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Cellular anatomy and physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259556/the-oncopig-cancer-model-as-a-complementary-tool-for-phenotypic-drug-discovery
#1
REVIEW
Natalia V Segatto, Mariana H Remião, Kyle M Schachtschneider, Fabiana K Seixas, Lawrence B Schook, Tiago Collares
The screening of potential therapeutic compounds using phenotypic drug discovery (PDD) is being embraced once again by researchers and pharmaceutical companies as an approach to enhance the development of new effective therapeutics. Before the genomics and molecular biology era and the consecutive emergence of targeted-drug discovery approaches, PDD was the most common platform used for drug discovery. PDD, also known as phenotypic screening, consists of screening potential compounds in either in vitro cellular or in vivo animal models to identify compounds resulting in a desirable phenotypic change...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148257/multiscale-memory-and-bioelectric-error-correction-in-the-cytoplasm-cytoskeleton-membrane-system
#2
REVIEW
Chris Fields, Michael Levin
A fundamental aspect of life is the modification of anatomy, physiology, and behavior in the face of changing conditions. This is especially illustrated by the adaptive regulation of growth and form that underlies the ability of most organisms-from single cells to complex large metazoa-to develop, remodel, and regenerate to specific anatomical patterns. What is the relationship of the genome and other cellular components to the robust computations that underlie this remarkable pattern homeostasis? Here we examine the role of constraints defined at the cellular level, especially endogenous bioelectricity, in generating and propagating biological information...
November 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110344/current-technical-approaches-to-brain-energy-metabolism
#3
REVIEW
L Felipe Barros, Juan P Bolaños, Gilles Bonvento, Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore, Angus Brown, Johannes Hirrlinger, Sergey Kasparov, Frank Kirchhoff, Anne N Murphy, Luc Pellerin, Michael B Robinson, Bruno Weber
Neuroscience is a technology-driven discipline and brain energy metabolism is no exception. Once satisfied with mapping metabolic pathways at organ level, we are now looking to learn what it is exactly that metabolic enzymes and transporters do and when, where do they reside, how are they regulated, and how do they relate to the specific functions of neurons, glial cells, and their subcellular domains and organelles, in different areas of the brain. Moreover, we aim to quantify the fluxes of metabolites within and between cells...
November 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102929/three-dimensional-laser-scanning-confocal-analysis-of-conjunctival-microcysts-in-glaucomatous-patients-before-and-after-trabeculectomy
#4
Silvio DI Staso, Luca Agnifili, Angela DI Gregorio, Hilary Climastone, Emilio Galassi, Vincenzo Fasanella, Marco Ciancaglini
BACKGROUND/AIM: In glaucoma, conjunctival epithelial microcysts (CEM) have been extensively investigated by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy. In the present case series, we examined eight glaucomatous patients undergoing trabeculectomy to obtain a 3-dimensional (3-D) characterization of CEM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Image acquisition was performed in z-scan automatic volume mode by Heidelberg Retina Tomograph III/Rostock Cornea Module and a series of 40 images of 300×300 μm (384×384 pixels) to a maximum depth of 40 μm were acquired throughout the upper bulbar conjunctiva before (at the site planned for surgery) and eight weeks after trabeculectomy...
November 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985032/organ-on-a-chip-systems-for-women-s-health-applications
#5
REVIEW
Janna Nawroth, Julia Rogal, Martin Weiss, Sara Y Brucker, Peter Loskill
Biomedical research, for a long time, has paid little attention to the influence of sex in many areas of study, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to animal models and clinical studies on human subjects. Many studies solely rely on male cells/tissues/animals/humans, although there are profound differences in male and female physiology, which can significantly impact disease mechanisms, toxicity of compounds, and efficacy of pharmaceuticals. In vitro systems have been traditionally very limited in their capacity to recapitulate female-specific physiology and anatomy such as dynamic sex-hormone levels and the complex interdependencies of female reproductive tract organs...
