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Neural receptors

Jean-Nicolas Audet, Lima Kayello, Simon Ducatez, Sara Perillo, Laure Cauchard, Jason T Howard, Lauren A O'Connell, Erich D Jarvis, Louis Lefebvre
Problem solving and innovation are key components of intelligence. We compare wild-caught individuals from two species that are close relatives of Darwin's finches, the innovative Loxigilla barbadensis , and its most closely related species in Barbados, the conservative Tiaris bicolor . We found an all-or-none difference in the problem-solving capacity of the two species. Brain RNA sequencing analyses revealed interspecific differences in genes related to neuronal and synaptic plasticity in the intrapallial neural populations (mesopallium and nidopallium), especially in the nidopallium caudolaterale, a structure functionally analogous to the mammalian prefrontal cortex...
March 2018: Science Advances
Mariana Fortunata Donadon, Rocio Martin-Santos, Flávia de Lima Osório
Studies have shown that traumatic experiences may affect hormonal systems mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the oxytocinergic system. This effect is the result of long-term impairments in hypothalamic structures and negative feedback mechanisms within the HPA axis, structures that mediate the response to stress. This deregulation reduces the production and release of cortisol and oxytocin (OXT), which may alter stress responses and lead to increased vulnerability to impairments from stressful experiences...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Guang-Zhe Huang, Mutsuo Taniguchi, Ye-Bo Zhou, Jing-Ji Zhang, Fumino Okutani, Yoshihiro Murata, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Hideto Kaba
The formation of mate recognition memory in mice is associated with neural changes at the reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses between glutamatergic mitral cell (MC) projection neurons and GABAergic granule cell (GC) interneurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Although noradrenaline (NA) plays a critical role in the formation of the memory, the mechanism by which it exerts this effect remains unclear. Here we used extracellular field potential and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to assess the actions of bath-applied NA (10 µM) on the glutamatergic transmission and its plasticity at the MC-to-GC synapse in the AOB...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
James W Checco, Guo Zhang, Wangding Yuan, Ke Yu, Siyuan Yin, Rachel H Roberts-Galbraith, Peter M Yau, Elena V Romanova, Jian Jing, Jonathan V Sweedler
Neuropeptides in several animals undergo an unusual post-translational modification: the isomerization of an amino acid residue from the L-stereoisomer to the D-stereoisomer. The resulting D-amino acid-containing peptide (DAACP) often displays higher biological activity than its all-L-residue analogue, with the D-residue being critical for function in many cases. However, little is known about the full physiological roles played by DAACPs and few studies have examined the interaction of DAACPs with their cognate receptors...
March 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Shigeki Fujiwara, Cristian Cañestro
Reporter analyses of Hox1 and Brachyury (Bra) genes have revealed examples of redundant enhancers that provide regulatory robustness. Retinoic acid (RA) activates through an RA-response element the transcription of Hox1 in the nerve cord of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. We also found a weak RA-independent neural enhancer within the second intron of Hox1. The Hox1 gene in the larvacean Oikopleura dioica is also expressed in the nerve cord. The O. dioica genome, however, does not contain the RA receptor-encoding gene, and the expression of Hox1 has become independent of RA...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Marion Griton, Jan Pieter Konsman
Although the immune and nervous systems have long been considered independent biological systems, they turn out to mingle and interact extensively. The present review summarizes recent insights into the neural pathways activated by and involved in infection-induced inflammation and discusses potential clinical applications. The simplest activation concerns a reflex action within C-fibers leading to neurogenic inflammation. Low concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines or bacterial fragments may also act on these afferent nerve fibers to signal the central nervous system and bring about early fever, hyperalgesia and sickness behavior...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Tao Tan, Wei Wang, Haitao Xu, Zhilin Huang, Yu Tian Wang, Zhifang Dong
Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display abnormalities in neuronal development, synaptic function and neural circuits. The imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) synaptic transmission has been proposed to cause the main behavioral characteristics of ASD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can directly or indirectly induce excitability and synaptic plasticity changes in the brain noninvasively. However, whether rTMS can ameliorate autistic-like behaviors in animal model via regulating the balance of E/I synaptic transmission is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Xin Xue, Xingxing Chen, Weili Fan, Guan Wang, Liang Zhang, Zongfeng Chen, Peng Liu, Mingyong Liu, Jianhua Zhao
