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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930057/tlr4-methylation-moderates-the-relationship-between-alcohol-use-severity-and-gray-matter-loss
#1
Hollis C Karoly, Rachel E Thayer, Sarah L Hagerty, Kent E Hutchison
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with decreased gray matter, and neuroinflammation is one mechanism through which alcohol may confer such damage, given that heavy alcohol use may promote neural damage via activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammatory signaling cascades. We previously demonstrated that TLR4 is differentially methylated in AUD compared with control subjects, and the present study aims to extend this work by examining whether TLR4 methylation moderates the relationship between alcohol use and gray matter...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929510/laminar-specific-encoding-of-texture-elements-in-rat-barrel-cortex
#2
Benjamin J Allitt, Dasuni S Alwis, Ramesh Rajan
Texture discrimination by rats is exquisitely guided by fine-grain mechanical stick-slip motions of the face whiskers as they encounter, stick to, and slip past successive texture-defining surface features like bumps and grooves. Neural encoding of successive stick-slip texture events will be shaped by adaptation, common to all sensory systems, whereby receptor and neural responses to a stimulus are affected by responses to preceding stimuli, allowing resetting to signal novel information. Additionally, when a whisker is actively moved to contact and brush over surfaces, that motion itself generates neural responses that could cause adaptation of responses to subsequent stick-slip events...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925523/bdnf-haplo-insufficiency-impairs-high-frequency-cortical-oscillations-in-mice
#3
Nigel C Jones, Matthew Hudson, Joshua Foreman, Gil Rind, Rachel Hill, Elizabeth E Manning, Maarten van den Buuse
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous aetiology involving genetic and environmental factors. Deficiencies in both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NMDA receptor function have been implicated in the disorder, and may play causal and synergistic roles. Perturbations in the regulation of electrophysiological signals, including high-frequency (gamma: 30-80 Hz and beta: 20-30 Hz) neuronal oscillations, are also associated with the disorder. This study investigated the influence of BDNF deficiency and NMDA receptor hypofunction on electrophysiological responses to brief acoustic stimuli...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924263/refinement-of-ectopic-protein-expression-through-the-gal4-uas-system-in-bombyx-mori-application-to-behavioral-and-developmental-studies
#4
Chiho Hara, Koudai Morishita, Seika Takayanagi-Kiya, Akihisa Mikami, Keiro Uchino, Takeshi Sakurai, Ryohei Kanzaki, Hideki Sezutsu, Masafumi Iwami, Taketoshi Kiya
Silkmoth, Bombyx mori, is one of the important model insects in which transgenic techniques and the GAL4/UAS system are applicable. However, due to cytotoxicity and low transactivation activity of GAL4, effectiveness of the GAL4/UAS system and its application in B. mori are still limited. In the present study, we refined the previously reported UAS vector by exploiting transcriptional and translational enhancers, and achieved 200-fold enhancement of reporter GFP fluorescence in the GAL4/UAS system. Enhanced protein expression of membrane-targeted GFP and calcium indicator protein (GCaMP5G) drastically improved visualization of fine neurite structures and neural activity, respectively...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924007/multiple-signaling-pathways-coordinately-regulate-forgetting-of-olfactory-adaptation-through-control-of-sensory-responses-in-c-elegans
#5
Tomohiro Kitazono, Sayuri Hara-Kuge, Osamu Matsuda, Akitoshi Inoue, Manabi Fujiwara, Takeshi Ishihara
Forgetting memories is important for animals to properly respond to continuously changing environments. To elucidate the mechanisms of forgetting, we used one of the behavioral plasticities of C. elegans hermaphrodite, olfactory adaptation to an attractive odorant, diacetyl, as a simple model of learning. In C. elegans, the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway accelerates forgetting of olfactory adaptation by facilitating neural secretion from AWC sensory neurons. In this study, to identify the downstream effectors of the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of the gain-of-function mutant of tir-1 (ok1052), which shows excessive forgetting...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923971/prolactin-action-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-is-necessary-for-postpartum-maternal-nursing-behavior
#6
Rosemary S E Brown, Mari Aoki, Sharon R Ladyman, Hollian R Phillipps, Amanda Wyatt, Ulrich Boehm, David R Grattan
Pregnancy hormones, such as prolactin, sensitize neural circuits controlling parental interactions to induce timely activation of maternal behaviors immediately after parturition. While the medial preoptic area (MPOA) is known to be critical for maternal behavior, the specific role of prolactin in this brain region has remained elusive. Here, we evaluated the role of prolactin action in the MPOA using complementary genetic strategies in mice. We characterized prolactin-responsive neurons within the MPOA at different hormonal stages and delineated their projections in the brain...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923480/impact-of-morphine-on-the-expression-of-insulin-receptor-and-protein-levels-of-insulin-igfs-in-rat-neural-stem-cells
#7
Sadegh Salarinasab, AliReza Nourazarian, Masoud Nikanfar, Nima Abdyazdani, Masoumeh Kazemi, Navid Feizy, Reza Rahbarghazi
Alzheimer's disease is correlated with neuronal degeneration and loss of neuronal precursors in different parts of the brain. It has been found disturbance in the homeostasis neural stem cells (NSCs) can cause neurodegeneration. Morphine, an analgesic agent, can disrupt the dynamic and normal state of NSCs. However, more investigations are required to clearly address underlying mechanisms. The current experiment aimed to investigate the effects of morphine on the cell distribution of insulin factor and receptor and insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2) in NSCs...
