keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Neural anatomy

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780197/trafic-fiber-tract-classification-using-deep-learning
#1
Prince D Ngattai Lam, Gaetan Belhomme, Jessica Ferrall, Billie Patterson, Martin Styner, Juan C Prieto
We present TRAFIC, a fully automated tool for the labeling and classification of brain fiber tracts. TRAFIC classifies new fibers using a neural network trained using shape features computed from previously traced and manually corrected fiber tracts. It is independent from a DTI Atlas as it is applied to already traced fibers. This work is motivated by medical applications where the process of extracting fibers from a DTI atlas, or classifying fibers manually is time consuming and requires knowledge about brain anatomy...
February 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775596/digital-museum-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-with-dense-anatomy-and-physiology
#2
J Alexander Bae, Shang Mu, Jinseop S Kim, Nicholas L Turner, Ignacio Tartavull, Nico Kemnitz, Chris S Jordan, Alex D Norton, William M Silversmith, Rachel Prentki, Marissa Sorek, Celia David, Devon L Jones, Doug Bland, Amy L R Sterling, Jungman Park, Kevin L Briggman, H Sebastian Seung
When 3D electron microscopy and calcium imaging are used to investigate the structure and function of neural circuits, the resulting datasets pose new challenges of visualization and interpretation. Here, we present a new kind of digital resource that encompasses almost 400 ganglion cells from a single patch of mouse retina. An online "museum" provides a 3D interactive view of each cell's anatomy, as well as graphs of its visual responses. The resource reveals two aspects of the retina's inner plexiform layer: an arbor segregation principle governing structure along the light axis and a density conservation principle governing structure in the tangential plane...
May 17, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774599/deep-convolutional-neural-network-for-segmentation-of-knee-joint-anatomy
#3
Zhaoye Zhou, Gengyan Zhao, Richard Kijowski, Fang Liu
PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate a new segmentation method using deep convolutional neural network (CNN), 3D fully connected conditional random field (CRF), and 3D simplex deformable modeling to improve the efficiency and accuracy of knee joint tissue segmentation. METHODS: A segmentation pipeline was built by combining a semantic segmentation CNN, 3D fully connected CRF, and 3D simplex deformable modeling. A convolutional encoder-decoder network was designed as the core of the segmentation method to perform high resolution pixel-wise multi-class tissue classification for 12 different joint structures...
May 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766384/increased-functional-meg-connectivity-as-a-hallmark-of-mri-negative-focal-and-generalized-epilepsy
#4
Yiwen Li Hegner, Justus Marquetand, Adham Elshahabi, Silke Klamer, Holger Lerche, Christoph Braun, Niels K Focke
Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases with a high morbidity. Accumulating evidence has shown that epilepsy is an archetypical neural network disorder. Here we developed a non-invasive cortical functional connectivity analysis based on magnetoencephalography (MEG) to assess commonalities and differences in the network phenotype in different epilepsy syndromes (non-lesional/cryptogenic focal and idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsy). Thirty-seven epilepsy patients with normal structural brain anatomy underwent a 30-min resting state MEG measurement with eyes closed...
May 15, 2018: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756600/the-development-of-neural-stimulators-a-review-of-preclinical-safety-and-efficacy-studies
#5
Robert K Shepherd, Joel Villalobos, Owen Burns, David Nayagam
OBJECTIVE: Given the rapid expansion of the field of neural stimulation and the rigorous regulatory approval requirements required before these devices can be applied clinically, it is important that there is clarity around conducting preclinical safety and efficacy studies required for the development of this technology. APPROACH: The present review examines basic design principles associated with the development of a safe neural stimulator and describes the suite of preclinical safety studies that need to be considered when taking a device to clinical trial...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742889/intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-a-review-of-techniques-used-for-brain-tumor-surgery-in-children
#6
REVIEW
Keewon Kim, Charles Cho, Moon-Suk Bang, Hyung-Ik Shin, Ji-Hoon Phi, Seung-Ki Kim
Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) utilizes electrophysiological techniques as a surrogate test and evaluation of nervous function while a patient is under general anesthesia. They are increasingly used for procedures, both surgical and endovascular, to avoid injury during an operation, examine neurological tissue to guide the surgery, or to test electrophysiological function to allow for more complete resection or corrections. The application of IOM during pediatric brain tumor resections encompasses a unique set of technical issues...
