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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095883/moderated-online-social-therapy-for-carers-of-young-people-recovering-from-first-episode-psychosis-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
John Gleeson, Reeva Lederman, Helen Herrman, Peter Koval, Dina Eleftheriadis, Sarah Bendall, Sue M Cotton, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez
BACKGROUND: First-episode psychosis most often has its onset during late adolescence. In caring for the young person, families endure high levels of stress and depression. Meanwhile, the social networks of families often erode. Our group has previously shown that family cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) leads to significantly improved perceived stress compared with specialist first-episode treatment as usual; however, there are well-known barriers to the dissemination of effective family interventions...
January 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063397/clinical-and-treatment-related-determinants-of-subjective-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis
#2
Vivian Wing Yan Kwong, Wing Chung Chang, Gloria Hoi Kei Chan, Olivia Tsz Ting Jim, Emily Sin Kei Lau, Christy Lai Ming Hui, Sherry Kit Wa Chan, Edwin Ho Ming Lee, Eric Yu Hai Chen
Subjective quality of life (SQoL) has been increasingly studied in first-episode psychosis (FEP). Prior research primarily examined the impact of psychiatric symptoms on SQoL. Relationship between treatment-related factors and SQoL is under-studied. In this study, 159 Chinese patients who had completed 2-year treatment from early intervention service in Hong Kong were recruited. Assessments on premorbid adjustment, clinical profiles including social anxiety measure, functioning, antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side-effects and attitude toward medication treatment were conducted...
December 27, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059932/a-developmental-perspective-on-social-cognition-difficulties-in-youth-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#3
Sarah Hope Lincoln, Emily M Norkett, Katherine H Frost, Joseph Gonzalez-Heydrich, Eugene J D'Angelo
After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Evaluate the evolution of social cognitive abilities as a developmental process• Assess the evidence regarding social cognition difficulties in youth at clinical high risk for psychosisIndividuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis exhibit a broad range of difficulties, including impaired social cognition, which may represent a target for early identification and intervention. Several studies have examined various domains of social cognition in CHR individuals...
January 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052777/from-neurological-soft-signs-to-functional-outcome-in-young-individuals-in-treatment-with-secondary-services-for-non-psychotic-disorders-a-path-analysis
#4
A Minichino, M Francesconi, R E Carrión, R Delle Chiaie, A Bevilacqua, M Parisi, S Rullo, F S Bersani, M Biondi, K Cadenhead
BACKGROUND: Functional decline among patients with mental illness is not unique to individuals with psychotic disorders. Despite this, research on early predictors of functional outcome mainly focused on individuals thought to have an 'at risk mental state' (ARMS) for psychosis. There is evidence suggesting that certain early vulnerability markers, such as neurological soft signs (NSS), may explain variability in functional outcomes independent of the level of psychosis risk and the traditional diagnostic classification...
January 5, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049080/metabolic-syndrome-or-glucose-challenge-in-first-episode-of-psychosis
#5
C Garcia-Rizo, E Fernandez-Egea, C Oliveira, A Meseguer, B Cabrera, G Mezquida, M Bioque, R Penades, E Parellada, M Bernardo, B Kirkpatrick
Patients with schizophrenia exhibit a reduced life expectancy. Although unhealthy lifestyle or suicide risk plays a role, the main causes are diverse medical conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Albeit pharmacological secondary side effects might also trigger previous conditions, studies in naïve patients reflect diverse anomalies at the onset. Patients with a first episode of psychosis, display a wide scope of metabolic abnormalities, ranging from normality till pathological values depending on the parameters studied...
December 30, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009070/effects-of-aripiprazole-and-haloperidol-on-neural-activation-during-a-simple-motor-task-in-healthy-individuals-a-functional-mri-study
#6
Rhianna Goozee, Owen O'Daly, Rowena Handley, Tiago Reis Marques, Heather Taylor, Grant McQueen, Kathryn Hubbard, Carmine Pariante, Valeria Mondelli, Antje A T S Reinders, Paola Dazzan
The dopaminergic system plays a key role in motor function and motor abnormalities have been shown to be a specific feature of psychosis. Due to their dopaminergic action, antipsychotic drugs may be expected to modulate motor function, but the precise effects of these drugs on motor function remain unclear. We carried out a within-subject, double-blind, randomized study of the effects of aripiprazole, haloperidol and placebo on motor function in 20 healthy men. For each condition, motor performance on an auditory-paced task was investigated...
December 23, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007987/connectomic-correlates-of-response-to-treatment-in-first-episode-psychosis
#7
Nicolas A Crossley, Tiago Reis Marques, Heather Taylor, Chris Chaddock, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Antje A T S Reinders, Valeria Mondelli, Marta DiForti, Andrew Simmons, Anthony S David, Shitij Kapur, Carmine M Pariante, Robin M Murray, Paola Dazzan
Connectomic approaches using diffusion tensor imaging have contributed to our understanding of brain changes in psychosis, and could provide further insights into the neural mechanisms underlying response to antipsychotic treatment. We here studied the brain network organization in patients at their first episode of psychosis, evaluating whether connectome-based descriptions of brain networks predict response to treatment, and whether they change after treatment. Seventy-six patients with a first episode of psychosis and 74 healthy controls were included...
