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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739487/the-ros-mediated-activation-of-il-6-stat3-signaling-pathway-is-involved-in-the-27-hydroxycholesterol-induced-cellular-senescence-in-nerve-cells
#1
Jiao Liu, Yun Liu, Juan Chen, Chunyan Hu, Mengying Teng, Kailin Jiao, Zhaoxia Shen, Dongmei Zhu, Jia Yue, Zhong Li, Yuan Li
The oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERMs), which like endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) induces the proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells in vitro. Interestingly, the observation that 27HC induces adverse effects in neural system, distinguishing it from E2. It has been suggested that high levels of circulating cholesterol increase the entry of 27HC into the brain, which may induce learning and memory impairment. Based on this evidence, 27HC may be associated with neurodegenerative processes and interrupted cholesterol homeostasis in the brain...
July 21, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738878/tlr4-response-mediates-ethanol-induced-neurodevelopment-alterations-in-a-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#2
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Sandra Montagud-Romero, Jerónimo Forteza, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, José Miñarro, Consuelo Guerri
BACKGROUND: Inflammation during brain development participates in the pathogenesis of early brain injury and cognitive dysfunctions. Prenatal ethanol exposure affects the developing brain and causes neural impairment, cognitive and behavioral effects, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Our previous studies demonstrate that ethanol activates the innate immune response and TLR4 receptor and causes neuroinflammation, brain damage, and cognitive defects in the developmental brain stage of adolescents...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738764/neuroprotection-by-endo-cannabinoids-in-glaucoma-and-retinal-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
Cinzia Rapino, Daniel Tortolani, Lucia Scipioni, Mauro Maccarrone
Emerging neuroprotective strategies are being explored to preserve the retina from degeneration, that occurs in eye pathologies like glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinitis pigmentosa. Incidentally, neuroprotection of retina is a defending mechanism designed to prevent or delay neuronal cell death, and to maintain neural function following an initial insult, thus avoiding loss of vision. Numerous studies have investigated potential neuroprotective properties of plant-derived phytocannabinoids, as well as of their endogenous counterparts collectively termed endocannabinoids (eCBs), in several degenerative diseases of the retina...
July 24, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737723/role-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-the-regulation-of-structural-plasticity-and-cognitive-function
#4
REVIEW
Crystal C Y Leung, Yung H Wong
Cognition and other higher brain functions are known to be intricately associated with the capacity of neural circuits to undergo structural reorganization. Structural remodelling of neural circuits, or structural plasticity, in the hippocampus plays a major role in learning and memory. Dynamic modifications of neuronal connectivity in the form of dendritic spine morphology alteration, as well as synapse formation and elimination, often result in the strengthening or weakening of specific neural circuits that determine synaptic plasticity...
July 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736980/diverse-roles-for-glycosaminoglycans-in-neural-patterning
#5
REVIEW
Kristian Saied-Santiago, Hannes E Bülow
The nervous system coordinates the functions of most multicellular organisms and, their response to the surrounding environment. Its development involves concerted cellular interactions, including migration, axon guidance and synapse formation. These processes depend on the molecular constituents and structure of the extracellular matrices (ECM). An essential component of ECMs are proteoglycans, i.e. proteins containing unbranched glycan chains known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). A defining characteristic of GAGs is their enormous molecular diversity, created by extensive modifications of the glycans during their biosynthesis...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736339/tfos-dews-ii-pain-and-sensation-report
#6
REVIEW
Carlos Belmonte, Jason J Nichols, Stephanie M Cox, James A Brock, Carolyn G Begley, David A Bereiter, Darlene A Dartt, Anat Galor, Pedram Hamrah, Jason J Ivanusic, Deborah S Jacobs, Nancy A McNamara, Mark I Rosenblatt, Fiona Stapleton, James S Wolffsohn
Pain associated to mechanical and chemical irritation of the eye surface is mediated by trigeminal ganglia mechano- and polymodal nociceptor neurons while cold thermoreceptors detect wetness and reflexly maintain basal tear production and blinking rate. These neurons project into two regions of the trigeminal brain stem nuclear complex: ViVc, activated by changes in the moisture of the ocular surface and VcC1, mediating sensory-discriminative aspects of ocular pain and reflex blinking. ViVc ocular neurons project to brain regions that control lacrimation and spontaneous blinking and to the sensory thalamus...