May 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742860/essential-anatomy-of-the-anorectum-for-colorectal-surgeons-focused-on-the-gross-anatomy-and-histologic-findings
#7
REVIEW
Jong Min Lee, Nam Kyu Kim
The anorectum is a region with a very complex structure, and surgery for benign or malignant disease of the anorectum is impossible without accurate anatomical knowledge. The conjoined longitudinal muscle consists of smooth muscle from the longitudinal muscle of the rectum and the striate muscle from the levator ani and helps maintain continence; the rectourethralis muscle is connected directly to the conjoined longitudinal muscle at the top of the external anal sphincter. Preserving the rectourethralis muscle without damage to the carvernous nerve or veins passing through it when the abdominoperineal resection is implemented is important...
April 2018: Annals of Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725688/biomimetic-neural-scaffolds-a-crucial-step-towards-optimal-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#8
REVIEW
Jian Du, Huanwen Chen, Liming Qing, Xiuli Yang, Xiaofeng Jia
Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease that affects more than 20 million people in the United States alone and remains a major burden to society. The current gold standard treatment for critical-sized nerve defects is autologous nerve graft transplantation; however, this method is limited in many ways and does not always lead to satisfactory outcomes. The limitations of autografts have prompted investigations into artificial neural scaffolds as replacements, and some neural scaffold devices have progressed to widespread clinical use; scaffold technology overall has yet to be shown to be consistently on a par with or superior to autografts...
May 4, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720419/complex-gaze-stabilization-in-mantis-shrimp
#9
Ilse M Daly, Martin J How, Julian C Partridge, Nicholas W Roberts
Almost all animals, regardless of the anatomy of the eyes, require some level of gaze stabilization in order to see the world clearly and without blur. For the mantis shrimp, achieving gaze stabilization is unusually challenging as their eyes have an unprecedented scope for movement in all three rotational degrees of freedom: yaw, pitch and torsion. We demonstrate that the species Odontodactylus scyllarus performs stereotypical gaze stabilization in the yaw degree of rotational freedom, which is accompanied by simultaneous changes in the pitch and torsion rotation of the eye...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706405/detection-of-white-matter-lesion-regions-in-mri-using-slic0-and-convolutional-neural-network
#10
Pedro Henrique Bandeira Diniz, Thales Levi Azevedo Valente, João Otávio Bandeira Diniz, Aristófanes Corrêa Silva, Marcelo Gattass, Nina Ventura, Bernardo Carvalho Muniz, Emerson Leandro Gasparetto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: White matter lesions are non-static brain lesions that have a prevalence rate up to 98% in the elderly population. Because they may be associated with several brain diseases, it is important that they are detected as soon as possible. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) provides three-dimensional data with the possibility to detect and emphasize contrast differences in soft tissues, providing rich information about the human soft tissue anatomy. However, the amount of data provided for these images is far too much for manual analysis/interpretation, representing a difficult and time-consuming task for specialists...
