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Cellular anatomy and physiology

Zhong Chen, Steve Niederer, Nesan Shanmugam, Maxime Sermesant, Christopher A Rinaldi
Computational modeling has contributed to the understanding of the normal cardiac electrophysiology and the mechanisms underlying arrhythmogenesis and arrhythmia maintenance. Our improved understanding of cardiac physiology and access to faster computational power have allowed us to integrate many layers of biological systems, gain further insight into the mechanism of cardiac pathology and moved from small scale molecular and cellular models to integrated 3-dimensional models representing the anatomy, electrophysiology and hemodynamic parameters on a organ scale...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
Lucia L Prieto-Godino, Raphael Rytz, Steeve Cruchet, Benoîte Bargeton, Liliane Abuin, Ana F Silbering, Vanessa Ruta, Matteo Dal Peraro, Richard Benton
Animals adapt their behaviors to specific ecological niches, but the genetic and cellular basis of nervous system evolution is poorly understood. We have compared the olfactory circuits of the specialist Drosophila sechellia-which feeds exclusively on Morinda citrifolia fruit-with its generalist cousins D. melanogaster and D. simulans. We show that D. sechellia exhibits derived odor-evoked attraction and physiological sensitivity to the abundant Morinda volatile hexanoic acid and characterize how the responsible sensory receptor (the variant ionotropic glutamate receptor IR75b) and attraction-mediating circuit have evolved...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
Emanuele Ziaco, Franco Biondi, Ingo Heinrich
Dendroclimatic proxies can be generated from the analysis of wood cellular structures, allowing for a more complete understanding of the physiological mechanisms that control the climatic response of tree species. Century-long (1870-2013) time series of anatomical parameters were developed for Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey) by capturing strongly contrasted microscopic images through a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. Environmental information embedded in wood anatomical series was analyzed in comparison with ring-width series using measures of empirical signal strength...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Erik J Behringer
The integral role of the endothelium during the coordination of blood flow throughout vascular resistance networks has been recognized for decades. Early examination of the distinct anatomy and physiology of the endothelium as a signaling conduit along the vascular wall has prompted development and application of an intact endothelial "tube" study model isolated from rodent skeletal muscle resistance arteries. Vasodilatory signals such as increased endothelial cell (EC) Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+) ]i ) signals and hyperpolarization can take place in single ECs while being shared between electrically coupled ECs through gap junctions up to distances of millimeters (≥ 2 mm)...
November 1, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
A G Balliana, B B Moura, R C Inckot, C Bona
Hydrocarbons are the main components of diesel oil and are toxic for the majority of plants. A few plant species, known as phytoremediators, are tolerant of hydrocarbons and can survive the stressful conditions of soils contaminated with diesel oil. Canavalia ensiformis, a plant species that is well distributed throughout the tropics, possesses advantageous features for a potential resistance to soil contamination, such as fast growth and a deep root system. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the tolerance of C...
January 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
José M Torres-Ruiz, Hervé Cochard, Maurizio Mencuccini, Sylvain Delzon, Eric Badel
Xylem embolism is one of the main processes involved in drought-related plant mortality. Although its consequences for plant physiology are already well described, embolism formation and spread are poorly evaluated and modelled, especially for tracheid-based species. The aim of this study was to assess the embolism formation and spread in Pinus sylvestris as a case study using X-ray microtomography and hydraulics methods. We also evaluated the potential effects of cavitation fatigue on vulnerability to embolism and the micro-morphology of the bordered pits using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to test for possible links between xylem anatomy and embolism spread...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Kenna Degner, Ronald R Magness, Dinesh M Shah
The uterine vasculature undergoes marked changes during pregnancy in order to provide the necessary increase in blood flow to support growth and nutrition of the uterus, placenta, and developing fetus. Pregnancy-associated uterine vascular transformations are orchestrated by a complex array of endocrine and cellular mechanisms to bring about structural modifications at the maternal-fetal interface, which collectively lead to development of the uteroplacental circulation. Understanding intrinsic uterine vascular remodeling in pregnancy is essential for understanding the physiologic and pathophysiologic regulation of maternal uterine blood flow...
