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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544218/genome-wide-mediation-analysis-of-psychiatric-and-cognitive-traits-through-imaging-phenotypes
#1
Xuan Bi, Liuqing Yang, Tengfei Li, Baisong Wang, Hongtu Zhu, Heping Zhang
Heritability is well documented for psychiatric disorders and cognitive abilities which are, however, complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Hence, it remains challenging to discover which and how genetic variations contribute to such complex traits. In this article, they propose to use mediation analysis to bridge this gap, where neuroimaging phenotypes were utilized as intermediate variables. The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort was investigated using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and mediation analyses...
May 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537124/family-group-interventions-in-an-early-psychosis-program-a-re-evaluation-of-practice-after-10%C3%A2-years-of-service-delivery
#2
Kate Day, Rachael Starbuck, Melissa Petrakis
INTRODUCTION: The role of family in supporting service users in coping with illness and engaging in relapse prevention in early psychosis is important. Taking on this caring though is stressful and challenging, and it has been found that support and information for carers assists in their coping and reduces isolation. AIMS: To evaluate the current utility of a psychoeducation group program in a public adult mental health service, for the families of people experiencing early psychosis...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536741/does-diagnosis-make-a-difference-estimating-the-impact-of-an-hiv-medication-adherence-intervention-for-persons-with-serious-mental-illness
#3
Natasha Dalseth, Regina Szucs Reed, Michael Hennessy, Marlene M Eisenberg, Michael B Blank
The heightened risk of persons with serious mental illness to contract and transmit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a public health problem. Here we evaluate the interaction between psychiatric diagnosis and response to a community based-intervention targeted at treatment adherence in 236 HIV+ persons with co-occurring mental illness. To examine differential effectiveness of the intervention for categories of patient diagnosis, we reanalyzed the data after stratifying participants into two diagnostic groups: (1) participants with depressive disorders without psychosis and (2) participants with a psychotic or bipolar disorder...
May 23, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533946/rethinking-social-cognition-in-light-of-psychosis-reciprocal-implications-for-cognition-and-psychopathology
#4
Vaughan Bell, Kathryn L Mills, Gemma Modinos, Sam Wilkinson
The positive symptoms of psychosis largely involve the experience of illusory social actors and yet our current measures of social cognition, at best, only weakly predict their presence. We review evidence to suggest that the range of current approaches in social cognition is not sufficient to explain the fundamentally social nature of these experiences. We argue that social agent representation is an important organising principle for understanding social cognition and that alterations in social agent representation may be a factor in the formation of delusions and hallucination in psychosis...
May 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532510/gender-differences-in-psychiatric-diagnoses-in-older-people-with-intellectual-disability-a-register-study
#5
Anna Axmon, Magnus Sandberg, Gerd Ahlström
BACKGROUND: Gender differences regarding psychiatric ill-health are well known in the general population. However, not much research is done on people with intellectual disability, and especially not among older people with intellectual disability. METHODS: People with intellectual disability aged 55+ years in 2012 in Sweden were identified through a register containing information on those receiving support and service for this type of disability. The cohort comprised 3609 women and 4327 men with mean age 65 and 64 years, respectively...
May 22, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528196/a-review-of-psychiatric-co-morbidity-described-in-genetic-and-immune-mediated-movement-disorders
#6
REVIEW
K J Peall, M S Lorentzos, I Heyman, M A J Tijssen, M J Owen, R C Dale, M A Kurian
Psychiatric symptoms are an increasingly recognised feature of movement disorders. Recent identification of causative genes and autoantibodies has allowed detailed analysis of aetiologically homogenous subgroups, thereby enabling determination of the spectrum of psychiatric symptoms in these disorders. This review evaluates the incidence and type of psychiatric symptoms encountered in patients with movement disorders. A broad spectrum of psychiatric symptoms was identified across all subtypes of movement disorder, with depression, generalised anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder being most common...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526280/an-overview-of-medical-risk-factors-for-childhood-psychosis-implications-for-research-and-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Marianna Giannitelli, Angèle Consoli, Marie Raffin, Renaud Jardri, Douglas F Levinson, David Cohen, Claudine Laurent-Levinson
OBJECTIVE: Psychotic disorders in childhood and early adolescence often progress to chronic schizophrenia, but in many cases there are diagnosable medical and genetic causes or risk factors. We reviewed our clinical experience and the relevant literature to identify these factors and to define their clinical features, appropriate work-up and treatment. METHOD: We reviewed the results of comprehensive medical evaluations of 160 psychotic children and adolescents in our center...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523431/the-dsm-5-self-rated-level-1-cross-cutting-symptom-measure-as-a-screening-tool
#8
Leo Bastiaens, James Galus
The DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was developed to aid clinicians with a dimensional assessment of psychopathology; however, this measure resembles a screening tool for several symptomatic domains. The objective of the current study was to examine the basic parameters of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power of the measure as a screening tool. One hundred and fifty patients in a correctional community center filled out the measure prior to a psychiatric evaluation, including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview screen...
