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Native American medical research

Nedra F Wilson
An aging population and expansion of health care coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act have led to a predicted deficit of primary care physicians by 2025. In response, medical schools must develop new strategies to identify students early in their educational pathways to encourage exploration of careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, especially medicine. Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences developed 2 internship programs, Oklahoma Science Training and Research Students (OKStars) and Native OKStars, to introduce high school students to osteopathic medicine...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Marc A Garcia, Luis M Valderrama-Hinds, Chi-Tsun Chiu, Miriam S Mutambudzi, Nai-Wei Chen, Mukaila Raji
The U.S. Mexican American population enjoys longer life expectancies relative to other racial/ethnic groups but is disproportionately affected by chronic conditions and functional limitations. Studying the impact of heterogeneity in age, time and other characteristics of migration among older Mexican Americans can inform our understanding of health disparities and healthcare needs in later-life. This research used 20 years of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to assess the proportion of life spent with functional limitations and one or more morbidity (according to age of migration and sex) in the U...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
B Ashleigh Guadagnolo, Daniel G Petereit, C Norman Coleman
Low socioeconomic and health care access realities of being American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States combined with decades of data documenting poor cancer outcomes for this population provide a population nested within the United States that is analogous to the cancer care landscape of low- and middle-income countries internationally. We reviewed the medical literature with respect to cancer prevention, access to cancer treatment, and access to effective supportive and palliative care for AI/AN populations in the United States...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
Meghan B Lane-Fall, Todd A Miano, Jaya Aysola, John G T Augoustides
OBJECTIVES: Diversity in the physician workforce is essential to providing culturally effective care. In critical care, despite the high stakes and frequency with which cultural concerns arise, it is unknown whether physician diversity reflects that of critically ill patients. We sought to characterize demographic trends in critical care fellows, who represent the emerging intensivist workforce. DESIGN: We used published data to create logistic regression models comparing annual trends in the representation of women and racial/ethnic groups across critical care fellowship types...
May 2017: Critical Care Medicine
Salma Shariff-Marco, Julie Von Behren, Peggy Reynolds, Theresa H M Keegan, Andrew Hertz, Marilyn L Kwan, Janise M Roh, Catherine Thomsen, Candyce H Kroenke, Christine Ambrosone, Lawrence H Kushi, Scarlett Lin Gomez
Background: As social and built environment factors have been shown to be associated with physical activity, dietary patterns, and obesity in the general population, they likely also influence these health behaviors among cancer survivors and thereby impact survivorship outcomes.Methods: Enhancing the rich, individual-level survey and medical record data from 4,505 breast cancer survivors in the Pathways Study, a prospective cohort drawn from Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we geocoded baseline residential addresses and appended social and built environment data...
April 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Anita Cservenka, Megan M Yardley, Lara A Ray
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pharmacogenetic studies of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have suggested that the efficacy of treatments for AUD is, in part, influenced by the genetic background of an individual. Since the frequency of alleles associated with pharmacotherapy for AUD varies by ancestral background, the effectiveness of medications used to treat AUD may vary among different populations. The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing pharmacogenetic studies of treatments for AUD in individuals of European, East Asian, African, and American Indian/Alaska Native ancestry...
November 4, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Zedeena E Fisher, José E Rodríguez, Kendall M Campbell
OBJECTIVES: Tenure policies in US medical schools have been under scrutiny for decades while black/African American, Latino, and Native American faculty continue to be underrepresented in medicine. As medical institutions seek to improve diversity, tenure continues to be a major retention tool. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to investigate the role that tenure plays in the recruitment, retention, and advancement of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM) faculty in academic medicine...
January 2017: Southern Medical Journal
Michelle Cruz Jimenez Smith, H Shonna Yin, Lee M Sanders
OBJECTIVES: To identify the patient-safety hazards of current medication labeling standards for immigrant and language-minority families. SUMMARY: The Latino population in the United States has increased by more than 40% over the past decade and the total child population born to Latino parents will surpass one-half of the population in many states. With recent health care and immigration policies, this demographic shift has a disproportional effect on the Latino families...
November 2016: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Mikhail C S S Higgins, Wei-Ting Hwang, Chase Richard, Christina H Chapman, Angelique Laporte, Stefan Both, Charles R Thomas, Curtiland Deville
PURPOSE: To assess the United States interventional radiology (IR) academic physician workforce diversity and comparative specialties. METHODS: Public registries were used to assess demographic differences among 2012 IR faculty and fellows, diagnostic radiology (DR) faculty and residents, DR subspecialty fellows (pediatric, abdominal, neuroradiology, and musculoskeletal), vascular surgery and interventional cardiology trainees, and 2010 US medical school graduates and US Census using binomial tests with ...
December 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
Ingrid Diane Johnson, Matthew L Hiller
Despite a strong empirical base linking community context and proximity to resources to individual health care access, studies examining predictors of sexual assault survivor time until presentation for medical care have not yet examined these relationships. This study addresses this gap. The data included retrospective records on a sample of 1,630 female survivors who reported their sexual assault to law enforcement and were subsequently seen by a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) in one of eight Alaskan communities between the years 1996 and 2006...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Imam M Xierali, Marc A Nivet, M Roy Wilson
IMPORTANCE: Increasing the level of diversity among ophthalmologists may help reduce disparities in eye care. OBJECTIVE: To assess the current and future status of diversity among ophthalmologists in the workforce by sex, race, and ethnicity in the context of the available number of medical students in the United States. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from the Association of American Medical Colleges, the American Medical Association, and US Census were used to evaluate the differences and trends in diversity among ophthalmologists, all full-time faculty except ophthalmology, ophthalmology faculty, ophthalmology residents, medical school students, and the US population between 2005 and 2015...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
Daniel H de Vries, Stephanie Steinmetz, Kea G Tijdens
BACKGROUND: This study used the global WageIndicator web survey to answer the following research questions: (RQ1) What are the migration patterns of health workers? (RQ2) What are the personal and occupational drivers of migration? (RQ3) Are foreign-born migrant health workers discriminated against in their destination countries? METHODS: Of the unweighted data collected in 2006-2014 from health workers aged 15-64 in paid employment, 7.9 % were on migrants (N = 44,394; 36 countries)...