October 12, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Gaurav Kaushik, Jeroen Leijten, Ali Khademhosseini
Engineering complex tissues and whole organs has the potential to dramatically impact translational medicine in several avenues. Organ engineering is a discipline that integrates biological knowledge of embryological development, anatomy, physiology, and cellular interactions with enabling technologies including biocompatible biomaterials and biofabrication platforms such as three-dimensional bioprinting. When engineering complex tissues and organs, core design principles must be taken into account, such as the structure-function relationship, biochemical signaling, mechanics, gradients, and spatial constraints...
January 2017: Stem Cells
Janani S Iyer, Shelley A Batts, Kengyeh K Chu, Mehmet I Sahin, Hui Min Leung, Guillermo J Tearney, Konstantina M Stankovic
The mammalian cochlea has historically resisted attempts at high-resolution, non-invasive imaging due to its small size, complex three-dimensional structure, and embedded location within the temporal bone. As a result, little is known about the relationship between an individual's cochlear pathology and hearing function, and otologists must rely on physiological testing and imaging methods that offer limited resolution to obtain information about the inner ear prior to performing surgery. Micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) is a non-invasive, low-coherence interferometric imaging technique capable of resolving cellular-level anatomic structures...
2016: Scientific Reports
Nóra Faragó, Ágnes Katalin Kocsis, Csilla Braskó, Sándor Lovas, Márton Rózsa, Judith Baka, Balázs Kovács, Katalin Mikite, Viktor Szemenyei, Gábor Molnár, Attila Ozsvár, Gáspár Oláh, Ildikó Piszár, Ágnes Zvara, Attila Patócs, Pál Barzó, László G Puskás, Gábor Tamás
Functional and molecular changes associated with pathophysiological conditions are relatively easily detected based on tissue samples collected from patients. Population specific cellular responses to disease might remain undiscovered in samples taken from organs formed by a multitude of cell types. This is particularly apparent in the human cerebral cortex composed of a yet undefined number of neuron types with a potentially different involvement in disease processes. We combined cellular electrophysiology, anatomy and single cell digital PCR in human neurons identified in situ for the first time to assess mRNA expression and corresponding functional changes in response to edema and increased intracranial pressure...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Haolu Wang, Xiaowen Liang, Germain Gravot, Camilla A Thorling, Darrell H G Crawford, Zhi Ping Xu, Xin Liu, Michael S Roberts
Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become increasingly popular and widely used in both basic and clinical liver studies over the past few years. This technology provides insights into deep live tissues with less photobleaching and phototoxicity, which helps us to better understand the cellular morphology, microenvironment, immune responses and spatiotemporal dynamics of drugs and therapeutic cells in the healthy and diseased liver. This review summarizes the principles, opportunities, applications and limitations of MPM in hepatology...
January 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
Marta Ruiz, Ana Quiñones, Belén Martínez-Alcántara, Pablo Aleza, Raphaël Morillon, Luis Navarro, Eduardo Primo-Millo, Mary-Rus Martínez-Cuenca
UNLABELLED: Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B) toxicity responses in diploid (2x) and tetraploid (4x) plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.), a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hongmin Yun, Yi Zhou, Andrew Wills, Yiqin Du
Intraocular pressure (IOP) is still the main treatment target for glaucoma. Outflow resistance mainly exists at the trabecular meshwork (TM) outflow pathway, which is responsible for IOP regulation. Changes of TM cellularity and TM extracellular matrix turnover may play important roles in IOP regulation. In this article, we review basic anatomy and physiology of the outflow pathway and TM stem cell characteristics regarding the location, isolation, identification and function. TM stem cells are localized at the insert region of the TM and are label-retaining in vivo...
June 2016: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jennifer Búfalo, Tatiane Maria Rodrigues, Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida, Luiz Ricardo Dos Santos Tozin, Marcia Ortiz Mayo Marques, Carmen Silvia Fernandes Boaro
The present study investigated whether osmotic stress induced by the exposure of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) to moderate and severe stress for short periods of time changes the plant's physiological parameters, leaf anatomy and ultrastructure and essential oil. Plants were exposed to two levels of polyethyleneglycol (50 g L(-1) and 100 g L(-1) of PEG) in a hydroponic experiment. The plants exposed to 50 g L(-1) maintained metabolic functions similar to those of the control group (0 g L(-1)) without changes in gas exchange or structural characteristics...
