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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214829/ephb4-regulates-self-renewal-proliferation-and-neuronal-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-neural-stem-cells-in-vitro
#1
Tingting Liu, Xianwei Zeng, Fangling Sun, Hongli Hou, Yunqian Guan, Deyu Guo, Houxi Ai, Wen Wang, Guojun Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: EphB4 belongs to the largest family of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases. It contributes to a variety of pathological progresses of cancer malignancy. However, little is known about its role in neural stem cells (NSCs). This study examined whether EphB4 is required for proliferation and differentiation of human embryonic neural stem cells (hNSCs) in vitro. METHODS: We up- and down-regulated EphB4 expression in hNSCs using lentiviral over-expression and shRNA knockdown constructs and then investigated the influence of EphB4 on the properties of hNSCs...
February 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214522/prelimbic-cortex-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-activation-is-required-for-memory-retrieval-of-long-term-inhibitory-avoidance
#2
Fei Luo, Jian Zheng, Xuan Sun, Wei-Ke Deng, Fang Liu, Bao-Ming Li
Neural mechanism underlying memory retrieval has been extensively studied in the hippocampus and amygdala. However, little is known about the role of medial prefrontal cortex in long-term memory retrieval. We evaluate this issue in one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance (IA) paradigm. Our results showed that, 1) inactivation of mPFC by local infusion of GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol caused severe deficits in retrieval of 1-day and 7-day but had no effects on 2-hour inhibitory avoidance memory; 2) the protein level of phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in mPFC were significantly increased following retrieval of 1-day and 7-day IA memory, so did the numbers of phosphorylated-ERK (pERK) and phosphorylated-CREB (pCREB) labeled neurons; 3) intra-mPFC infusion of ERK kinase inhibitor PD98095 significantly reduced phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 and phosphorylated-CREB labeled cells, and severely impaired retrieval of 7-day IA memory when the drugs were administrated 30 min prior to test...
February 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213521/signalling-adaptor-shcd-suppresses-erk-phosphorylation-distal-to-the-ret-and-trk-neurotrophic-receptors
#3
Melanie K B Wills, Ava Keyvani Chahi, Hayley R Lau, Manali Tilak, Brianna Guild, Laura A New, Peihua Lu, Keévin Jacquet, Susan O Meakin, Nicolas Bisson, Nina Jones
Proteins of the Shc family are typically involved in signal transduction events involving Ras/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. In the nervous system, they function proximal to the neurotrophic factors that regulate cell survival, differentiation, and neuron-specific characteristics. The least-characterized homolog, ShcD, is robustly expressed in the developing and mature nervous system, but its contributions to neural cell circuitry are largely uncharted. We now report that ShcD binds to active Ret, TrkA, and TrkB neurotrophic factor receptors predominantly via its phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213447/the-drosophila-postsynaptic-deg-enac-channel-ppk29-contributes-to-excitatory-neurotransmission
#4
Alexis Hill, Xingguo Zheng, Xiling Li, Ross McKinney, Dion Dickman, Yehuda Ben-Shahar
The protein family of Degenerin/Epithelial Sodium Channels (DEG/ENaC) is comprised of diverse animal-specific, non-voltage-gated ion channels that play important roles in regulating cationic gradients across epithelial barriers. Some family members are also enriched in neural tissues in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the specific neurophysiological functions of most DEG/ENaC-encoding genes remain poorly understood. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model for deciphering the functions of DEG/ENaC genes because its genome encodes an exceptionally large number of DEG/ENaC subunits termed pickpocket (ppk) 1-31 Here we demonstrate that ppk29 contributes specifically to the postsynaptic modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213446/acetylcholine-release-in-prefrontal-cortex-promotes-gamma-oscillations-and-theta-gamma-coupling-during-cue-detection
#5
W M Howe, H J Gritton, N Lusk, Erik A Roberts, Vaughn L Hetrick, Joshua D Berke, Martin Sarter
