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Native American medical research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873029/cyp450-genotype-phenotype-concordance-in-mexican-amerindian-indigenous-populations-where-to-from-here-for-global-precision-medicine
#1
Fernando de Andrés, Martha Sosa-Macías, Blanca Patricia Lazalde Ramos, María-Eugenia G Naranjo, Adrián LLerena
Global precision medicine demands characterization of drug metabolism and phenotype variation in diverse populations, including the indigenous societies. A related question is the extent to which CYP450 drug metabolizing enzyme genotype and phenotype data are concordant and whether they can be used interchangeably. These issues are increasingly debated as precision medicine continues to expand as a popular research topic worldwide. We report here the first study in clinically relevant CYP450 drug metabolism phenotypes and genotypes in Mexican Amerindian indigenous subjects...
September 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865474/barriers-and-facilitators-to-implementation-of-va-home-based-primary-care-on-american-indian-reservations-a-qualitative-multi-case-study
#2
B Josea Kramer, Sarah D Cote, Diane I Lee, Beth Creekmur, Debra Saliba
BACKGROUND: Veterans Health Affairs (VA) home-based primary care (HBPC) is an evidence-based interdisciplinary approach to non-institutional long-term care that was developed in urban settings to provide longitudinal care for vulnerable older patients. Under the authority of a Memorandum of Understanding between VA and Indian Health Service (IHS) to improve access to healthcare, 14 VA medical centers (VAMC) independently initiated plans to expand HBPC programs to rural American Indian reservations and 12 VAMC successfully implemented programs...
September 2, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759823/the-effectiveness-of-the-pain-resource-nurse-program-to-improve-pain-management-in-the-hospital-setting-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Sigridur Gunnarsdottir, Sigridur Zoëga, Ronald C Serlin, Herdis Sveinsdottir, Elin Johanna Gudrun Hafsteinsdottir, Nanna Fridriksdottir, Elfa Tholl Gretarsdottir, Sandra Evelyn Ward
BACKGROUND: The Pain Resource Nurse program is a widely disseminated, evidence-based, nursing staff development program, designed to improve pain management in hospitals. The program has shown promising results, but has never been tested with a rigorous research design. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to test the effectiveness of the Pain Resource Nurse program. Hypothesized outcomes included improvements in nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and assessment practices, and in patients' participation in decision-making, adequacy of pain management, pain severity, time spent in severe pain, pain interference, and satisfaction...
July 16, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738015/observational-study-to-estimate-the-changes-in-the-effectiveness-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-vaccination-with-time-since-vaccination-for-preventing-tuberculosis-in-the-uk
#4
Punam Mangtani, Patrick Nguipdop-Djomo, Ruth H Keogh, Lucy Trinder, Peter G Smith, Paul Em Fine, Jonathan Sterne, Ibrahim Abubakar, Emilia Vynnycky, John Watson, David Elliman, Marc Lipman, Laura C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Until recently, evidence that protection from the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination lasted beyond 10 years was limited. In the past few years, studies in Brazil and the USA (in Native Americans) have suggested that protection from BCG vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) in childhood can last for several decades. The UK's universal school-age BCG vaccination programme was stopped in 2005 and the programme of selective vaccination of high-risk (usually ethnic minority) infants was enhanced...
July 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459471/introducing-high-school-students-to-careers-in-osteopathic-medicine
#5
Nedra F Wilson
An aging population and expansion of health care coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act have led to a predicted deficit of primary care physicians by 2025. In response, medical schools must develop new strategies to identify students early in their educational pathways to encourage exploration of careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, especially medicine. Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences developed 2 internship programs, Oklahoma Science Training and Research Students (OKStars) and Native OKStars, to introduce high school students to osteopathic medicine...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369692/age-of-migration-life-expectancy-with-functional-limitations-and-morbidity-in-mexican-americans
#6
Marc A Garcia, Luis M Valderrama-Hinds, Chi-Tsun Chiu, Miriam S Mutambudzi, Nai-Wei Chen, Mukaila Raji
The U.S. Mexican American population enjoys longer life expectancies relative to other racial/ethnic groups but is disproportionately affected by chronic conditions and functional limitations. Studying the impact of heterogeneity in age, time and other characteristics of migration among older Mexican Americans can inform our understanding of health disparities and healthcare needs in later-life. This research used 20 years of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to assess the proportion of life spent with functional limitations and one or more morbidity (according to age of migration and sex) in the U...