May 4, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736165/intra-lineage-fate-decisions-involve-activation-of-notch-receptors-basal-to-the-midbody-in-drosophila-sensory-organ-precursor-cells
#7
Mateusz Trylinski, Khalil Mazouni, François Schweisguth
Notch receptors regulate cell fate decisions during embryogenesis and throughout adult life. In many cell lineages, binary fate decisions are mediated by directional Notch signaling between the two sister cells produced by cell division. How Notch signaling is restricted to sister cells after division to regulate intra-lineage decision is poorly understood. More generally, where ligand-dependent activation of Notch occurs at the cell surface is not known, as methods to detect receptor activation in vivo are lacking...
July 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734904/identifying-novel-members-of-the-wntless-interactome-through-genetic-and-candidate-gene-approaches
#8
Jessica Petko, Trevor Tranchina, Goral Patel, Robert Levenson, Stephanie Justice-Bitner
Wnt signaling is an important pathway that regulates several aspects of embryogenesis, stem cell maintenance, and neural connectivity. We have recently determined that opioids decrease Wnt secretion, presumably by inhibiting the recycling of the Wnt trafficking protein Wntless (Wls). This effect appears to be mediated by protein-protein interaction between Wls and the mu-opioid receptor (MOR), the primary cellular target of opioid drugs. The goal of this study was to identify novel protein interactors of Wls that are expressed in the brain and may also play a role in reward or addiction...
July 19, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734870/elucidation-of-the-neural-circuits-activated-by-a-gabab-receptor-positive-modulator-relevance-to-anxiety
#9
REVIEW
Riccardo Pizzo, Olivia F O'Leary, John F Cryan
Although there is much evidence for a role of GABAB receptors in the pathophysiology of anxiety, the underlying neuronal mechanisms are largely unclear. The GABAB receptor allosteric positive modulator, GS39783, exerts anxiolytic effects without interfering with GABAB-mediated modulation of body temperature, cognitive performance and locomotor activity thus offering advantages over GABAB receptor agonists. However, the precise neural circuits underlying the anxiolytic effects of GS39783 are unknown. The aim of the present study was to identify brain structures and associated neuronal circuits that are modulated by GS39783 under either basal or mild stress conditions...
July 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734458/rett-like-severe-encephalopathy-caused-by-a-de%C3%A2-novo-grin2b-mutation-is-attenuated-by-d-serine-dietary-supplement
#10
David Soto, Mireia Olivella, Cristina Grau, Judith Armstrong, Clara Alcon, Xavier Gasull, Macarena Gómez de Salazar, Esther Gratacòs-Batlle, David Ramos-Vicente, Víctor Fernández-Dueñas, Francisco Ciruela, Àlex Bayés, Carlos Sindreu, Anna López-Sala, Àngels García-Cazorla, Xavier Altafaj
BACKGROUND: N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play pivotal roles in synaptic development, plasticity, neural survival, and cognition. Despite recent reports describing the genetic association between de novo mutations of NMDAR subunits and severe psychiatric diseases, little is known about their pathogenic mechanisms and potential therapeutic interventions. Here we report a case study of a 4-year-old Rett-like patient with severe encephalopathy carrying a missense de novo mutation in GRIN2B(p...
June 16, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733356/steady-state-free-ca2-in-astrocytes-is-decreased-by-experience-and-impacts-arteriole-tone
#11
Eslam M F Mehina, Ciaran Murphy-Royal, Grant R Gordon
Astrocytes can control basal synaptic strength and arteriole tone via their resting Ca2+ activity. However, whether resting astrocyte Ca2+ can adjust to a new steady-state level, with an impact on surrounding brain cells, remains unknown. Using two-photon Ca2+ imaging in male rat acute brain slices of the somatosensory neocortex, we found that theta burst neural activity produced an unexpected long-lasting reduction in astrocyte free Ca2+ in the soma and endfeet. The drop in intracellular Ca2+ was attenuated by antagonists targeting multiple ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, and intracellular cascades involved Ca2+ stores and nitric oxide...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733175/probing-the-neural-circuits-of-sex-and-aggression-with-precision-genetics-commentary-on-estrogen-receptor-alpha-is-required-in-gabaergic-but-not-glutamatergic-neurons-to-masculinize-the-brain-by-wu-kahn-and-tollkuhn
#12
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733135/centrally-mediated-cardiovascular-actions-of-the-angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptor
#13
REVIEW
U Muscha Steckelings, Annette de Kloet, Colin Sumners
Sustained increases in the activity of the sympathetic neural pathways that exit the brain and which increase blood pressure (BP) are a major underlying factor in resistant hypertension. Recently available information on the occurrence of angiotensin II type 2 receptors (AT2Rs) within or adjacent to brain cardiovascular control centers is consistent with findings that stimulation of these receptors lowers BP, particularly during hypertension of neurogenic origin. Until recently brain AT2R had not been considered by many to play a role in the central control of BP...