October 6, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640452/role-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-health-and-disease-a-matter-of-fat
#6
Bénédicte Gaborit, Coralie Sengenes, Patricia Ancel, Alexis Jacquier, Anne Dutour
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a small but very biologically active ectopic fat depot that surrounds the heart. Given its rapid metabolism, thermogenic capacity, unique transcriptome, secretory profile, and simply measurability, epicardial fat has drawn increasing attention among researchers attempting to elucidate its putative role in health and cardiovascular diseases. The cellular crosstalk between epicardial adipocytes and cells of the vascular wall or myocytes is high and suggests a local role for this tissue...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626075/sex-differences-in-vascular-physiology-and-pathophysiology-estrogen-and-androgen-signaling-in-health-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Austin C Boese, Seong C Kim, Ke-Jie Yin, Jean-Pyo Lee, Milton H Hamblin
Sex differences between women and men are often overlooked and underappreciated when studying the cardiovascular system. It has been long assumed that men and women are physiologically similar, and this notion has resulted in women being clinically evaluated and treated for cardiovascular pathophysiological complications as men. Currently, there is increased recognition of fundamental sex differences in cardiovascular function, anatomy, cell signaling, and pathophysiology. The National Institutes of Health have enacted guidelines expressly to gain knowledge about ways the sexes differ in both normal function and diseases at the various research levels (molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ system)...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570033/quantitative-mri-and-spectroscopy-of-bone-marrow
#8
REVIEW
Dimitrios C Karampinos, Stefan Ruschke, Michael Dieckmeyer, Maximilian Diefenbach, Daniela Franz, Alexandra S Gersing, Roland Krug, Thomas Baum
Bone marrow is one of the largest organs in the human body, enclosing adipocytes, hematopoietic stem cells, which are responsible for blood cell production, and mesenchymal stem cells, which are responsible for the production of adipocytes and bone cells. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the ideal imaging modality to monitor bone marrow changes in healthy and pathological states, thanks to its inherent rich soft-tissue contrast. Quantitative bone marrow MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques have been also developed in order to quantify changes in bone marrow water-fat composition, cellularity and perfusion in different pathologies, and to assist in understanding the role of bone marrow in the pathophysiology of systemic diseases (e...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508008/the-coracoacromial-ligament-anatomy-function-and-clinical-significance
#9
Adam Rothenberg, Gregory Gasbarro, Jesse Chlebeck, Albert Lin
The coracoacromial ligament (CAL) was first described as a pain generator by Dr Charles Neer in the early 1970s. Since that time, considerable controversy regarding CAL management during acromioplasty has persisted. This review aims to better understand the role of the CAL in shoulder physiology and pathology. Sixty-six articles from 1958 to 2016 were identified using an electronic search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, AccessMedicine, and MD Consult for case series as well as cohort and prospective studies. The authors used "coracoacromial ligament" and "coracoacromial veil" as medical subject headings (MeSH)...
April 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483597/sub-microscopic-analysis-of-t-tubule-geometry-in-living-cardiac-ventricular-myocytes-using-a-shape-based-analysis-method
#10
Cherrie H T Kong, Eva A Rog-Zielinska, Clive H Orchard, Peter Kohl, Mark B Cannell
Transverse-axial tubules (TTs) are key structures involved in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and can become deranged in disease. Although optical measurement of TTs is frequently employed to assess TT abundance and regularity, TT dimensions are generally below the diffraction limit of optical microscopy so determination of tubule size is problematic. TT diameter was measured by labeling both local surface membrane area and volume with fluorescent probes (FM4-64 and calcein, respectively), correcting image asymmetry by image processing and using the relationship between surface area and volume for a geometric primitive...
July 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468832/little-fish-big-data-zebrafish-as-a-model-for-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-disease
#11
REVIEW
Philipp Gut, Sven Reischauer, Didier Y R Stainier, Rima Arnaout
The burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases worldwide is staggering. The emergence of systems approaches in biology promises new therapies, faster and cheaper diagnostics, and personalized medicine. However, a profound understanding of pathogenic mechanisms at the cellular and molecular levels remains a fundamental requirement for discovery and therapeutics. Animal models of human disease are cornerstones of drug discovery as they allow identification of novel pharmacological targets by linking gene function with pathogenesis...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410000/properties-of-porcine-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-their-applications-in-preclinical-models
#12
Julien H Arrizabalaga, Matthias U Nollert
Adipose-derived stem cells represent a reliable adult stem cell source thanks to their abundance, straightforward isolation, and broad differentiation abilities. Consequently, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have been used in vitro for several innovative cellular therapy and regenerative medicine applications. However, the translation of a novel technology from the laboratory to the clinic requires first to evaluate its safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy through preclinical studies in animals...
July 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316111/pattern-separation-in-the-hippocampus-through-the-eyes-of-computational-modeling
#13
REVIEW
Spyridon Chavlis, Panayiota Poirazi
Pattern separation is a mnemonic process that has been extensively studied over the years. It entails the ability -of primarily hippocampal circuits- to distinguish between highly similar inputs, via generating different neuronal activity (output) patterns. The dentate gyrus (DG) in particular has long been hypothesized to implement pattern separation by detecting and storing similar inputs as distinct representations. The ways in which these distinct representations can be generated have been explored in a number of theoretical and computational modeling studies...