September 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923174/27-hydroxycholesterol-an-endogenous-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulator
#8
REVIEW
Sisi He, Erik R Nelson
Estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate the actions of the steroidal estrogens, and are important for the regulation of several physiological and pathophysiological processes, including reproduction, bone physiology, cardiovascular physiology and breast cancer. The unique pharmacology of the ERs allows for certain ligands, such as tamoxifen, to elicit tissue- and context-specific responses, ligands now referred to as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Recently, the cholesterol metabolite 27-hydroxychoelsterol (27HC) has been defined as an endogenous SERM, with activities in atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, breast and prostate cancers, and neural degenerative diseases...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921675/altered-cav1-2-function-in-the-timothy-syndrome-mouse-model-produces-ascending-serotonergic-abnormalities
#9
Daniel G Ehlinger, Kathryn G Commons
Polymorphism in the gene CACNA1C, encoding the pore-forming subunit of Cav1.2 L-type calcium channels, has one of the strongest genetic linkages to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder: psychopathologies in which serotonin signaling has been implicated. Additionally, a gain-of-function mutation in CACNA1C is responsible for the neurodevelopmental disorder Timothy Syndrome that presents with prominent behavioral features on the autism spectrum. Given an emerging role for serotonin in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders, we investigate the relationship between Cav1...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919555/disturbances-of-systemic-and-hippocampal-insulin-sensitivity-in-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-mif-knockout-male-mice-lead-to-behavioral-changes-associated-with-decreased-psa-ncam-levels
#10
Ana Djordjevic, Biljana Bursać, Nataša Veličković, Ljupka Gligorovska, Djurdjica Ignjatović, Mirko Tomić, Gordana Matić
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multifunctional cytokine well known for its role in inflammation enhancement. However, a growing body of evidence is emerging on its role in energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues such as hippocampus, a brain region implicated in cognition, learning and memory. We hypothesized that genetic deletion of MIF may result in the specific behavioral changes, which may be linked tо impairments in brain or systemic insulin sensitivity by possible changes of the hippocampal synaptic plasticity...
September 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918935/dense-intra-adipose-sympathetic-arborizations-are-essential-for-cold-induced-beiging-of-mouse-white-adipose-tissue
#11
Haochen Jiang, Xiaofan Ding, Ying Cao, Huanhuan Wang, Wenwen Zeng
Efferent signals from the central nervous system represent a key layer of regulation of white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the mechanism by which efferent neural signals control WAT metabolism remains to be better understood. Here, we exploit the volume fluorescence-imaging technique to visualize the neural arborizations in mouse inguinal WAT at single-fiber resolution. The imaging reveals a dense network of sympathetic arborizations that had been previously undetected by conventional methods, with sympathetic fibers being in close apposition to > 90% of adipocytes...
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918577/microarray-based-snp-genotyping-to-identify-genetic-risk-factors-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-tnbc-in-south-indian-population
#12
M Aravind Kumar, Vineeta Singh, Shaik Mohammad Naushad, Uday Shanker, M Lakshmi Narasu
In the view of aggressive nature of Triple-Negative Breast cancer (TNBC) due to the lack of receptors (ER, PR, HER2) and high incidence of drug resistance associated with it, a case-control association study was conducted to identify the contributing genetic risk factors for Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). A total of 30 TNBC patients and 50 age and gender-matched controls of Indian origin were screened for 9,00,000 SNP markers using microarray-based SNP genotyping approach. The initial PLINK association analysis (p < 0...