2016: Human Resources for Health
Vanessa Y Hiratsuka, Laurie Moore, Denise A Dillard, Jaedon P Avey, Lisa G Dirks, Barbara Beach, Douglas Novins
American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people experience high rates of acute, chronic, and intergenerational trauma. Traumatic experiences often increase the risk of both medical and behavioral health problems making primary care settings opportune places to screen for trauma exposure or symptomology. The objective of this study was to determine considerations and recommendations provided by patients, health care providers, health care administrators, and tribal leaders in the development of an adult trauma screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment process to pilot at two large AI/AN primary care systems...
April 2017: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
Rebecca C Rossom, Susan Shortreed, Karen J Coleman, Arne Beck, Beth E Waitzfelder, Christine Stewart, Brian K Ahmedani, John E Zeber, Greg E Simon
BACKGROUND: Early adherence is key to successful depression treatment, but nearly 60% of patients discontinue antidepressants within 3 months. Our study aimed to determine factors associated with poor early adherence to antidepressants in a large diverse sample of patients. METHODS: Six Mental Health Research Network healthcare systems contributed data for adults with depression and a new antidepressant start, defined by a washout period of at least 270 days, between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012...
August 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Lisa J Scarton, Mary de Groot
American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) bear a disproportionate burden of diabetes and associated long-term complications. Behavioral interventions play a vital role in promoting diabetes medical and psychological outcomes, yet the development of interventions for AI/AN communities has been limited. A systematic review was conducted of studies focused on the psychosocial and behavioral aspects of diagnosed diabetes among AI/ANs. Ovid and PubMed databases and published reference lists were searched for articles published between 1987 and 2014 that related to the psychosocial and behavioral aspects of type 1 or type 2 diabetes in the AI/AN population...
February 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Karen J Coleman, Christine Stewart, Beth E Waitzfelder, John E Zeber, Leo S Morales, Ameena T Ahmed, Brian K Ahmedani, Arne Beck, Laurel A Copeland, Janet R Cummings, Enid M Hunkeler, Nangel M Lindberg, Frances Lynch, Christine Y Lu, Ashli A Owen-Smith, Connie Mah Trinacty, Robin R Whitebird, Gregory E Simon
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize racial-ethnic variation in diagnoses and treatment of mental disorders in large not-for-profit health care systems. METHODS: Participating systems were 11 private, not-for-profit health care organizations constituting the Mental Health Research Network, with a combined 7,523,956 patients age 18 or older who received care during 2011. Rates of diagnoses, prescription of psychotropic medications, and total formal psychotherapy sessions received were obtained from insurance claims and electronic medical record databases across all health care settings...
July 1, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Jacob M Vigil, Patrick Coulombe, Joe Alcock, Eric Kruger, Sarah S Stith, Chance Strenth, Mark Parshall, Sara B Cichowski
Ethnic minority patients receive lower priority triage assignments in Veteran's Affairs (VA) emergency departments (EDs) compared to White patients, but it is currently unknown whether this disparity arises from generalized biases across the triage assessment process or from differences in how objective and/or subjective institution-level or person-level information is incorporated into the triage assessment process, thus contributing to disparate treatment.The VA database of electronic medical records of patients who presented to the VA ED from 2008 to 2012 was used to measure patient ethnicity, self-reported pain intensity (PI) levels, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and nurse-provided triage assignment, the Emergency Severity Index (ESI) score...
April 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andrea N Burnett-Hartman, Shivan J Mehta, Yingye Zheng, Nirupa R Ghai, Dale F McLerran, Jessica Chubak, Virginia P Quinn, Celette Sugg Skinner, Douglas A Corley, John M Inadomi, Chyke A Doubeni
INTRODUCTION: Racial/ethnic disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and diagnostic testing present challenges to CRC prevention programs. Thus, it is important to understand how differences in CRC screening approaches between healthcare systems are associated with racial/ethnic disparities. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients aged 50-75 years who were members of the Population-based Research Optimizing Screening Through Personalized Regimens cohort from 2010 to 2012...
October 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Douglas K Novins, Calvin D Croy, Laurie A Moore, Traci Rieckmann
BACKGROUND: Research and health surveillance activities continue to document the substantial disparities in the impacts of substance abuse on the health of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people. While Evidence-Based Treatments (EBTs) hold substantial promise for improving treatment for AI/ANs with substance use problems (as they do for non-AI/ANs), anecdotal reports suggest that their use is limited. In this study, we examine the awareness of, attitudes toward, and use of EBTs in substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities...
April 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Garth Graham, Yang-Yu Karen Xiao, Dan Rappoport, Saima Siddiqi
Despite recent general improvements in health care, significant disparities persist in the cardiovascular care of women and racial/ethnic minorities. This is true even when income, education level, and site of care are taken into consideration. Possible explanations for these disparities include socioeconomic considerations, elements of discrimination and racism that affect socioeconomic status, and access to adequate medical care. Coronary revascularization has become the accepted and recommended treatment for myocardial infarction (MI) today and is one of the most common major medical interventions in the United States, with more than 1 million procedures each year...
January 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
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