March 18, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315813/the-case-for-applying-tissue-engineering-methodologies-to-instruct-human-organoid-morphogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Carlos R Marti-Figueroa, Randolph S Ashton
Three-dimensional organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derivatives have become widely used in vitro models for studying development and disease. Their ability to recapitulate facets of normal human development during in vitro morphogenesis produces tissue structures with unprecedented biomimicry. Current organoid derivation protocols primarily rely on spontaneous morphogenesis processes to occur within 3-D spherical cell aggregates with minimal to no exogenous control. This yields organoids containing microscale regions of biomimetic tissues, but at the macroscale (i...
March 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261800/on-the-discovery-of-cementum
#15
REVIEW
B L Foster
Though cementum of the tooth root is critical for periodontal structure and tooth attachment and function, this tissue was not discovered and characterized on human teeth until a full century later than enamel and dentin. Early observations from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries by Marcello Malpighi, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Blake, Jacques Tenon and Georges Cuvier founded a confusing and conflicting nomenclature that obscured the nature of cementum, often conflating it with bone. Advances in microscopy and histological procedures yielded the first detailed descriptions of human cementum in the 1830s by Jan Purkinje and Anders Retzius, who identified for the first time acellular and cellular types of cementum, and the resident cementocytes embedded in the latter...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260490/myosin-light-chain-kinase-mylk1-anatomy-interactions-functions-and-regulation
#16
REVIEW
A Y Khapchaev, V P Shirinsky
This review discusses and summarizes the results of molecular and cellular investigations of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK, MYLK1), the key regulator of cell motility. The structure and regulation of a complex mylk1 gene and the domain organization of its products is presented. The interactions of the mylk1 gene protein products with other proteins and posttranslational modifications of the mylk1 gene protein products are reviewed, which altogether might determine the role and place of MLCK in physiological and pathological reactions of cells and entire organisms...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215064/cardiac-computational-modeling-of-ventricular-tachycardia-and-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-a-clinical-perspective
#17
Zhong Chen, Steve Niederer, Nesan Shanmugam, Maxime Sermesant, Christopher A Rinaldi
Computational modeling has contributed to the understanding of the normal cardiac electrophysiology and the mechanisms underlying arrhythmogenesis and arrhythmia maintenance. Our improved understanding of cardiac physiology and access to faster computational power have allowed us to integrate many layers of biological systems, gain further insight into the mechanism of cardiac pathology and moved from small scale molecular and cellular models to integrated 3-dimensional models representing the anatomy, electrophysiology and hemodynamic parameters on a organ scale...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111079/evolution-of-acid-sensing-olfactory-circuits-in-drosophilids
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Lucia L Prieto-Godino, Raphael Rytz, Steeve Cruchet, Benoîte Bargeton, Liliane Abuin, Ana F Silbering, Vanessa Ruta, Matteo Dal Peraro, Richard Benton
Animals adapt their behaviors to specific ecological niches, but the genetic and cellular basis of nervous system evolution is poorly understood. We have compared the olfactory circuits of the specialist Drosophila sechellia-which feeds exclusively on Morinda citrifolia fruit-with its generalist cousins D. melanogaster and D. simulans. We show that D. sechellia exhibits derived odor-evoked attraction and physiological sensitivity to the abundant Morinda volatile hexanoic acid and characterize how the responsible sensory receptor (the variant ionotropic glutamate receptor IR75b) and attraction-mediating circuit have evolved...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826315/wood-cellular-dendroclimatology-testing-new-proxies-in-great-basin-bristlecone-pine
#19
Emanuele Ziaco, Franco Biondi, Ingo Heinrich
Dendroclimatic proxies can be generated from the analysis of wood cellular structures, allowing for a more complete understanding of the physiological mechanisms that control the climatic response of tree species. Century-long (1870-2013) time series of anatomical parameters were developed for Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey) by capturing strongly contrasted microscopic images through a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. Environmental information embedded in wood anatomical series was analyzed in comparison with ring-width series using measures of empirical signal strength...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801542/calcium-and-electrical-signaling-in-arterial-endothelial-tubes-new-insights-into-cellular-physiology-and-cardiovascular-function
#20
REVIEW
Erik J Behringer
The integral role of the endothelium during the coordination of blood flow throughout vascular resistance networks has been recognized for several decades now. Early examination of the distinct anatomy and physiology of the endothelium as a signaling conduit along the vascular wall has prompted development and application of an intact endothelial "tube" study model isolated from rodent skeletal muscle resistance arteries. Vasodilatory signals such as increased endothelial cell (EC) Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+) ]i ) and hyperpolarization take place in single ECs while shared between electrically coupled ECs through gap junctions up to distances of millimeters (≥2 mm)...
April 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
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