July 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325240/cancer-care-access-and-outcomes-for-american-indian-populations-in-the-united-states-challenges-and-models-for-progress
#7
REVIEW
B Ashleigh Guadagnolo, Daniel G Petereit, C Norman Coleman
Low socioeconomic and health care access realities of being American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States combined with decades of data documenting poor cancer outcomes for this population provide a population nested within the United States that is analogous to the cancer care landscape of low- and middle-income countries internationally. We reviewed the medical literature with respect to cancer prevention, access to cancer treatment, and access to effective supportive and palliative care for AI/AN populations in the United States...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282303/diversity-in-the-emerging-critical-care-workforce-analysis-of-demographic-trends-in-critical-care-fellows-from-2004-to-2014
#8
Meghan B Lane-Fall, Todd A Miano, Jaya Aysola, John G T Augoustides
OBJECTIVES: Diversity in the physician workforce is essential to providing culturally effective care. In critical care, despite the high stakes and frequency with which cultural concerns arise, it is unknown whether physician diversity reflects that of critically ill patients. We sought to characterize demographic trends in critical care fellows, who represent the emerging intensivist workforce. DESIGN: We used published data to create logistic regression models comparing annual trends in the representation of women and racial/ethnic groups across critical care fellowship types...
May 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154107/impact-of-social-and-built-environment-factors-on-body-size-among-breast-cancer-survivors-the-pathways-study
#9
EDITORIAL
Salma Shariff-Marco, Julie Von Behren, Peggy Reynolds, Theresa H M Keegan, Andrew Hertz, Marilyn L Kwan, Janise M Roh, Catherine Thomsen, Candyce H Kroenke, Christine Ambrosone, Lawrence H Kushi, Scarlett Lin Gomez
Background: As social and built environment factors have been shown to be associated with physical activity, dietary patterns, and obesity in the general population, they likely also influence these health behaviors among cancer survivors and thereby impact survivorship outcomes.Methods: Enhancing the rich, individual-level survey and medical record data from 4,505 breast cancer survivors in the Pathways Study, a prospective cohort drawn from Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we geocoded baseline residential addresses and appended social and built environment data...
April 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134463/review-pharmacogenetics-of-alcoholism-treatment-implications-of-ethnic-diversity
#10
REVIEW
Anita Cservenka, Megan M Yardley, Lara A Ray
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pharmacogenetic studies of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have suggested that the efficacy of treatments for AUD is, in part, influenced by the genetic background of an individual. Since the frequency of alleles associated with pharmacotherapy for AUD varies by ancestral background, the effectiveness of medications used to treat AUD may vary among different populations. The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing pharmacogenetic studies of treatments for AUD in individuals of European, East Asian, African, and American Indian/Alaska Native ancestry...
August 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052168/a-review-of-tenure-for-black-latino-and-native-american-faculty-in-academic-medicine
#11
Zedeena E Fisher, José E Rodríguez, Kendall M Campbell
OBJECTIVES: Tenure policies in US medical schools have been under scrutiny for decades while black/African American, Latino, and Native American faculty continue to be underrepresented in medicine. As medical institutions seek to improve diversity, tenure continues to be a major retention tool. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to investigate the role that tenure plays in the recruitment, retention, and advancement of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM) faculty in academic medicine...
January 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836127/lost-in-translation-medication-labeling-for-immigrant-families
#12
Michelle Cruz Jimenez Smith, H Shonna Yin, Lee M Sanders
OBJECTIVES: To identify the patient-safety hazards of current medication labeling standards for immigrant and language-minority families. SUMMARY: The Latino population in the United States has increased by more than 40% over the past decade and the total child population born to Latino parents will surpass one-half of the population in many states. With recent health care and immigration policies, this demographic shift has a disproportional effect on the Latino families...
November 2016: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569677/underrepresentation-of-women-and-minorities-in-the-united-states-ir-academic-physician-workforce
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mikhail C S S Higgins, Wei-Ting Hwang, Chase Richard, Christina H Chapman, Angelique Laporte, Stefan Both, Charles R Thomas, Curtiland Deville
PURPOSE: To assess the United States interventional radiology (IR) academic physician workforce diversity and comparative specialties. METHODS: Public registries were used to assess demographic differences among 2012 IR faculty and fellows, diagnostic radiology (DR) faculty and residents, DR subspecialty fellows (pediatric, abdominal, neuroradiology, and musculoskeletal), vascular surgery and interventional cardiology trainees, and 2010 US medical school graduates and US Census using binomial tests with ...