May 19, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517948/randomized-controlled-trial-of-an-internet-cognitive-behavioral-skills-based-program-for-auditory-hallucinations-in-persons-with-psychosis
#9
Jennifer D Gottlieb, Vasudha Gidugu, Mihoko Maru, Miriam C Tepper, Matthew J Davis, Jennifer Greenwold, Ruth A Barron, Brian P Chiko, Kim T Mueser
OBJECTIVE: Despite strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp), most clinicians in the United States have received little or no training in the approach and access remains very low, indicating a potential role for technology in increasing access to this intervention. Coping With Voices (CWV) is a 10-session, interactive, Web-based CBTp skills program that was developed to meet this need, and was shown to be feasible and associated with reduced severity of auditory hallucinations in a previous pilot study...
May 18, 2017: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517041/modifying-illness-beliefs-in-recent-onset-psychosis-carers-evaluating-the-impact-of-a-cognitively-focused-brief-group-intervention-in-a-routine-service
#10
Juliana Onwumere, Naomi Glover, Sarah Whittaker, Shireen Rahim, Lai Chu Man, Gareth James, Sanna Khan, Roya Afsharzadegan, Saal Seneviratne, Raythe Harvey, Anna Georgiades, David Raune
AIMS: At first-episode psychosis (FEP), many patients will be routed within familial networks and supported by informal carers who are predominately close family members such as parents. Carer burden, distress and poorer coping styles are associated with different illness beliefs. The current study sought to examine the impact and acceptability of a 3 session, cognitively informed, group intervention targeting illness beliefs previously linked to distress and poorer caregiving experiences in FEP carers...
May 18, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509347/domain-specific-cognitive-impairment-in-non-demented-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#11
Jared T Hinkle, Kate Perepezko, Catherine C Bakker, Ted M Dawson, Vanessa Johnson, Zoltan Mari, Cherie L Marvel, Kelly A Mills, Alexander Pantelyat, Olga Pletnikova, Liana S Rosenthal, Melissa D Shepard, Daniel A Stevens, Juan C Troncoso, Jiangxia Wang, Gregory M Pontone
INTRODUCTION: In Parkinson's disease (PD), psychosis is associated with cognitive impairment that may be more profound in particular cognitive domains. Our goal was to determine whether psychosis in non-demented PD participants is associated with domain-specific cognitive impairment on the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE). METHODS: The Morris K. Udall Parkinson's Disease Research Center of Excellence Longitudinal Study at Johns Hopkins is a prospective study that was initiated in 1998...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504043/insight-in-psychosis-standards-science-ethics-and-value-judgment
#12
K S Jacob
BACKGROUND: The clinical assessment of insight solely employs biomedical perspectives and criteria to the complete exclusion of context and culture and to the disregard of values and value judgments. AIM: The aim of this discussion article is to examine recent research from India on insight and explanatory models in psychosis and re-examine the framework of assessment, diagnosis and management of insight and explanatory models. METHODS: Recent research from India on insight in psychosis and explanatory models is reviewed...