December 21, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003467/prefrontal-cortex-dysfunction-increases-susceptibility-to-schizophrenia-like-changes-induced-by-adolescent-stress-exposure
#8
Felipe V Gomes, Anthony A Grace
Stress during adolescence is a risk factor for schizophrenia, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dysfunction is proposed to interfere with stress control, increasing the susceptibility to stress. We evaluated the impact of different stressful events during adolescence (restraint stress [RS], footshock [FS], or the combination of FS and RS) on behaviors correlated with schizophrenia in rats as adults. At adulthood, animals were tested for anxiety responses (elevated plus-maze), cognitive function (novel-object recognition test) and dopamine (DA) system responsivity (locomotor response to amphetamine and DA neuron activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) using in vivo electrophysiology)...
December 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003288/protocol-for-a-multicentre-study-to-assess-feasibility-acceptability-effectiveness-and-direct-costs-of-triumph-treatment-and-recovery-in-psychosis-integrated-care-pathway-for-psychosis
#9
Shanaya Rathod, Christie Garner, Alison Griffiths, Borislav D Dimitrov, Katherine Newman-Taylor, Chris Woodfine, Lars Hansen, Paul Tabraham, Karen Ward, Carolyn Asher, Peter Phiri, Farooq Naeem, Pippa North, Tariq Munshi, David Kingdon
INTRODUCTION: Duration of untreated psychosis (time between the onset of symptoms and start of treatment) is considered the strongest predictor of symptom severity and outcome. Integrated care pathways that prescribe timeframes around access and interventions can potentially improve quality of care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multicentre mixed methods study to assess feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness and analysis of direct costs of an integrated care pathway for psychosis...
December 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003228/missing-the-point-self-inflicted-traumatic-brain-injury-in-psychosis
#10
Phelan E Maruca-Sullivan, Matthew N Goldenberg, David C Cone, Justine Ciarleglio
A 36-year-old man was brought to the emergency department by emergency medical services after being found acting unusually at a gas station with blood on his head and clothing. He presented acutely psychotic and reported that he had a pen in his head. Medical evaluation was notable for a superficial puncture wound to the right temple, and he was medically cleared for psychiatric evaluation. After he developed nausea and headache later that evening, the CT scan revealed a temporal bone fracture, pneumocephalus, intraparenchymal haemorrhage and the presence of a metal pen tip lodged in the brain parenchyma...
December 21, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002511/the-prognostic-and-clinical-significance-of-neuroimagistic-and-neurobiological-vulnerability-markers-in-correlation-with-the-molecular-pharmacogenetic-testing-in-psychoses-and-ultra-high-risk-categories
#11
Laura Alexandra Nussbaum, Lavinia Maria Hogea, Nicoleta Ioana Andreescu, Raluca Claudia Grădinaru, Maria Puiu, Andrei Todica
We approach an integrated, multidisciplinary, innovative research-action model in children and adolescents with psychosis and ultra high-risk categories. Our main focus was: to investigate the prognostic and clinical significance of neuroimagistic and neurobiological vulnerability markers in correlation with the molecular pharmacogenetic testing in psychoses and ultra high-risk categories; the dynamic evaluation of the clinical evolution for the studied groups in correlation with specific neurobiological and neuroimagistic variables and markers...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984822/utility-of-risk-status-for-predicting-psychosis-and-related-outcomes-evaluation-of-a-10-year-cohort-of-presenters-to-a-specialised-early-psychosis-community-mental-health-service
#12
Agatha M Conrad, Terry J Lewin, Ketrina A Sly, Ulrich Schall, Sean A Halpin, Mick Hunter, Vaughan J Carr
Psychosis transition rates by those at clinical high risk have been highly variable and few studies have compared service presenters across the full psychosis risk spectrum with respect to medium-term outcomes. A 10-year service cohort was examined (N=1997), comprising all presentations to an early psychosis service for young people experiencing a recent psychotic episode or at increased risk ('Psychological Assistance Service', Newcastle, Australia). Baseline and longitudinal service data (median follow-up =7...
