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Katharina Feil, Robert Forbrig, Franziska S Thaler, Julian Conrad, Suzette Heck, Franziska Dorn, Hans-Walter Pfister, Andreas Straube
BACKGROUND: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) are both rare disorders. The pathophysiology of both diseases is not yet fully understood. METHODS: We report the unique case of a 19-year-old comatose woman who was brought to the ER after a series of generalized tonic-clonic seizures 6 days post peridural anesthesia for cesarean section. Vital signs and initial laboratory testing including urine analysis and drug screening were unremarkable...
November 15, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Joo Yeun Kim, Robert A Gatenby
Solid tumors are multiscale, open, complex, dynamic systems: complex because they have many interacting components, dynamic because both the components and their interactions can change with time, and open because the tumor freely communicates with surrounding and even distant host tissue. Thus, it is not surprising that striking intratumoral variations are commonly observed in clinical imaging such as MRI and CT and that several recent studies found striking regional variations in the molecular properties of cancer cells from the same tumor...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Josef N Tofte, Tyler L CarlLee, Andrew J Holte, Sean E Sitton, Stuart L Weinstein
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic Review. OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based recommendation for when and how to employ imaging studies when diagnosing back pain thought to be caused by spondylolysis in pediatric patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spondylolysis is a common structural cause of back pain in pediatric patients. The radiologic methods and algorithms used to diagnose spondylolysis are inconsistent among practitioners. METHODS: A literature review was performed in PubMed and Cochrane databases using the search terms "spondylolysis" "pediatric" "adolescent" "juvenile" "young" "lumbar" "MRI" "bone scan" "CT" and "SPECT"...
September 23, 2016: Spine
Erdal Alkan, Yeşim Sağlıcan, Ahmet Oğuz Özkanlı, Mevlana Derya Balbay
Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH, Masson's Tumor) of the kidney is an unusual, benign vascular lesion. A rare case of recurrent IPEH in the kidney was presented in this article. A 50-year-old male with a diagnosis of a suspicious mass in the left kidney was referred to our center for robotic partial nephrectomy. Robotic zero ischemia partial nephrectomy was performed due to the suspicion of a renal malignancy. On the basis of the histopathological results, the patient was diagnosed as IPEH...
September 2016: Turkish Journal of Urology
Luca Presotto, Elena Busnardo, Luigi Gianolli, Valentino Bettinardi
Positron emission tomography (PET) is indicated for a large number of cardiac diseases: perfusion and viability studies are commonly used to evaluate coronary artery disease; PET can also be used to assess sarcoidosis and endocarditis, as well as to investigate amyloidosis. Furthermore, a hot topic for research is plaque characterization. Most of these studies are technically very challenging. High count rates and short acquisition times characterize perfusion scans while very small targets have to be imaged in inflammation/infection and plaques examinations...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Eugene Won, Ankur M Doshi
PURPOSE: To assess the content of currently available YouTube videos seeking to educate patients regarding commonly performed imaging examinations. METHODS: After initial testing of possible search terms, the first two pages of YouTube search results for "CT scan," "MRI," "ultrasound patient," "PET scan," and "mammogram" were reviewed to identify educational patient videos created by health organizations. Sixty-three included videos were viewed and assessed for a range of features...
August 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Erin D Bigler
The patient who sustains a traumatic brain injury (TBI) typically undergoes neuroimaging studies, usually in the form of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In most cases the neuroimaging findings are clinically assessed with descriptive statements that provide qualitative information about the presence/absence of visually identifiable abnormalities; though little if any of the potential information in a scan is analyzed in any quantitative manner, except in research settings. Fortunately, major advances have been made, especially during the last decade, in regards to image quantification techniques, especially those that involve automated image analysis methods...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Gad Abikhzer, Saher Srour, Georgeta Fried, Karen Drumea, Ela Kozlener, Alex Frenkel, Ora Israel, Ignac Fogelman, Olga Kagna
OBJECTIVE: The superiority of sodium F-fluoride PET (F-PET)/computed tomography (CT) over planar and single field-of-view single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) bone scintigraphy with Tc-methylene diphosphonate in bone metastases detection has been established. The present study prospectively compares whole-body Tc-methylene diphosphonate SPECT (WB-SPECT) and F-PET performance indices for the detection of bone metastases in breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 41 pairs of studies in female breast cancer patients (average age 58 years, range 30-75) were included...
