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Cellular anatomy and physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508008/the-coracoacromial-ligament-anatomy-function-and-clinical-significance
#1
Adam Rothenberg, Gregory Gasbarro, Jesse Chlebeck, Albert Lin
The coracoacromial ligament (CAL) was first described as a pain generator by Dr Charles Neer in the early 1970s. Since that time, considerable controversy regarding CAL management during acromioplasty has persisted. This review aims to better understand the role of the CAL in shoulder physiology and pathology. Sixty-six articles from 1958 to 2016 were identified using an electronic search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, AccessMedicine, and MD Consult for case series as well as cohort and prospective studies. The authors used "coracoacromial ligament" and "coracoacromial veil" as medical subject headings (MeSH)...
April 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483597/sub-microscopic-analysis-of-t-tubule-geometry-in-living-cardiac-ventricular-myocytes-using-a-shape-based-analysis-method
#2
Cherrie H T Kong, Eva A Rog-Zielinska, Clive H Orchard, Peter Kohl, Mark B Cannell
Transverse-axial tubules (TTs) are key structures involved in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and can become deranged in disease. Although optical measurement of TTs is frequently employed to assess TT abundance and regularity, TT dimensions are generally below the diffraction limit of optical microscopy so determination of tubule size is problematic. TT diameter was measured by labeling both local surface membrane area and volume with fluorescent probes (FM4-64 and calcein, respectively), correcting image asymmetry by image processing and using the relationship between surface area and volume for a geometric primitive...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468832/little-fish-big-data-zebrafish-as-a-model-for-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-disease
#3
REVIEW
Philipp Gut, Sven Reischauer, Didier Y R Stainier, Rima Arnaout
The burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases worldwide is staggering. The emergence of systems approaches in biology promises new therapies, faster and cheaper diagnostics, and personalized medicine. However, a profound understanding of pathogenic mechanisms at the cellular and molecular levels remains a fundamental requirement for discovery and therapeutics. Animal models of human disease are cornerstones of drug discovery as they allow identification of novel pharmacological targets by linking gene function with pathogenesis...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410000/properties-of-porcine-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-their-applications-in-preclinical-models
#4
Julien H Arrizabalaga, Matthias U Nollert
Adipose-derived stem cells represent a reliable adult stem cell source thanks to their abundance, straightforward isolation, and broad differentiation abilities. Consequently, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have been used in vitro for several innovative cellular therapy and regenerative medicine applications. However, the translation of a novel technology from the laboratory to the clinic requires first to evaluate its safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy through preclinical studies in animals...
March 30, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316111/pattern-separation-in-the-hippocampus-through-the-eyes-of-computational-modeling
#5
REVIEW
Spyridon Chavlis, Panayiota Poirazi
Pattern separation is a mnemonic process that has been extensively studied over the years. It entails the ability -of primarily hippocampal circuits- to distinguish between highly similar inputs, via generating different neuronal activity (output) patterns. The dentate gyrus (DG) in particular has long been hypothesized to implement pattern separation by detecting and storing similar inputs as distinct representations. The ways in which these distinct representations can be generated have been explored in a number of theoretical and computational modeling studies...
March 18, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315813/the-case-for-applying-tissue-engineering-methodologies-to-instruct-human-organoid-morphogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Carlos R Marti-Figueroa, Randolph S Ashton
Three-dimensional organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derivatives have become widely used in vitro models for studying development and disease. Their ability to recapitulate facets of normal human development during in vitro morphogenesis produces tissue structures with unprecedented biomimicry. Current organoid derivation protocols primarily rely on spontaneous morphogenesis processes to occur within 3-D spherical cell aggregates with minimal to no exogenous control. This yields organoids containing microscale regions of biomimetic tissues, but at the macroscale (i...
