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psychosis evaluation

Joseph Firth, Simon Rosenbaum, Philip B Ward, Jackie Curtis, Scott B Teasdale, Alison R Yung, Jerome Sarris
AIM: The effects of nutrient-based treatments, including adjunctive vitamin or antioxidant supplementation, have been explored extensively in long-term schizophrenia. However, no systematic evaluation of trials in "first-episode psychosis" (FEP) has been conducted, despite the potential benefits of using these treatments during the early stages of illness. Therefore, we aimed to review all studies examining efficacy, tolerability and the biological mechanisms of action, of nutrient supplementation in FEP...
March 21, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Elizabeth J Levey, Qiu-Yue Zhong, Marta B Rondon, Sixto Sanchez, Jiong Li, Michelle A Williams, Bizu Gelaye
Psychiatric illness can pose serious risks to pregnant and postpartum women and their infants. There is a need for screening tools that can identify women at risk for postpartum psychosis, the most dangerous perinatal psychiatric illness. This study used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Rasch item response theory (IRT) models to evaluate the psychometric properties and construct validity of the Spanish language version of the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-16) as a screening tool for psychosis in a population of pregnant Peruvian women...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Martin Klietz, Amelie Tulke, Lars H Müschen, Lejla Paracka, Christoph Schrader, Dirk W Dressler, Florian Wegner
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disease of the elderly. Patients suffer from various motor and non-motor symptoms leading to reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and an increased mortality. Their loss of autonomy due to dementia, psychosis, depression, motor impairments, falls, and swallowing deficits defines a phase when palliative care interventions might help to sustain or even improve quality of life. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of palliative care implementation and quality of life in a local cohort of advanced PD patients in order to frame and improve future care...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Alireza Vakilian, Seyed Moein Razavi-Nasab, Ali Ravari, Tayebeh Mirzaei, Amir Moghadam-Ahmadi, Nazanin Jalali, Reza Bahramabadi, Mohammadtaghi Rezayati, Amin Yazdanpanah-Ravari, Farhad Bahmaniar, Mohammad Reza Bagheri, Mahmood Sheikh Fathollahi, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
INTRODUCTION: Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) suffer from psychotic symptoms including pain. The current antipsychotic drugs confer limited effectiveness, and hence new strategies are being designed to decrease pain in order to increase antipsychological effectiveness. Vitamin B12 is a safe supplementary drug to decrease pain. Additionally, cytokines participate in the pathogenesis of immune-related diseases such as AD. Thus, the main aim of this clinical trial study was to determine the effects of treatment with risperidone and quetiapine, as antipsychotic drugs, with and without vitamin B12 on the psychotic symptoms of AD patients and the expression of IL-6, IL-8, tumor growth factor (TGF)-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and endothelin (ET)-1)...
March 20, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Ana Carolina Issy, Maurício Dos-Santos-Pereira, João Francisco Cordeiro Pedrazzi, Regina Celia Cussa Kubrusly, Elaine Del-Bel
Pharmacological manipulation of nitric oxide (NO) has been suggested as a promising treatment for schizophrenia symptoms. A single infusion of sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor with short half-life, was found to improve schizophrenia symptoms. However, an increasing number of preclinical studies have demonstrated the potential beneficial effects of both NO donors and inhibitors. We investigated the potential synergistic effect of sub-effective doses of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or the NO inhibitor 7-Nitroindazole (7NI) combined with clozapine, a standard atypical antipsychotic, on counteracting amphetamine or MK-801-induced psychosis-like behaviors...
March 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Susanne F Meisel, Philippa A Garety, Daniel Stahl, Lucia R Valmaggia
Paranoid ideation is a core feature of psychosis, and models of paranoia have long proposed that it arises in the context of disturbances in the perception of the self. However, to develop targeted interventions, there is a benefit in clarifying further, which aspects of self-perception are implicated. Interpersonal sensitivity is a personality trait which has been associated with the risk of paranoid thinking in the general population. However, not all studies have found this link. We aimed to review the empirical literature assessing the association between interpersonal sensitivity and paranoia in both general population and clinical samples; and to explore if associations found differed depending on whether state or trait paranoia was assessed...