November 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Jordan Everson, Keith E Kocher, Julia Adler-Milstein
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether electronic health information exchange (HIE) is associated with improved emergency department (ED) care processes and utilization through more timely clinician viewing of information from outside organizations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our data included 2163 patients seen in the ED of a large academic medical center for whom clinicians requested and viewed outside information from February 14, 2014, to February 13, 2015. Outside information requests w...
August 12, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Toni Raffoul, Alexandre Balaphas, Raphael P H Meier, Catrina Hansen, Giacomo Puppa, Jean-Louis Frossard, Philippe Morel, Leo H Bühler
The detection rate of cystic lesions of the pancreas has increased following the widespread use of high-resolution imaging technologies. CT-scan, MRI and echo-endoscopy are diagnostic modalities. Pseudocyst is the most common lesion. It is benign and can be managed with endoscopic treatment. Mucinous cystic neoplasia and Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasia (IPMN) carry a risk for malignant transformation. The surgical treatment of these lesions has to be discussed by a multidisciplinary board. Serous cystic neoplasia and pseudopapillar and solid neoplasia are two rare types of lesion...
June 15, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
Tze Yee Lim, Rajat J Kudchadker, Jihong Wang, R Jason Stafford, Christopher MacLellan, Arvind Rao, Geoffrey S Ibbott, Steven J Frank
PURPOSE: For postimplant dosimetric assessment, computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to identify prostate brachytherapy seeds, at the expense of accurate anatomical contouring. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is superior to CT for anatomical delineation, but identification of the negative-contrast seeds is challenging. Positive-contrast MRI markers were proposed to replace spacers to assist seed localization on MRI images. Visualization of these markers under varying scan parameters was investigated...
July 2016: Medical Physics
Michael Ried, Stefanie Hnevkovsky, Reiner Neu, Marietta von Süßkind-Schwendi, Andrea Götz, Okka W Hamer, Berthold Schalke, Hans-Stefan Hofmann
Background Preoperative radiological assessment is important for clarification of surgical operability for advanced thymic tumors. Objective was to determine the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with cine sequences for evaluation of cardiovascular tumor invasion. Patients and Methods This prospective study included patients with advanced thymoma, who underwent surgical resection. All patients received preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan and cine MRI. Results Tumor infiltration was surgically confirmed in the pericardium (n = 12), myocardium (n = 1), superior caval vein (SCV; n = 3), and aorta (n = 2)...
May 13, 2016: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
John V Thomas, David N Bolus, Bradford E Jackson, Lincoln L Berland, Michael Yester, Desiree E Morgan
PURPOSE: Evaluate Gadoxetate Disodium enhanced dual-energy CT for visualization of perihilar cholangiocarcinoma by exploiting the hepatobiliary uptake of Gadoxetate Disodium and viewing images at the k-edge of gadolinium on the spectrum of simulated monoenergetic energies available with Dual Energy CT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective, IRB-approved study in patients with suspected cholangiocarcinoma, subjects who underwent a clinically indicated Gadoxetate Disodium liver MRI were immediately scanned without further IV contrast administration using rapid kVp-switching dual energy CT (rsDECT)...
March 2016: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Hossam El-Rewaidy, Ahmed S Fahmy
BACKGROUND: Estimating the left ventricular (LV) volumes at the different cardiac phases is necessary for evaluating the cardiac global function. In cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, accurate estimation of the LV volumes requires the processing a relatively large number of parallel short-axis cross-sectional images of the LV (typically from 9 to 12). Nevertheless, it is inevitable sometimes to estimate the volume from a small number of cross-sectional images, which can lead to a significant reduction of the volume estimation accuracy...