March 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261800/on-the-discovery-of-cementum
#7
REVIEW
B L Foster
Though cementum of the tooth root is critical for periodontal structure and tooth attachment and function, this tissue was not discovered and characterized on human teeth until a full century later than enamel and dentin. Early observations from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries by Marcello Malpighi, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Blake, Jacques Tenon and Georges Cuvier founded a confusing and conflicting nomenclature that obscured the nature of cementum, often conflating it with bone. Advances in microscopy and histological procedures yielded the first detailed descriptions of human cementum in the 1830s by Jan Purkinje and Anders Retzius, who identified for the first time acellular and cellular types of cementum, and the resident cementocytes embedded in the latter...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260490/myosin-light-chain-kinase-mylk1-anatomy-interactions-functions-and-regulation
#8
REVIEW
A Y Khapchaev, V P Shirinsky
This review discusses and summarizes the results of molecular and cellular investigations of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK, MYLK1), the key regulator of cell motility. The structure and regulation of a complex mylk1 gene and the domain organization of its products is presented. The interactions of the mylk1 gene protein products with other proteins and posttranslational modifications of the mylk1 gene protein products are reviewed, which altogether might determine the role and place of MLCK in physiological and pathological reactions of cells and entire organisms...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215064/cardiac-computational-modeling-of-ventricular-tachycardia-and-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-a-clinical-perspective
#9
Zhong Chen, Steve Niederer, Nesan Shanmugam, Maxime Sermesant, Christopher A Rinaldi
Computational modeling has contributed to the understanding of the normal cardiac electrophysiology and the mechanisms underlying arrhythmogenesis and arrhythmia maintenance. Our improved understanding of cardiac physiology and access to faster computational power have allowed us to integrate many layers of biological systems, gain further insight into the mechanism of cardiac pathology and moved from small scale molecular and cellular models to integrated 3-dimensional models representing the anatomy, electrophysiology and hemodynamic parameters on a organ scale...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111079/evolution-of-acid-sensing-olfactory-circuits-in-drosophilids
#10
Lucia L Prieto-Godino, Raphael Rytz, Steeve Cruchet, Benoîte Bargeton, Liliane Abuin, Ana F Silbering, Vanessa Ruta, Matteo Dal Peraro, Richard Benton
Animals adapt their behaviors to specific ecological niches, but the genetic and cellular basis of nervous system evolution is poorly understood. We have compared the olfactory circuits of the specialist Drosophila sechellia-which feeds exclusively on Morinda citrifolia fruit-with its generalist cousins D. melanogaster and D. simulans. We show that D. sechellia exhibits derived odor-evoked attraction and physiological sensitivity to the abundant Morinda volatile hexanoic acid and characterize how the responsible sensory receptor (the variant ionotropic glutamate receptor IR75b) and attraction-mediating circuit have evolved...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826315/wood-cellular-dendroclimatology-testing-new-proxies-in-great-basin-bristlecone-pine
#11
Emanuele Ziaco, Franco Biondi, Ingo Heinrich
Dendroclimatic proxies can be generated from the analysis of wood cellular structures, allowing for a more complete understanding of the physiological mechanisms that control the climatic response of tree species. Century-long (1870-2013) time series of anatomical parameters were developed for Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey) by capturing strongly contrasted microscopic images through a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. Environmental information embedded in wood anatomical series was analyzed in comparison with ring-width series using measures of empirical signal strength...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801542/calcium-and-electrical-signaling-in-arterial-endothelial-tubes-new-insights-into-cellular-physiology-and-cardiovascular-function
#12
REVIEW
Erik J Behringer
The integral role of the endothelium during the coordination of blood flow throughout vascular resistance networks has been recognized for several decades now. Early examination of the distinct anatomy and physiology of the endothelium as a signaling conduit along the vascular wall has prompted development and application of an intact endothelial "tube" study model isolated from rodent skeletal muscle resistance arteries. Vasodilatory signals such as increased endothelial cell (EC) Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+) ]i ) and hyperpolarization take place in single ECs while shared between electrically coupled ECs through gap junctions up to distances of millimeters (≥2 mm)...
April 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761870/development-of-canavalia-ensiformis-in-soil-contaminated-with-diesel-oil
#13
A G Balliana, B B Moura, R C Inckot, C Bona
Hydrocarbons are the main components of diesel oil and are toxic for the majority of plants. A few plant species, known as phytoremediators, are tolerant of hydrocarbons and can survive the stressful conditions of soils contaminated with diesel oil. Canavalia ensiformis, a plant species that is well distributed throughout the tropics, possesses advantageous features for a potential resistance to soil contamination, such as fast growth and a deep root system. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the tolerance of C...