March 20, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Julia Kim, Tom A Schweizer, Corinne E Fischer, David G Munoz
INTRODUCTION: Despite having severe Alzheimer disease pathology, some individuals remain cognitively asymptomatic (cASYM). To explore noncognitive manifestations in these cASYM individuals, we aim to investigate the prevalence and pathologic substrates of psychosis. METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, quick version was used to evaluate presence of psychosis. Subjects with Mini-Mental Status Examination score of ≥24 with frequent neuritic plaques (NPs) were defined as NPcASYM, and those with Braak and Braak stage of neurofibrillary tangles of V/VI were defined as NTcASYM (both groups collectively designated cASYM)...
March 16, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Yonatan Edel, Rivka Mamet
The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders, inherited or acquired, along the heme biosynthetic pathway, which could manifest with neurovisceral and/or cutaneous symptoms, depending on the defective enzyme. Neurovisceral porphyrias are characterized by acute attacks, in which excessive heme production is induced following exposure to a trigger. An acute attack usually presents with severe abdominal pain, vomiting, and tachycardia. Other symptoms which could appear include hypertension, hyponatremia, peripheral neuropathy, and mild mental symptoms...
March 15, 2018: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
Adriana Miyazaki de Moura, Walter Hugo Lopez Pinaya, Ary Gadelha, André Zugman, Cristiano Noto, Quirino Cordeiro, Sintia Iole Belangero, Andrea P Jackowski, Rodrigo A Bressan, João Ricardo Sato
In this study, we employed the Maximum Uncertainty Linear Discriminant Analysis (MLDA) to investigate whether the structural brain patterns in first episode psychosis (FEP) patients would be more similar to patients with chronic schizophrenia (SCZ) or healthy controls (HC), from a schizophrenia model perspective. Brain regions volumetric data were estimated by using MRI images of SCZ and FEP patients and HC. First, we evaluated the MLDA performance in discriminating SCZ from controls, which provided a score based on a model for changes in brain structure in SCZ...
March 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Tamar Mendelson, William W Eaton
PURPOSE: Prevention of mental disorders is a rapidly growing area of research with substantial potential benefits for population health. This paper reviews the evidence base for prevention of depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. METHODS: We synthesized evidence from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between 2013 and 2018 on prevention of depression, anxiety, and first-episode psychosis. We included reviews of randomized controlled trials testing psychological, psychosocial, and pharmacological preventive interventions...
March 15, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Lorenzo Pelizza, Silvia Azzali, Federica Paterlini, Sara Garlassi, Ilaria Scazza, Luigi Rocco Chiri, Michele Poletti, Simona Pupo, Andrea Raballo
AIM: The 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-16) is a versatile screen tool for routine screening of at-risk individuals. We wished to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the PQ-16 (iPQ-16) in a sample of 72 help-seeking adolescents (age range 13-17 years) referred to child and adolescent neuropsychiatry services for diagnostic assessment. METHODS: Participants who completed iPQ-16 were subsequently interviewed with the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) to confirm the psychosis high risk state...
March 14, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Sonia Bansal, Laurence C Jayet Bray, Barbara L Schwartz, Wilsaan M Joiner
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of psychosis in schizophrenia reflect disturbances in sense of agency-difficulty distinguishing internally from externally generated sensory and perceptual experiences. One theory attributes these anomalies to a disruption in corollary discharge (CD), an internal copy of generated motor commands used to distinguish self-movement-generated sensations from externally generated stimulation. METHODS: We used a transsaccadic shift detection paradigm to examine possible deficits in CD and sense of agency based on the ability to perceive visual changes in 31 schizophrenia patients (SZPs) and 31 healthy control subjects...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Marianne Melau, Nikolai Albert, Merete Nordentoft
AIM: Specialized early intervention (SEI) treatment in meta-analysis has proven to be effective, compared to usual treatment, in treating first-episode psychosis, and the dissemination of SEI services is increasing. A prerequisite for upholding positive effects is to ensure fidelity to the treatment concept once tested. The aim of this study was to map programme fidelity of SEI teams in Denmark by testing a newly developed fidelity scale. METHODS: The 18-item SEI fidelity scale was assessed by visiting SEI teams in person...