April 27, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Ravi Kumar, Jeyaseelan Nadarajah, Atin Kumar, Shivanand Gamanagatti
Materials used in neurosurgery to achieve hemostasis may be of resorbable or nonresorbable substance and may cause foreign body granuloma if left at the operative site. Foreign body granuloma depending on clinical history may be indistinguishable from an abscess, resolving infarction, and hematoma. Here we present two cases, who had decompressive craniectomy following road traffic accident. Follow-up computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed hyperdense lobulated lesion with peripheral rim enhancement. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), lesions were predominantly hypointense on T1-weighted images, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images and showed a lack of restricted diffusion...
January 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
J D Stevenson, J J Watson, P Cool, G L Cribb, J P R Jenkins, M Leahy, J J Gregory
Myxoid liposarcomas (MLS) are a subgroup of soft-tissue sarcomas which have a propensity for extra-pulmonary metastases. Conventional radiological staging of soft-tissue sarcomas consists of chest radiographs (CXR) and thoracic computed tomography (CT) for possible chest metastases, supplemented by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for local disease. The optimal radiological modality to detect extra-pulmonary metastases for systemic staging has not been proven. We reviewed the efficacy of Whole-Body MRI (WBMRI) for this purpose...
April 2016: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Aleena Shafi Jallu, Majid Jehangir, Waqar Ul Hamid, Rafiq Ahmad Pampori
Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) are complementary in the imaging of the labyrinth, the internal auditory canal and the brain in children with sensorineural hearing loss who are being evaluated for cochlear implantation. An accurate anatomical description of the inner ear is essential in the preoperative work up. Computerized tomography visualizes the bony structures, whereas MR can discern soft-tissue components including intra labyrinthine fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), nerves, and vessels within the IAC...
December 2015: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Anthony J Doyle, Nicola Dalbeth, Fiona McQueen, Lucinda Boyer, Jing Dong, Keith Rome, Mike Frecklington
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of bone erosions in the feet of patients with gout using CT and thereby to test the hypothesis that gout is an asymmetric arthropathy. METHODS: CT scans of both feet were obtained from 25 patients with chronic gout. CT scans were scored for bone erosion using a semi-quantitative method based on the rheumatoid arthritis MRI scoring system (RAMRIS). CT bone erosion was assessed at 22 bones in each foot (total 1,100 bones) by two independent radiologists...
February 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Jason A Dowling, Jidi Sun, Peter Pichler, David Rivest-Hénault, Soumya Ghose, Haylea Richardson, Chris Wratten, Jarad Martin, Jameen Arm, Leah Best, Shekhar S Chandra, Jurgen Fripp, Frederick W Menk, Peter B Greer
PURPOSE: To validate automatic substitute computed tomography CT (sCT) scans generated from standard T2-weighted (T2w) magnetic resonance (MR) pelvic scans for MR-Sim prostate treatment planning. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A Siemens Skyra 3T MR imaging (MRI) scanner with laser bridge, flat couch, and pelvic coil mounts was used to scan 39 patients scheduled for external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. For sCT generation a whole-pelvis MRI scan (1...
December 1, 2015: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Galal Hegazy
The aim of the study was to evaluate results of volar percutaneous headless compression screw fixation without bone grafting in 21 patients with scaphoid waist nonunion fractures. The inclusion criteria in this series were scaphoid waist fracture nonunion with intact cartilaginous envelope, minimal fracture line at nonunion interface, no cyst or sclerosis, no avascular necrosis and normal scapholunate angle without humpback deformity. There were 17 male and 4 female patients with an average age of 23 years (range 16-45 years)...
December 2015: Journal of Hand and Microsurgery
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