotoxicant that induces an oxidative stress response in the brain. It has been demonstrated that MeHg exposure increases nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity. Nrf2 is a transcription factor that translocates to the nucleus in response to oxidative stress, and upregulates phase II detoxifying enzymes. Although, Nrf2 activity is augmented subsequent to MeHg exposure, it has yet to be established whether Nrf2 moves into the nucleus as a result...
July 20, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736134/stimulus-evoked-erk-dependent-phosphorylation-of-activity-regulated-cytoskeleton-associated-protein-arc-regulates-its-neuronal-subcellular-localization
#15
Oleksii Nikolaienko, Maria Steene Eriksen, Sudarshan Patil, Haruhiko Bito, Clive R Bramham
Activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) is implicated as a master regulator of long-term synaptic plasticity and memory formation in mammalian brain. Arc acts at synapses and within the nucleus, but the mechanisms controlling Arc localization and function are little known. As Arc transcription and translation are regulated by ERK signalling, we asked whether Arc protein itself is phosphorylated by ERK. GST-fused Arc of rat origin was able to pull down endogenous ERK2 from rat hippocampal lysates...
July 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735867/cleavage-of-the-interleukin-11-receptor-induces-processing-of-its-c-terminal-fragments-by-the-gamma-secretase-and-the-proteasome
#16
Juliane Lokau, Charlotte M Flynn, Christoph Garbers
The cytokine Interleukin-11 (IL-11) signals through the membrane-bound IL-11 receptor (IL-11R), which is expressed in a cell-type specific manner. We have recently shown that the metalloprotease ADAM10 can cleave the IL-11R. The liberated soluble IL-11R (sIL-11R) ectodomain can bind its ligand, and the resulting IL-11/sIL-11R complex can activate cells that do not express the IL-11R (trans-signaling). In this study, we show that the remaining C-terminal fragment (CTF1) after ADAM10-mediated cleavage is subsequently cleaved within the membrane by the gamma-secretase complex, and that the resulting shorter CTF2 is further degraded by the proteasome...
July 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735398/phosphoproteomics-analysis-for-probing-plant-stress-tolerance
#17
Christof Rampitsch
Protein phosphorylation is a key signaling mechanism during the plant biotic and abiotic stress response. Signaling cascades communicate between the cell surface, where the stress is perceived, and the nucleus, where a response can be enacted. Many of these signals involve the specific, transient phosphorylation of proteins by kinases, a signal which is usually amplified through cascades. The advent of high-throughput phosphoproteomics, pioneered mainly in yeast and mammalian cells, has made it possible to discover novel phosphorylation events rapidly and efficiently in a data-dependent manner and this has greatly enlarged our understanding of the plant's response to stress...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735134/intraventricular-meningioma-resection-with-post-operative-ischemia-of-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#18
Saman Sizdahkhani, Stephen T Magill, Michael W McDermott
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular meningiomas (IVMs) comprise 0.5-3% of intracranial meningiomas. They often cause obstructive hydrocephalus and are commonly treated with surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery. OBJECTIVE: To describe the surgical approaches and resection techniques needed to approach intraventricular tumors, while highlighting the eloquent anatomy and blood supply surrounding the ventricular system in order to avoid neurological injury. METHODS: Two cases of left atrial IVMs that were complicated by postoperative lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) ischemia and resultant temporary contralateral quadrantanopia are described...
July 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735132/asleep-robot-assisted-surgery-for-the-implantation-of-subthalamic-electrodes-provides-the-same-clinical-improvement-and-therapeutic-window-as-awake-surgery
#19
Michel Lefranc, Yassine Zouitina, Mélissa Tir, Philippe Merle, Martial Ouendo, Jean-Marc Constans, Olivier Godefroy, Johann Peltier, Pierre Krystkowiak
OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of not performing an awake clinical evaluation during the robot-assisted implantation subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) electrodes on the stimulation parameters and clinical outcome in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: A total of 23 PD patients underwent robot-assisted surgery for the bilateral implantation of STN-DBS electrodes. Thirteen patients received general anesthesia (GA) and a limited intraoperative evaluation (side effects only), whereas 10 received local anesthesia and a full evaluation...
July 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735061/up-regulation-of-glur1-in-paraventricular-nucleus-and-greater-expressions-of-synapse-related-proteins-in-the-hypothalamus-of-chronic-unpredictable-stress-induced-depressive-rats
#20
Rong Li, Xia Zhao, Li Cai, Wan-Wan Gao
Converging evidence indicates that abnormal glutamatergic and synaptic systems may be associated with the pathophysiology of depression. Over-activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays a key role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and is a prominent feature in depression. In this study, we examined the effect of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in rats on the expression of AMPA subunit GluR1 protein in the hypothalamic PVN as well as on the expression of GluR1 and several synapse-related proteins in the hypothalamus...
July 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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