September 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918255/microglia-mediated-baff-baffr-ligation-promotes-neuronal-survival-in-brain-ischemia-injury
#13
Kai Li, Wei Yu, Rangjuan Cao, Zhihua Zhu, Guoqing Zhao
The innate immune responses of brain to vascular occlusion are primarily orchestrated by activated microglia. However, the roles of microglia in inflammatory responses to brain ischemic injuries are controversial. Here, we report a new mechanism by which microglia confer protective effects on ischemic neuronal cells. We found that under ischemic condition, the B-cell activating factor (BAFF) was vastly upregulated in microglia and this upregulation could at least be attributed to JAK-STAT signaling pathway activated by IFN-γ and IL-10, which were spatio-temporally enriched in I/R injured brain as well...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916627/interactions-between-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-dorsomedial-striatum-are-necessary-for-odor-span-capacity-in-rats-role-of-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptors
#14
Don A Davies, Quentin Greba, Jantz C Selk, Jillian K Catton, Landon D Baillie, Sean J Mulligan, John G Howland
Working memory is involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information essential for complex cognition. While the neural substrates underlying working memory capacity have been studied in humans, considerably less is known about the circuitry mediating working memory capacity in rodents. Therefore, the present experiments tested the involvement of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsal striatum (STR) in the odor span task (OST), a task proposed to assay working memory capacity in rodents. Initially, Long Evans rats were trained to dig in scented sand for food following a serial delayed nonmatching-to-sample rule...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916137/oxytocin-induces-penile-erection-and-yawning-when-injected-into-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-involvement-of-glutamic-acid-dopamine-and-nitric-oxide
#15
Fabrizio Sanna, Jessica Bratzu, Antonio Argiolas, Maria Rosaria Melis
Oxytocin (5-100ng), but not Arg(8)-vasopressin (100ng), injected unilaterally into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) induces penile erection and yawning in a dose-dependent manner in male rats. The minimal effective dose was 20ng for penile erection and 5ng for yawning. Oxytocin responses were abolished not only by the oxytocin receptor antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin (1μg), but also by (+) MK-801 (1μg), an excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) subtype, SCH 23390 (1μg), a D1 receptor antagonist, but not haloperidol (1μg), a D2 receptor antagonist, and SMTC (40μg), an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, injected into the BNST 15min before oxytocin...
September 12, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914603/synaptic-up-scaling-preserves-motor-circuit-output-after-chronic-natural-inactivity
#16
Joseph M Santin, Mauricio Vallejo, Lynn K Hartzler
Neural systems use homeostatic plasticity to maintain normal brain functions and to prevent abnormal activity.  Surprisingly, homeostatic mechanisms that regulate circuit output have mainly been demonstrated during artificial and/or pathological perturbations.  Natural, physiological scenarios that activate these stabilizing mechanisms in neural networks of mature animals remain elusive.  To establish the extent to which a naturally inactive circuit engages mechanisms of homeostatic plasticity, we utilized the respiratory motor circuit in bullfrogs that normally remains inactive for several months during the winter...
September 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912273/neuroligin-4-regulates-synaptic-growth-via-the-bone-morphogenetic-protein-bmp-signaling-pathway-at-the-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#17
Xinwang Zhang, Menglong Rui, Guangmin Gan, Cong Huang, Jukang Yi, Huihui Lv, Wei Xie
The neuroligin (Nlg) family of neural cell adhesion molecules is thought to be required for synapse formation and development, and has been linked to the development of autism spectrum disorders in humans. In Drosophila melanogaster, mutations in the neuroligin 1-3 genes have been reported to induce synapse developmental defects at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), but the role of neuroligin 4 (dnlg4) in synapse development has not been determined. Here, we report that the Drosophila neuroligin 4 (DNlg4) is different from DNlg1-3 that it presynaptically regulates NMJ synapse development...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912019/a-nigro-vagal-pathway-controls-gastric-motility-and-is-affected-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinsonism
#18
Laura Anselmi, Luca Toti, Cecilia Bove, Jessica Hampton, R Alberto Travagli
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In most patients with Parkinson's disease, gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunctions, such as gastroparesis and constipation, are prodromal to the cardinal motor symptoms of the disease. Sporadic Parkinson's disease has been proposed to develop following ingestion of neurotoxicants that affect the brain-gut axis via the vagus nerve, and then travel to higher centers compromising the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and, later, the cerebral cortex. We aimed to identify the pathway that connects the brainstem vagal nuclei and the SNpc, and to determine whether this pathway is compromised in a rat model of Parkinsonism...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911165/cellular-retinoic-acid-binding-protein-1-modulates-stem-cell-proliferation-to-affect-learning-and-memory-in-male-mice
#19
Yu-Lung Lin, Shawna D Persaud, Jennifer Nhieu, Li-Na Wei
Retinoic acid (RA) is the active ingredient of vitamin A. It exerts its canonical activity by binding to nuclear RA receptors (RARs) to regulate gene expression. Increasingly, RA is also known to elicit nongenomic RAR-independent activities, most widely detected in activating extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. This study validated the functional role of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1 (Crabp1) in mediating nongenomic activity in RA, specifically activating ERK1/2 to rapidly augment the cell cycle by expanding the growth 1 phase and slowing down embryonic stem cell and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905487/endogenous-neurosteroids-influence-synaptic-gabaa-receptors-during-post-natal-development
#20
REVIEW
Delia Belelli, Adam R Brown, Scott J Mitchell, Ben G Gunn, Murray B Herd, Grant Phillips, Mohsen Seifi, Jerome D Swinny, Jeremy J Lambert
GABA plays a key role in both embryonic and neonatal brain development. For example, during early neonatal nervous system maturation, synaptic transmission, mediated by GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs), undergoes a temporally specific form of synaptic plasticity, to accommodate the changing requirements of maturing neural networks. Specifically, the duration of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), resulting from vesicular GABA activating synaptic GABAA Rs, is reduced, permitting neurons to appropriately influence the window for postsynaptic excitation...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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