January 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969086/homicide-and-mental-disorder-in-a-region-with-a-high-homicide-rate
#13
Andrei Golenkov, Matthew Large, Olav Nielssen, Alla Tsymbalova
There are few studies of the relationship between mental disorder and homicide offences from regions with high rates of homicide. We examined the characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses of homicide offenders from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation, a region of Russia with a high total homicide rate. In the 30 years between 1981 and 2010, 3414 homicide offenders were the subjected to pre-trial evaluations by experienced psychiatrists, almost half of whom (1596, 46.7%) met the international classification of diseases (ICD) 10 criteria for at least one mental disorder...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968842/quality-of-life-and-health-utility-scores-for-common-cancers-in-china-a-multicentre-cross-sectional-survey
#14
Ju-Fang Shi, Hui-Yao Huang, Lan-Wei Guo, Dian Shi, Xiu-Ying Gu, Han Liang, Le Wang, Jian-Song Ren, Ya-Na Bai, A-Yan Mao, Guo-Xiang Liu, Xian-Zhen Liao, Kai Zhang, Jie He, Min Dai
BACKGROUND: The measurement of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) forms a key component of cost-utility evaluation in cancer intervention; however, detailed data for utility weights by cancer type and health status are still scarce both in China and other regions. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate utility scores in relation to the most common six cancers in China in 2012 (lung, breast, colorectal, oesophageal, liver, and stomach cancer). METHODS: As a part of a Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC) supported by the central government of China, we undertook a cross-sectional survey in 13 provinces across China from 2013 to 2014...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965864/a-brief-cbt-intervention-for-depersonalisation-derealisation-in-psychosis-study-protocol-for-a-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Simone Farrelly, Emmanuelle Peters, Matilda Azis, Anthony David, Elaine C Hunter
BACKGROUND: Depersonalisation is the experience of being detached or disconnected from one's experience. Studies suggest that clinically significant levels of depersonalisation are common in individuals who have psychotic symptoms and are associated with increased impairment. However, to date, there have been no studies that have investigated an intervention designed to target clinically significant depersonalisation in such patient groups. This study aims to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a brief intervention targeting clinically significant depersonalisation in those who also have current psychotic symptoms...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955680/-walk-this-way-a-pilot-of-a-health-coaching-intervention-to-reduce-sedentary-behaviour-and-increase-low-intensity-exercise-in-people-with-serious-mental-illness-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Julie Williams, Brendon Stubbs, Fiona Gaughran, Tom Craig
BACKGROUND: People with serious mental illness (SMI) (psychosis, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder) experience a considerable risk of premature mortality because of cardiovascular disease. Recent research has demonstrated that this population spends almost 13 h per day being sedentary. Sedentary behaviour is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Given the potential for physical activity to improve health and well-being in people with SMI, we developed a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate a coaching intervention aimed at reducing sedentary behaviour and increasing physical activity in people with SMI...
December 12, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943285/annual-research-review-digital-health-interventions-for-children-and-young-people-with-mental-health-problems-a-systematic-and-meta-review
#17
REVIEW
Chris Hollis, Caroline J Falconer, Jennifer L Martin, Craig Whittington, Sarah Stockton, Cris Glazebrook, E Bethan Davies
BACKGROUND: Digital health interventions (DHIs), including computer-assisted therapy, smartphone apps and wearable technologies, are heralded as having enormous potential to improve uptake and accessibility, efficiency, clinical effectiveness and personalisation of mental health interventions. It is generally assumed that DHIs will be preferred by children and young people (CYP) given their ubiquitous digital activity. However, it remains uncertain whether: DHIs for CYP are clinically and cost-effective, CYP prefer DHIs to traditional services, DHIs widen access and how they should be evaluated and adopted by mental health services...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930915/anatomical-dysconnectivity-in-bipolar-disorder-compared-with-schizophrenia-a-selective-review-of-structural-network-analyses-using-diffusion-mri
#18
REVIEW
Stefani O'Donoghue, Laurena Holleran, Dara M Cannon, Colm McDonald
BACKGROUND: The dysconnectivity hypothesis suggests that psychotic illnesses arise not from regionally specific focal pathophysiology, but rather from impaired neuroanatomical integration across networks of brain regions. Decreased white matter organization has been hypothesized to be a feature of psychotic illnesses in general, which is supported by meta-analyses of DTI studies in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although many diffusion MRI studies investigate bipolar disorder and schizophrenia alone, relatively few studies directly compare structural features in these psychotic illnesses...
February 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928859/mindfulness-interventions-for-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
J Aust, T Bradshaw
: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychosis and the more specific diagnosis of schizophrenia constitute a major psychiatric disorder which impacts heavily on the self-esteem, functioning and quality of life of those affected. A number of mindfulness therapies have been developed in recent years, showing promising results when used with people with the disorder. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This review of the literature included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs), rather than other typically less robust methods of research (e...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927846/risk-of-postpartum-psychosis-after-ivf-treatment-a-nationwide-case-control-study
#20
Josefin Vikström, Ann Josefsson, Mats Hammar, Marie Bladh, Gunilla Sydsjö
STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of postpartum psychosis (PPP) increased in women who give birth after IVF treatment compared to after spontaneous conception? SUMMARY ANSWER: The risk of PPP is not higher in the group of women who give birth after IVF treatment compared with women who give birth after spontaneous conception. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Women who conceive using IVF treatment can experience higher levels of pregnancy-specific distress and are at increased risk of pre-eclampsia, an immune-related condition which in turn has been linked to PPP, as well as other pregnancy and delivery complications, which also serve as PPP risk factors...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
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