March 12, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Virginie-Anne Chouinard, David C Henderson, Chiara Dalla Man, Linda Valeri, Brianna E Gray, Kyle P Ryan, Aaron M Cypess, Claudio Cobelli, Bruce M Cohen, Dost Öngür
Patients with psychotic disorders are at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, and there is increasing evidence that patients display glucose metabolism abnormalities before significant antipsychotic medication exposure. In the present study, we examined insulin action by quantifying insulin sensitivity in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and unaffected siblings, compared to healthy individuals, using a physiological-based model and comprehensive assessment battery. Twenty-two unaffected siblings, 18 FEP patients, and 15 healthy unrelated controls were evaluated using a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), with 7 samples of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentration measurements...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Chuanjun Zhuo, Patrick Todd Triplett
Importance: Patients with schizophrenia are considered to have many risk factors for the development of cancer. However, the incidence of breast cancer in women with schizophrenia compared with the general population remains uncertain. Objective: To perform an updated meta-analysis to evaluate the association between schizophrenia and the risk of breast cancer. Data Sources: A systematic search of the PubMed and EMBASE databases was conducted using the search terms schizophrenia, schizophrenic, psychosis, combined with breast and cancer, tumor, neoplasm, or carcinoma...
March 7, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Susanna Zarafonitis-Müller, Karolina Leopold, Marcel Batra, Michèle Kallenbach, Eva Burkhardt, Dorothea Jäckel, Andreas Bechdolf
BACKGROUND: The present study evaluated service use of our newly established Early Intervention and Treatment Centre (FRITZ) in Berlin for young adults with first or early psychosis with and without migration background. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of in-patients with early psychosis who were admitted to FRITZ between May 2014 and May 2015. We investigated the proportion of patients with migration background, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients...
March 7, 2018: Psychiatrische Praxis
Craigan Usher, Andie Thompson, Meridith Griebeler, Angela Senders, Celeste Seibel, Richard Ly, Charles Murchison, Kirsten Hagen, Keith-Allen Afong, Dennis Bourdette, Rachel Ross, Alena Borgatti, Lynne Shinto
AIM: The primary aim was to demonstrate adherence to a novel 6-week lifestyle intervention program ("Meals, Mindfulness, & Moving Forward" [M3 ]) designed to help improve lifestyle practices of youth with a history of at least 1 psychotic episode. METHODS: M3 used a non-equivalent control group design involving clients from a community early intervention program. Seventeen individuals in the active M3 program and 16 controls were assessed for secondary outcomes at baseline, 6-weeks, and 12-weeks (6 weeks post-intervention) on cardiometabolic and symptomatic outcomes...
March 7, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Shiraz Ahmed, Kate Zara Peters, Nandini Chakraborty
AIM: The present study aimed to determine the influence of demographic and clinical features on the likelihood of patients being discharge to primary vs secondary care. The overarching aim of this service evaluation is to assess factors affecting discharge and determine important modulators of discharge destination to inform care planning in services. METHOD: Clinical and demographic data were extracted from patient notes of those discharged from the Psychosis Intervention and Early Recovery (PIER) service in Leicestershire between January 2005 and December 2013...
March 7, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Wan-Ju Cheng, Chun-Hsin Chen, Chih-Ken Chen, Ming-Chyi Huang, Robert H Pietrzak, John H Krystal, Ke Xu
BACKGROUND: Ketamine has been used to probe the biology of psychosis and cognitive dysfunction in humans. High levels of ketamine abuse are associated with persisting psychosis (KPP) in a minority of users. However, relatively little is known about cognitive function among KPP patients and whether the cognitive impairments associated with KPP resemble those of schizophrenia (SZ). METHODS: We recruited 149 treatment-seeking patients, including nonpsychotic ketamine users (KNP, n=51), KPP (n=23), and SZ (n=75) patients...
March 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Emily C Baron, Sujit D Rathod, Charlotte Hanlon, Martin Prince, Abebaw Fedaku, Fred Kigozi, Mark Jordans, Nagendra P Luitel, Girmay Medhin, Vaibhav Murhar, Juliet Nakku, Vikram Patel, Inge Petersen, One Selohilwe, Rahul Shidhaye, Joshua Ssebunnya, Mark Tomlinson, Crick Lund, Mary De Silva
BACKGROUND: The Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME) sought to implement mental health care plans (MHCP) for four priority mental disorders (depression, alcohol use disorder, psychosis and epilepsy) into routine primary care in five low- and middle-income country districts. The impact of the MHCPs on disability was evaluated through establishment of priority disorder treatment cohorts. This paper describes the methodology of these PRIME cohorts. METHODS: One cohort for each disorder was recruited across some or all five districts: Sodo (Ethiopia), Sehore (India), Chitwan (Nepal), Dr...
March 6, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
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