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) facilitates neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferation and differentiation into neuronal linage. However, the effect of HMGB1 on NSCs migration is still elusive. The present study is to investigate the corelation between HMGB1 and NSCs migration and the potential mechanism. The results indicated that 1 ng/ml HMGB1 promoted NSCs proliferation using CCK8 assays. Moreover, data showed that 1 ng/ml HMGB1 facilitated NSCs migration via filopodia formation using phase-contrast and transwell assays...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hong Duan, Luis F de Navas, Fuqu Hu, Kailiang Sun, Yannis E Mavromatakis, Kayla Viets, Cyrus Zhou, Joshua Kavaler, Robert J Johnston, Andrew Tomlinson, Eric C Lai
Photoreceptors in the crystalline Drosophila eye are recruited by receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras signaling, mediated by the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor (EGFR) and Sevenless receptor. Analyses of an allelic deletion series of the mir-279/996 locus, along with a panel of modified genomic rescue transgenes, show that normal Drosophila eye patterning depends on both miRNAs. Transcriptional reporter and activity sensor transgenes reveal expression and function of miR-279/996 in non-neural cells of the developing eye...
March 14, 2018: Development
Nathália Kersting, Bárbara Kunzler Souza, Igor Araujo Vieira, Rafael Pereira Dos Santos, Danielly Brufatto Olguins, Lauro José Gregianin, André Tesainer Brunetto, Algemir Lunardi Brunetto, Rafael Roesler, Caroline Brunetto de Farias, Gilberto Schwartsmann
OBJECTIVE: Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a type of childhood cancer probably arising from stem mesenchymal or neural crest cells. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) acts as a driver oncogene in many types of solid tumors. However, its involvement in ES remains poorly understood. METHODS: Human SK-ES-1 and RD-ES ES cells were treated with EGF, the EGFR inhibitor tyrphostin (AG1478), or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) inhibitors...
March 14, 2018: Oncology
James A Waschek, Serapio M Baca, Simon Akerman
The discovery that intravenous (IV) infusions of the neuropeptide PACAP-38 (pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide-38) induced delayed migraine-like headaches in a large majority of migraine patients has resulted in considerable excitement in headache research. In addition to suggesting potential therapeutic targets for migraine, the finding provides an opportunity to better understand the pathological events from early events (aura) to the headache itself. Although PACAP-38 and the closely related peptide VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) are well-known as vasoactive molecules, the dilation of cranial blood vessels per se is no longer felt to underlie migraine headaches...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
C G Bien
The paraneoplastic and autoimmune encephalitides are now well-established entities. Detection of neural autoantibodies enables specific diagnoses, provides information on the underlying disease pathophysiology, immunological treatability and the likelihood of a tumor being the underlying cause. This is true for the "high ranking" neural antibodies that have been established in the context of circumscribed clinical images and in consideration of large control groups, have been found in the same way by other laboratories and they respond to immunotherapy...
March 13, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Zhaoqun Liu, Lingling Wang, Zhao Lv, Zhi Zhou, Weilin Wang, Meijia Li, Qilin Yi, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
It is becoming increasingly clear that neurotransmitters impose direct influence on regulation of the immune process. Recently, a simple but sophisticated neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) system was identified in oyster, which modulated neural immune response via a "nervous-hemocyte"-mediated neuroendocrine immunomodulatory axis (NIA)-like pathway. In the present study, the de novo synthesis of neurotransmitters and their immunomodulation in the hemocytes of oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated to understand the autocrine/paracrine pathway independent of the nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nellihela Leel, Hemanshoo S Thakkar, David Drake, Nordeen Bouhadiba
Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a paraneoplastic, immune-mediated encephalopathy with a known association with ovarian teratomas. We present the first case in the UK of a 7-year-old patient presenting with this condition. Having been previously fit and healthy, the patient presented with an acute onset of cognitive disturbances. The initial suspicion was that of an infective encephalopathy; however, the lumbar puncture results were negative. Electroencephalography reported diffuse background slowing, supporting a diagnosis of encephalopathy...