The capacity for using external cues to guide behavior ("cue detection") constitutes an essential aspect of attention and goal-directed behavior. The cortical cholinergic input system, via phasic increases in prefrontal acetylcholine release, plays an essential role in attention by mediating such cue detection. However, the relationship between cholinergic signaling during cue detection and neural activity dynamics in prefrontal networks remains unclear. Here we combined sub-second measures of cholinergic signaling, neurophysiological recordings, and cholinergic receptor blockade to delineate the cholinergic contributions to prefrontal oscillations during cue detection in rats...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212941/injections-of-the-of-the-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptor-antagonist-prazosin-into-the-median-raphe-nucleus-increase-food-intake-and-fos-expression-in-orexin-neurons-of-free-feeding-rats
#6
Eduardo Simão da Silva, Rafael Appel Flores, Anderson Savaris Ribas, Ana Paula Taschetto, Moacir Serralvo Faria, Leandro Bueno Lima, Martin Metzger, José Donato, Marta Aparecida Paschoalini
Previously, we showed that the blockade of α1-adrenoreceptors in the median raphe nucleus (MnR) increased food intake in free-feeding rats, indicating that adrenergic mechanisms in the MnR participate in the regulation of food intake. However, the impact of such a pharmacological manipulation on other neural circuits related to food intake remains unknown. In the current study, we sought to identify forebrain regions which are responsive to α1-adrenergic receptor blockade and presumably involved in the modulation of the feeding response...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212375/epilepsy-associated-gene-nedd4-2-mediates-neuronal-activity-and-seizure-susceptibility-through-ampa-receptors
#7
Jiuhe Zhu, Kwan Young Lee, Kathryn A Jewett, Heng-Ye Man, Hee Jung Chung, Nien-Pei Tsai
The neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated gene 4-2, Nedd4-2, is an epilepsy-associated gene with at least three missense mutations identified in epileptic patients. Nedd4-2 encodes a ubiquitin E3 ligase that has high affinity toward binding and ubiquitinating membrane proteins. It is currently unknown how Nedd4-2 mediates neuronal circuit activity and how its dysfunction leads to seizures or epilepsies. In this study, we provide evidence to show that Nedd4-2 mediates neuronal activity and seizure susceptibility through ubiquitination of GluA1 subunit of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor, (AMPAR)...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203251/sulfated-glycans-and-related-digestive-enzymes-in-the-zika-virus-infectivity-potential-mechanisms-of-virus-host-interaction-and-perspectives-in-drug-discovery
#8
REVIEW
Vitor H Pomin
As broadly reported, there is an ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in countries of Latin America. Recent findings have demonstrated that ZIKV causes severe defects on the neural development in fetuses in utero and newborns. Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the ZIKV infectivity. Potential therapeutic agents are also under investigation. In this report, the possible mechanisms of action played by glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) displayed at the surface proteoglycans of host cells, and likely in charge of interactions with surface proteins of the ZIKV, are highlighted...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203140/tamoxifen-activation-of-cre-recombinase-has-no-persisting-effects-on-adult-neurogenesis-or-learning-and-anxiety
#9
Peter Rotheneichner, Pasquale Romanelli, Lara Bieler, Sebastian Pagitsch, Pia Zaunmair, Christina Kreutzer, Richard König, Julia Marschallinger, Ludwig Aigner, Sébastien Couillard-Després
Adult neurogenesis is a tightly regulated process continuously taking place in the central nervous system of most mammalian species. In neuroscience research, transgenic animals bearing the tamoxifen-inducible CreER(T2)-Lox system are widely used. In this study, we made use of a Nestin-CreER(T2)/R26R-YFP transgenic mouse model in which the CreER(T2) activates the expression of YFP in multipotent neural stem cells upon tamoxifen application. Humoral factors, such as the levels of estrogens, have been reported to affect the hippocampal neurogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202572/differential-regulation-of-nmda-receptors-by-d-serine-and-glycine-in-mammalian-spinal-locomotor-networks
#10
David Acton, Gareth Brian Miles
Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) requires the binding of a co-agonist, either D-serine or glycine, in addition to glutamate. Changes in occupancy of the co-agonist binding site are proposed to modulate neural networks including those controlling swimming in frog tadpoles. Here, we characterize regulation of the NMDAR co-agonist binding site in mammalian spinal locomotor networks. Blockade of NMDARs by D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-APV) or 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid reduced the frequency and amplitude of pharmacologically induced locomotor-related activity recorded from the ventral roots of spinal-cord preparations from neonatal mice...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202503/vitamin-d-and-depression-cellular-and-regulatory-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Michael J Berridge
Depression is caused by a change in neural activity resulting from an increase in glutamate that drives excitatory neurons and may be responsible for the decline in the activity and number of the GABAergic inhibitory neurons. This imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neurons may contribute to the onset of depression. At the cellular level there is an increase in the concentration of intracellular Ca(2+) within the inhibitory neurons that is driven by an increase in entry through the NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and through activation of the phosphoinositide signaling pathway that generates inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) that releases Ca(2+) from the internal stores...
April 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199838/islet-coordinately-regulates-motor-axon-guidance-and-dendrite-targeting-through-the-frazzled-dcc-receptor
#12
Celine Santiago, Greg J Bashaw
Motor neuron axon targeting in the periphery is correlated with the positions of motor neuron inputs in the CNS, but how these processes are coordinated to form a myotopic map remains poorly understood. We show that the LIM homeodomain factor Islet (Isl) controls targeting of both axons and dendrites in Drosophila motor neurons through regulation of the Frazzled (Fra)/DCC receptor. Isl is required for fra expression in ventrally projecting motor neurons, and isl and fra mutants have similar axon guidance defects...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197104/angled-growth-of-the-dental-lamina-is-accompanied-by-asymmetrical-expression-of-the-wnt-pathway-receptor-frizzled-6
#13
Iveta Putnová, Hana Dosedělová, Vitezslav Bryja, Marie Landová, Marcela Buchtová, Jan Štembírek
Frizzled 6 (FZD6) belongs to a family of proteins that serve as receptors in the WNT signaling pathway. FZD6 plays an important role in the establishment of planar cell polarity in many embryonic processes such as convergent extension during gastrulation, neural tube closure, or hair patterning. Based on its role during hair development, we hypothesized that FZD6 may have similar expression pattern and function in the dental lamina, which is also a distinct epithelial protrusion growing characteristically angled into the mesenchyme...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196470/proteasome-impairment-in-neural-cells-derived-from-hmsn-p-patient-ipscs
#14
Nagahisa Murakami, Keiko Imamura, Yuishin Izumi, Naohiro Egawa, Kayoko Tsukita, Takako Enami, Takuya Yamamoto, Toshitaka Kawarai, Ryuji Kaji, Haruhisa Inoue
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is caused by a heterozygous mutation (P285L) in Tropomyosin-receptor kinase Fused Gene (TFG), histopathologically characterized by progressive spinal motor neuron loss with TFG cytosolic aggregates. Although the TFG protein, found as a type of fusion oncoprotein, is known to facilitate vesicle transport from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi apparatus at ER exit site, it is unclear how mutant TFG causes motor neuron degeneration...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195068/expression-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-rat-stomach-implications-for-interactions-between-endothelial-neural-and-epithelial-cells
#15
A S Tarnawski, A Ahluwalia, M K Jones, T Brzozowski
: This study was aimed to determine the expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the gastric mucosa. Transmural gastric specimens were obtained from euthanized rats. STUDIES: 1) expression of NGF and TrkA receptor by Western blotting; 2) histological evaluation of gastric wall architecture; 3) expression of NGF using immunostaining. Immunostaining showed strong and differential expression of NGF in neural elements of gastric myenteric and submucosal plexuses; in epithelial cells: mainly in chief and progenitor cells, in enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells; and, in endothelial cells (ECs) lining blood vessels...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194092/paradoxes-of-the-ephb1-receptor-in-malignant-brain-tumors