January 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739597/direct-observation-and-modelling-of-embolism-spread-between-xylem-conduits-a-case-study-in-scots-pine
#14
José M Torres-Ruiz, Hervé Cochard, Maurizio Mencuccini, Sylvain Delzon, Eric Badel
Xylem embolism is one of the main processes involved in drought-related plant mortality. Although its consequences for plant physiology are already well described, embolism formation and spread are poorly evaluated and modelled, especially for tracheid-based species. The aim of this study was to assess the embolism formation and spread in Pinus sylvestris as a case study using X-ray microtomography and hydraulics methods. We also evaluated the potential effects of cavitation fatigue on vulnerability to embolism and the micro-morphology of the bordered pits using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to test for possible links between xylem anatomy and embolism spread...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733657/establishment-of-the-human-uteroplacental-circulation-a-historical-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Kenna Degner, Ronald R Magness, Dinesh M Shah
The uterine vasculature undergoes marked changes during pregnancy in order to provide the necessary increase in blood flow to support growth and nutrition of the uterus, placenta, and developing fetus. Pregnancy-associated uterine vascular transformations are orchestrated by a complex array of endocrine and cellular mechanisms to bring about structural modifications at the maternal-fetal interface, which collectively lead to development of the uteroplacental circulation. Understanding intrinsic uterine vascular remodeling in pregnancy is essential for understanding the physiologic and pathophysiologic regulation of maternal uterine blood flow...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641724/concise-review-organ-engineering-design-technology-and-integration
#16
REVIEW
Gaurav Kaushik, Jeroen Leijten, Ali Khademhosseini
Engineering complex tissues and whole organs has the potential to dramatically impact translational medicine in several avenues. Organ engineering is a discipline that integrates biological knowledge of embryological development, anatomy, physiology, and cellular interactions with enabling technologies including biocompatible biomaterials and biofabrication platforms such as three-dimensional bioprinting. When engineering complex tissues and organs, core design principles must be taken into account, such as the structure-function relationship, biochemical signaling, mechanics, gradients, and spatial constraints...
January 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633610/micro-optical-coherence-tomography-of-the-mammalian-cochlea
#17
Janani S Iyer, Shelley A Batts, Kengyeh K Chu, Mehmet I Sahin, Hui Min Leung, Guillermo J Tearney, Konstantina M Stankovic
The mammalian cochlea has historically resisted attempts at high-resolution, non-invasive imaging due to its small size, complex three-dimensional structure, and embedded location within the temporal bone. As a result, little is known about the relationship between an individual's cochlear pathology and hearing function, and otologists must rely on physiological testing and imaging methods that offer limited resolution to obtain information about the inner ear prior to performing surgery. Micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) is a non-invasive, low-coherence interferometric imaging technique capable of resolving cellular-level anatomic structures...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487831/human-neuronal-changes-in-brain-edema-and-increased-intracranial-pressure
#18
Nóra Faragó, Ágnes Katalin Kocsis, Csilla Braskó, Sándor Lovas, Márton Rózsa, Judith Baka, Balázs Kovács, Katalin Mikite, Viktor Szemenyei, Gábor Molnár, Attila Ozsvár, Gáspár Oláh, Ildikó Piszár, Ágnes Zvara, Attila Patócs, Pál Barzó, László G Puskás, Gábor Tamás
Functional and molecular changes associated with pathophysiological conditions are relatively easily detected based on tissue samples collected from patients. Population specific cellular responses to disease might remain undiscovered in samples taken from organs formed by a multitude of cell types. This is particularly apparent in the human cerebral cortex composed of a yet undefined number of neuron types with a potentially different involvement in disease processes. We combined cellular electrophysiology, anatomy and single cell digital PCR in human neurons identified in situ for the first time to assess mRNA expression and corresponding functional changes in response to edema and increased intracranial pressure...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312349/visualizing-liver-anatomy-physiology-and-pharmacology-using-multiphoton-microscopy
#19
Haolu Wang, Xiaowen Liang, Germain Gravot, Camilla A Thorling, Darrell H G Crawford, Zhi Ping Xu, Xin Liu, Michael S Roberts
Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become increasingly popular and widely used in both basic and clinical liver studies over the past few years. This technology provides insights into deep live tissues with less photobleaching and phototoxicity, which helps us to better understand the cellular morphology, microenvironment, immune responses and spatiotemporal dynamics of drugs and therapeutic cells in the healthy and diseased liver. This review summarizes the principles, opportunities, applications and limitations of MPM in hepatology...
January 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252717/tetraploidy-enhances-boron-excess-tolerance-in-carrizo-citrange-citrus-sinensis-l-osb-%C3%A3-poncirus-trifoliata-l-raf
#20
Marta Ruiz, Ana Quiñones, Belén Martínez-Alcántara, Pablo Aleza, Raphaël Morillon, Luis Navarro, Eduardo Primo-Millo, Mary-Rus Martínez-Cuenca
UNLABELLED: Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B) toxicity responses in diploid (2x) and tetraploid (4x) plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.), a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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