December 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520018/rural-location-and-relative-location-adding-community-context-to-the-study-of-sexual-assault-survivor-time-until-presentation-for-medical-care
#14
Ingrid Diane Johnson, Matthew L Hiller
Despite a strong empirical base linking community context and proximity to resources to individual health care access, studies examining predictors of sexual assault survivor time until presentation for medical care have not yet examined these relationships. This study addresses this gap. The data included retrospective records on a sample of 1,630 female survivors who reported their sexual assault to law enforcement and were subsequently seen by a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) in one of eight Alaskan communities between the years 1996 and 2006...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416525/current-and-future-status-of-diversity-in-ophthalmologist-workforce
#15
Imam M Xierali, Marc A Nivet, M Roy Wilson
IMPORTANCE: Increasing the level of diversity among ophthalmologists may help reduce disparities in eye care. OBJECTIVE: To assess the current and future status of diversity among ophthalmologists in the workforce by sex, race, and ethnicity in the context of the available number of medical students in the United States. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from the Association of American Medical Colleges, the American Medical Association, and US Census were used to evaluate the differences and trends in diversity among ophthalmologists, all full-time faculty except ophthalmology, ophthalmology faculty, ophthalmology residents, medical school students, and the US population between 2005 and 2015...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342146/does-migration-pay-off-for-foreign-born-migrant-health-workers-an-exploratory-analysis-using-the-global-wageindicator-dataset
#16
Daniel H de Vries, Stephanie Steinmetz, Kea G Tijdens
BACKGROUND: This study used the global WageIndicator web survey to answer the following research questions: (RQ1) What are the migration patterns of health workers? (RQ2) What are the personal and occupational drivers of migration? (RQ3) Are foreign-born migrant health workers discriminated against in their destination countries? METHODS: Of the unweighted data collected in 2006-2014 from health workers aged 15-64 in paid employment, 7.9 % were on migrants (N = 44,394; 36 countries)...
2016: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328846/development-of-a-screening-and-brief-intervention-process-for-symptoms-of-psychological-trauma-among-primary-care-patients-of-two-american-indian-and-alaska-native-health-systems
#17
Vanessa Y Hiratsuka, Laurie Moore, Denise A Dillard, Jaedon P Avey, Lisa G Dirks, Barbara Beach, Douglas Novins
American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people experience high rates of acute, chronic, and intergenerational trauma. Traumatic experiences often increase the risk of both medical and behavioral health problems making primary care settings opportune places to screen for trauma exposure or symptomology. The objective of this study was to determine considerations and recommendations provided by patients, health care providers, health care administrators, and tribal leaders in the development of an adult trauma screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment process to pilot at two large AI/AN primary care systems...
April 2017: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320786/antidepressant-adherence-across-diverse-populations-and-healthcare-settings
#18
Rebecca C Rossom, Susan Shortreed, Karen J Coleman, Arne Beck, Beth E Waitzfelder, Christine Stewart, Brian K Ahmedani, John E Zeber, Greg E Simon
BACKGROUND: Early adherence is key to successful depression treatment, but nearly 60% of patients discontinue antidepressants within 3 months. Our study aimed to determine factors associated with poor early adherence to antidepressants in a large diverse sample of patients. METHODS: Six Mental Health Research Network healthcare systems contributed data for adults with depression and a new antidepressant start, defined by a washout period of at least 270 days, between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012...
August 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27179289/emotional-and-behavioral-aspects-of-diabetes-in-american-indians-alaska-natives
#19
Lisa J Scarton, Mary de Groot
American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) bear a disproportionate burden of diabetes and associated long-term complications. Behavioral interventions play a vital role in promoting diabetes medical and psychological outcomes, yet the development of interventions for AI/AN communities has been limited. A systematic review was conducted of studies focused on the psychosocial and behavioral aspects of diagnosed diabetes among AI/ANs. Ovid and PubMed databases and published reference lists were searched for articles published between 1987 and 2014 that related to the psychosocial and behavioral aspects of type 1 or type 2 diabetes in the AI/AN population...
February 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27079987/racial-ethnic-differences-in-psychiatric-diagnoses-and-treatment-across-11-health-care-systems-in-the-mental-health-research-network
#20
Karen J Coleman, Christine Stewart, Beth E Waitzfelder, John E Zeber, Leo S Morales, Ameena T Ahmed, Brian K Ahmedani, Arne Beck, Laurel A Copeland, Janet R Cummings, Enid M Hunkeler, Nangel M Lindberg, Frances Lynch, Christine Y Lu, Ashli A Owen-Smith, Connie Mah Trinacty, Robin R Whitebird, Gregory E Simon
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize racial-ethnic variation in diagnoses and treatment of mental disorders in large not-for-profit health care systems. METHODS: Participating systems were 11 private, not-for-profit health care organizations constituting the Mental Health Research Network, with a combined 7,523,956 patients age 18 or older who received care during 2011. Rates of diagnoses, prescription of psychotropic medications, and total formal psychotherapy sessions received were obtained from insurance claims and electronic medical record databases across all health care settings...
July 1, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
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