March 13, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Calyn B Maske, Gregory C Loney, Nicole Lilly, Sarah J Terrill, Diana L Williams
The idea that gut-derived satiation signals influence food reward has recently gained traction, but this hypothesis is largely based on studies focused on neural circuitry, not the peripherally released signals. Here, we directly tested the hypothesis that intragastric (IG) nutrient infusion can suppress motivation for food. In a series of experiments, IG sucrose infusion (15 kcal) significantly and reliably reduced operant responding for a sucrose reward on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Moreover, food deprivation for 24 h before the test session did not prevent the suppressive effect of nutrients...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Godwin Sokpor, Eman Abbas, Joachim Rosenbusch, Jochen F Staiger, Tran Tuoc
The postnatal mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE) represents a major aspect of the peripheral olfactory system. It is a pseudostratified tissue that originates from the olfactory placode and is composed of diverse cells, some of which are specialized receptor neurons capable of transducing odorant stimuli to afford the perception of smell (olfaction). The OE is known to offer a tractable miniature model for studying the systematic generation of neurons and glia that typify neural tissue development. During OE development, stem/progenitor cells that will become olfactory sensory neurons and/or non-neuronal cell types display fine spatiotemporal expression of neuronal and non-neuronal genes that ensures their proper proliferation, differentiation, survival, and regeneration...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Clinton E Canal
Recent, well-controlled - albeit small-scale - clinical trials show that serotonergic psychedelics, including psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide, possess great promise for treating psychiatric disorders, including treatment-resistant depression. Additionally, fresh results from a deluge of clinical neuroimaging studies are unveiling the dynamic effects of serotonergic psychedelics on functional activity within, and connectivity across, discrete neural systems. These observations have led to testable hypotheses regarding neural processing mechanisms that contribute to psychedelic effects and therapeutic benefits...
March 13, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Anthony M Rossi, Vilaiwan M Fernandes
Various regions of the developing brain coordinate their construction so that the correct types and numbers of cells are generated to build a functional network. We previously discovered that wrapping glia in the Drosophila visual system are essential for coordinating retinal and lamina development. We showed that wrapping glia, which ensheath photoreceptor axons, respond to an epidermal growth factor cue from photoreceptors by secreting insulins. Wrapping glial insulins activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway downstream of insulin receptor in lamina precursors to induce neuronal differentiation...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Pengmin Qin, Niall W Duncan, David Yen-Ting Chen, Chi-Jen Chen, Li-Kai Huang, Zirui Huang, Chien-Yuan E Lin, Christine Wiebking, Che-Ming Yang, Georg Northoff, Timothy Lane
Neural activity varies continually from moment to moment. Such temporal variability (TV) has been highlighted as a functionally specific brain property playing a fundamental role in cognition. We sought to investigate the mechanisms involved in TV changes between two basic behavioural states, namely having the eyes open (EO) or eyes closed (EC) in vivo in humans. To these ends we acquired BOLD fMRI, ASL, and [18 F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose PET in a group of healthy participants (n = 15), along with BOLD fMRI and [18 F]-flumazenil PET in a separate group (n = 19)...
March 9, 2018: Neuroscience
Xiao-Xiao Ma, Jin Liu, Chun-Man Wang, Jiang-Ping Zhou, Zhen-Zhou He, Han Lin
AIMS: This study was to determine whether curcumin had any effect on the proliferation of neural stem cell (NSC), analyze the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and Notch1 at transcription and protein level, and discuss the related mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: NSCs were harvested from E15 SD rat brain and cultured. All experiments were performed at the second passage. Cell cytotoxicity, cell viability, and proliferation assays were used to figure out the optimal concentration of curcumin, which can be used for the protein and mRNA studies...
March 12, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
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