June 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500982/abnormal-sleep-duration-associated-with-hastened-depressive-recurrence-in-bipolar-disorder
#13
Anda Gershon, Dennis Do, Satyanand Satyanarayana, Saloni Shah, Laura D Yuen, Farnaz Hooshmand, Shefali Miller, Po W Wang, Terence A Ketter
BACKGROUND: Abnormal sleep duration (ASD, <6 or ≥9h) is common in bipolar disorder (BD), and often persists beyond acute mood episodes. Few longitudinal studies have examined the ASD's impact upon BD illness course. The current study examined the longitudinal impact of ASD upon bipolar depressive recurrence/recovery. METHODS: Outpatients referred to the Stanford BD Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation at baseline, and with the Clinical Monitoring Form at monthly follow-ups for up to two years of naturalistic treatment...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484399/biochemical-benefits-diagnosis-and-clinical-risks-evaluation-of-kratom
#14
REVIEW
Dimy Fluyau, Neelambika Revadigar
BACKGROUND: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Kratom is also known as Thom, Thang, and Biak. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to manage pain and opioid withdrawal and to stave off fatigue. Kratom is actually consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (in form of tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483100/caregiver-burden-in-alzheimer-type-dementia-and-psychosis-a-comparative-study-from-india
#15
P Sinha, N G Desai, O Prakash, S Kushwaha, C B Tripathi
BACKGROUND: Caregiver burden in dementia is an important area of research. Providing care for a relative can be a potent source of chronic stress and can have deleterious consequences for both the physical and emotional health of caregivers. This study aims to evaluate the burden of care in caregivers of patients with Alzheimer-type dementia and compare it with elderly psychosis; and to also study the factors that influence burden of care in Alzheimer's dementia. METHODS: Thirty-two caregiver-patient dyads of Alzheimer-type dementia were compared with thirty-two caregiver-patient dyads of psychosis...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479803/psychiatric-presentations-heralding-hashimoto-s-encephalopathy-a-systematic-review-and-analysis-of-cases-reported-in-literature
#16
REVIEW
Vikas Menon, Karthick Subramanian, Jaiganesh Selvapandian Thamizh
Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) may often present initially with psychiatric symptoms. These presentations are often variable in clinical aspects, and there has been no systematic analysis of the numerous psychiatric presentations heralding an eventual diagnosis of HE which will guide clinicians to make a correct diagnosis of HE. This systematic review was done to analyze the demographic characteristics, symptom typology, and clinical and treatment variables associated with such forerunner presentations. Electronic databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify potential case reports that described initial psychiatric presentations of HE in English language peer-reviewed journals...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478716/effect-of-valerian-in-preventing-neuropsychiatric-adverse-effects-of-efavirenz-in-hiv-positive-patients-a-pilot-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#17
Motahareh Ahmadi, Hossein Khalili, Ladan Abbasian, Padideh Ghaeli
BACKGROUND: Several neuropsychiatric adverse effects of efavirenz are known. Preventing these adverse effects may improve patients' adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of valerian in preventing neuropsychiatric adverse effects of efavirenz in HIV-positive patients. METHOD: In this pilot randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, 51 HIV-positive patients who were receiving efavirenz were recruited into the valerian (n = 25) or placebo (n = 26) group...
June 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473776/the-role-of-trauma-and-stressful-life-events-among-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Danessa Mayo, Sarah Corey, Leah H Kelly, Seghel Yohannes, Alyssa L Youngquist, Barbara K Stuart, Tara A Niendam, Rachel L Loewy
The experience of childhood trauma (CT) and stressful life events (SLEs) is associated with subsequent development of a variety of mental health conditions, including psychotic illness. Recent research identifying adolescents and young adults at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis allows for prospective evaluation of the impact of trauma and adverse life events on psychosis onset and other outcomes, addressing etiological questions that cannot be answered in studies of fully psychotic or non-clinical populations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473319/clinical-utility-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-first-episode-psychosis
#19
Irina Falkenberg, Stefania Benetti, Marie Raffin, Phillipe Wuyts, William Pettersson-Yeo, Paola Dazzan, Kevin D Morgan, Robin M Murray, Tiago Reis Marques, Anthony S David, Jozef Jarosz, Andrew Simmons, Steve Williams, Philip McGuire
BackgroundThere is no consensus as to whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be used as part of the initial clinical evaluation of patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP).Aims(a) To assess the logistical feasibility of routine MRI; (b) to define the clinical significance of radiological abnormalities in patients with FEP.MethodRadiological reports from MRI scans of two FEP samples were reviewed; one comprised 108 patients and 98 healthy controls recruited to a research study and the other comprised 241 patients scanned at initial clinical presentation plus 66 healthy controls...
May 4, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472082/efficacy-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
Kai-Jo Chiang, Jui-Chen Tsai, Doresses Liu, Chueh-Ho Lin, Huei-Ling Chiu, Kuei-Ru Chou
BACKGROUND: Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered a promising adjuvant to pharmacotherapy for treating bipolar disorder (BD), its efficacy is unproven. The present review and meta-analysis evaluated the treatment outcomes of patients with BD treated with CBT plus medication and compared these data with the outcomes of those who received standard care alone. METHODS: Electronic searches from inception to July 31, 2016, were performed using PubMed, Medline OVID, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL plus, and PsycINFO...
2017: PloS One
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