August 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Adrien François, Denise Grebert, Moez Rhimi, Mahendra Mariadassou, Laurent Naudon, Sylvie Rabot, Nicolas Meunier
Intestinal epithelium development is dramatically impaired in germfree rodents, but the consequences of the absence of microbiota have been overlooked in other epithelia. In the present study, we present the first description of the bacterial communities associated with the olfactory epithelium and explored differences in olfactory epithelium characteristics between germfree and conventional, specific pathogen-free, mice. While the anatomy of the olfactory epithelium was not significantly different, we observed a thinner olfactory cilia layer along with a decreased cellular turn-over in germfree mice...
2016: Scientific Reports
Roxana Khoshravesh, Corey R Stinson, Matt Stata, Florian A Busch, Rowan F Sage, Martha Ludwig, Tammy L Sage
Photorespiratory glycine shuttling and decarboxylation in bundle sheath (BS) cells exhibited by C2 species is proposed to be the evolutionary bridge to C4 photosynthesis in eudicots. To evaluate this in grasses, we compare anatomy, cellular localization of glycine decarboxylase (GDC), and photosynthetic physiology of a suspected C2 grass, Homolepis aturensis, with these traits in known C2 grasses, Neurachne minor and Steinchisma hians, and C3 S laxum that is sister to S hians We also use publicly available genome and RNA-sequencing data to examine the evolution of GDC subunits and enhance our understanding of the evolution of BS-specific GDC expression in C2 and C4 grasses...
May 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Nicolas Grenier, Pierre Merville, Christian Combe
Radiologic imaging has the potential to identify several functional and/or structural biomarkers of acute and chronic kidney diseases that are useful diagnostics to guide patient management. A renal ultrasound examination can provide information regarding the gross anatomy and macrostructure of the renal parenchyma, and ultrasound imaging modalities based on Doppler or elastography techniques can provide haemodynamic and structural information, respectively. CT is also able to combine morphological and functional information, but the use of CT is limited due to the required exposure to X-ray irradiation and a risk of contrast-induced nephropathy following intravenous injection of a radio-contrast agent...
June 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Thais Borges Lessa, Dilayla Kelly de Abreu, Bruno Machado Bertassoli, Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio
The diaphragm is a respiratory muscle that is primarily responsible for the respiratory function in normal individuals. In mammals, the diaphragm muscle has been studied from the early days of zoology, comparative and experimental anatomy, physiology, medicine, physics, and philosophy. However, even with these early advances in knowledge pertaining to the diaphragm, comprehensive morphological data on the diaphragm are still incomplete. In this review, we summarize the beginnings of the morphological description of the diaphragm, and we describe the current status of the known morphological and embryological features...
May 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Bernard C Rossier
Vertebrates control the osmolality of their extra- and intra-cellular compartments despite large variations in salt and water intake. Aldosterone-dependent sodium reabsorption and vasopressin-dependent water transport in the distal nephron and collecting duct play a critical role in the final control of sodium and water balance. Long-term fasting (no eating, no drinking) represents an osmotic challenge for survival. Evolution has found very different solutions to meet this challenge. To illustrate this point, I will discuss osmoregulation of a mammal (elephant seal pup) and of a fish (lungfish) that are able to survive long-term fasting for months or even years...
2016: Nephron
Daniel J Hegeman, Ellie S Hong, Vivian M Hernández, C Savio Chan
The external globus pallidus (GPe) of the basal ganglia is in a unique and powerful position to influence processing of motor information by virtue of its widespread projections to all basal ganglia nuclei. Despite the clinical importance of the GPe in common motor disorders such as Parkinson's disease, there is only limited information about its cellular composition and organizational principles. In this review, recent advances in the understanding of the diversity in the molecular profile, anatomy, physiology and corresponding behaviour during movement of GPe neurons are described...
May 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
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