July 18, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729914/effects-of-mtor-on-neurological-deficits-after-transient-global-ischemia
#14
Jihong Xing, Jian Lu
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase and activation of its signal pathway plays an important role in regulating protein growth and synthesis as well as cell proliferation and survival. In the present study, we examined the contribution of mTOR and its downstream products to brain injuries and neurological deficiencies after cardiac arrest (CA) induced-transient global ischemia. CA was induced by asphyxia followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in rats. Our results showed that expression of p-mTOR, mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 4 (4E-BP1) and p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (S6K1) pathways were amplified in CA rats compared to their controls...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729853/role-of-melatonin-galanin-and-rfamide-neuropeptides-qrfp26-and-qrfp43-in-the-neuroendocrine-control-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function
#15
REVIEW
Iacopo Gesmundo, Tania Villanova, Dana Banfi, Giacomo Gamba, Riccarda Granata
Glucose homeostasis is finely regulated by a number of hormones and peptides released mainly from the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and muscle, regulating pancreatic secretion through cellular receptors and their signal transduction cascades. The endocrine function of the pancreas is controlled by islets within the exocrine pancreatic tissue that release hormones like insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and ghrelin. Moreover, both exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions are regulated by a variety of hormonal and neural mechanisms, such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, or the inhibitory peptide somatostatin...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729735/the-wnt-receptor-ryk-is-a-negative-regulator-of-mammalian-dendrite-morphogenesis
#16
Vanessa Lanoue, Michael Langford, Amanda White, Kai Sempert, Lily Fogg, Helen M Cooper
The unique dendritic architecture of a given neuronal subtype determines its synaptic connectivity and ability to integrate into functional neuronal networks. It is now clear that abnormal dendritic structure is associated with neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Currently, however, the nature of the extrinsic factors that limit dendritic growth and branching within predetermined boundaries in the mammalian brain is poorly understood. Here we identify the Wnt receptor Ryk as a novel negative regulator of dendritic arborisation...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729439/striatal-gpr88-modulates-foraging-efficiency
#17
Aundrea Rainwater, Elisenda Sanz, Richard D Palmiter, Albert Quintana
The striatum is anatomically and behaviorally implicated in behaviors that promote efficient foraging. To investigate this function, we studied instrumental choice behavior in mice lacking GPR88, a striatum-enriched orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that modulates striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) excitability. Our results reveal that hungry mice lacking GPR88 (KO mice) were slow to acquire food-reinforced lever-press, but could lever press similar to controls on a progressive-ratio schedule. Both WT and KO mice discriminated between reward and no-reward levers; however, KO mice failed to discriminate based on relative quantity- reward (1 versus 3 food pellets) or effort (3 versus 9 lever presses)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729065/neural-circuits-for-social-cognition-implications-for-autism
#18
REVIEW
Marta Fernández, Irene Mollinedo-Gajate, Olga Peñagarikano
Social neuroscience, the study of the neurobiological basis of social behavior, has become a major area of current research in behavioral neuroscience and psychiatry, since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by social deficits. Social behavior refers to the behavioral response with regards to socially relevant information, and requires the perception and integration of social cues through a complex cognition processes (i.e. social cognition) that involves attention, memory, motivation and emotion...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727688/diazepam-actions-in-the-vta-enhance-social-dominance-and-mitochondrial-function-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-by-activation-of-dopamine-d1-receptors
#19
M A van der Kooij, F Hollis, L Lozano, I Zalachoras, S Abad, O Zanoletti, J Grosse, I Guillot de Suduiraut, C Canto, C Sandi
Benzodiazepines can ameliorate social disturbances and increase social competition, particularly in high-anxious individuals. However, the neural circuits and mechanisms underlying benzodiazepines' effects in social competition are not understood. Converging evidence points to the mesolimbic system as a potential site of action for at least some benzodiazepine-mediated effects. Furthermore, mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been causally implicated in the link between anxiety and social competitiveness...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725181/impact-of-proestrus-on-gene-expression-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-of-mice
#20
Csaba Vastagh, Zsolt Liposits
The antero-ventral periventricular zone (AVPV) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) have been recognized as gonadal hormone receptive regions of the rodent brain that-via wiring to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons-contribute to orchestration of the preovulatory GnRH surge. We hypothesized that neural genes regulating the induction of GnRH surge show altered expression in proestrus. Therefore, we compared the expression of 48 genes obtained from intact proestrous and metestrous mice, respectively, by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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