#16
REVIEW
Wenqiang Wei, Hongju Wang, Shaoping Ji
Eph receptors are a subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases. Eph receptor-mediated forward and ephrin ligand-mediated reverse signalings are termed bidirectional signaling. Increasing evidence shows that Eph/ephrin signaling regulates cell migration, adhesion, morphological changes, differentiation, proliferation and survival through cell-cell communication. Some recent studies have started to implicate Eph/ephrin signaling in tumorigenesis, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Previous studies have shown that EphB1 receptor and its ephrin ligands are expressed in the central nervous system...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193596/vegf-regulates-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-reverses-cognitive-deficits-in-immature-rats-after-status-epilepticus-through-the-vegf-r2-signaling-pathway
#17
Wei Han, Xiaojie Song, Rong He, Tianyi Li, Li Cheng, Lingling Xie, Hengsheng Chen, Li Jiang
Epilepsy is the most common chronic disease in children, who exhibit a higher risk for status epilepticus (SE) than adults. Hippocampal neurogenesis is altered by epilepsy, particularly in the immature brain, which may influence cognitive development. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) represents an attractive target to modulate brain function at the neurovascular interface and is a double-edged sword in seizures. We used the lithium-pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model in immature Sprague-Dawley rats to study the effects of VEGF on hippocampal neurogenesis in the acute phase and on long-term cognitive behaviors in immature rats following status epilepticus (SE)...
February 10, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193459/epileptiform-activity-and-behavioral-arrests-in-mice-overexpressing-the-calcium-channel-subunit-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1
#18
Leonardo C Faria, Feng Gu, Isabel Parada, Ben Barres, Z David Luo, David A Prince
: The alpha2delta-1 subunit (α2δ-1) of voltage-gated calcium channels is a receptor for astrocyte-secreted thrombospondins that promote developmental synaptogenesis.Alpha2delta-1 receptors are upregulated in models of injury-induced peripheral pain and epileptogenic neocortical trauma associated with an enhancement of excitatory synaptic connectivity. These results lead to the hypothesis that overexpression of α2δ-1 alone in neocortex of uninjured transgenic (TG) mice might result in increased excitatory connectivity and consequent cortical hyperexcitability and epileptiform activity...
February 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193454/new-developments-in-brain-research-of-internet-and-gaming-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Aviv Weinstein, Abigail Livny, Abraham Weizman
There is evidence that the neural mechanisms underlying Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) resemble those of drug addiction. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies of the resting state and measures of gray matter volume have shown that Internet game playing was associated with changes to brain regions responsible for attention and control, impulse control, motor function, emotional regulation, sensory-motor coordination. Furthermore, Internet game playing was associated with lower white matter density in brain regions that are involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and emotional regulation...
February 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192441/cyclic-amp-regulates-postnatal-development-of-neural-and-behavioral-responses-to-nacl-in-rats
#20
Jie Qian, Shobha Mummalaneni, Tam-Hao T Phan, Gerard L Heck, John A DeSimone, David West, Sunila Mahavadi, Deanna Hojati, Karnam S Murthy, Mee-Ra Rhyu, Andrew I Spielman, Mehmet Hakan Özdener, Vijay Lyall
During postnatal development rats demonstrate an age-dependent increase in NaCl chorda tympani (CT) responses and the number of functional apical amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs) in salt sensing fungiform (FF) taste receptor cells (TRCs). Currently, the intracellular signals that regulate the postnatal development of salt taste have not been identified. We investigated the effect of cAMP, a downstream signal for arginine vasopressin (AVP) action, on the postnatal development of NaCl responses in 19-23 day old rats...
2017: PloS One
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