April 19, 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700382/reconstructing-the-neanderthal-brain-using-computational-anatomy
#11
Takanori Kochiyama, Naomichi Ogihara, Hiroki C Tanabe, Osamu Kondo, Hideki Amano, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Hiromasa Suzuki, Marcia S Ponce de León, Christoph P E Zollikofer, Markus Bastir, Chris Stringer, Norihiro Sadato, Takeru Akazawa
The present study attempted to reconstruct 3D brain shape of Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens based on computational neuroanatomy. We found that early Homo sapiens had relatively larger cerebellar hemispheres but a smaller occipital region in the cerebrum than Neanderthals long before the time that Neanderthals disappeared. Further, using behavioural and structural imaging data of living humans, the abilities such as cognitive flexibility, attention, the language processing, episodic and working memory capacity were positively correlated with size-adjusted cerebellar volume...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688293/frontoparietal-tracts-linked-to-lateralized-hand-preference-and-manual-specialization
#12
Henrietta Howells, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Ahmad Beyh, Giuseppe Zappalà, Anoushka Leslie, Andrew Simmons, Declan G Murphy, Marco Catani
Humans show a preference for using the right hand over the left for tasks and activities of everyday life. While experimental work in non-human primates has identified the neural systems responsible for reaching and grasping, the neural basis of lateralized motor behavior in humans remains elusive. The advent of diffusion imaging tractography for studying connectional anatomy in the living human brain provides the possibility of understanding the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry, hand preference, and manual specialization...
April 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684476/the-dorsal-diencephalic-conduction-system-in-reward-processing-spotlight-on-the-anatomy-and-functions-of-the-habenular-complex
#13
REVIEW
Marc Fakhoury
The dorsal diencephalic conduction system (DDC) is a highly conserved pathway in vertebrates that provides a route for the neural information to flow from forebrain to midbrain structures. It contains the bilaterally paired habenular nuclei along with two fiber tracts, the stria medullaris and the fasciculus retroflexus. The habenula is the principal player in mediating the dialogue between forebrain and midbrain regions, and functional abnormalities in this structure have often been attributed to pathologies like mood disorders and substance use disorder...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681801/anatomy-based-networks-and-topology-alteration-in-seizure-related-cognitive-outcomes
#14
REVIEW
Qian Wu, Charlie W Zhao, Zhe Long, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Epilepsy is a paroxysmal neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. Cognitive dysfunction induced by seizures is a severe comorbidity of epilepsy and epilepsy syndromes and reduces patients' quality of life. Seizures, along with accompanying histopathological and pathophysiological changes, are associated with cognitive comorbidities. Advances in imaging technology and computing allow anatomical and topological changes in neural networks to be visualized...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675301/deep-learning-approach-for-the-detection-and-quantification-of-intraretinal-cystoid-fluid-in-multivendor-optical-coherence-tomography
#15
Freerk G Venhuizen, Bram van Ginneken, Bart Liefers, Freekje van Asten, Vivian Schreur, Sascha Fauser, Carel Hoyng, Thomas Theelen, Clara I Sánchez
We developed a deep learning algorithm for the automatic segmentation and quantification of intraretinal cystoid fluid (IRC) in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes independent of the device used for acquisition. A cascade of neural networks was introduced to include prior information on the retinal anatomy, boosting performance significantly. The proposed algorithm approached human performance reaching an overall Dice coefficient of 0.754 ± 0.136 and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671218/neuroimaging-of-meckel-s-cave-in-normal-and-disease-conditions
#16
REVIEW
Ajay Malhotra, Long Tu, Vivek B Kalra, Xiao Wu, Ali Mian, Rajiv Mangla, Elias Michaelides, Pina Sanelli, Dheeraj Gandhi
Meckel's cave is a dural recess in the posteromedial portion of the middle cranial fossa that acts as a conduit for the trigeminal nerve between the prepontine cistern and the cavernous sinus, and houses the Gasserian ganglion and proximal rootlets of the trigeminal nerve. It serves as a major pathway in perineural spread of pathologies such as head and neck neoplasms, automatically upstaging tumours, and is a key structure to assess in cases of trigeminal neuralgia. The purpose of this pictorial review is threefold: (1) to review the normal anatomy of Meckel's cave; (2) to describe imaging findings that identify disease involving Meckel's cave; (3) to present case examples of trigeminal and non-trigeminal processes affecting Meckel's cave...
April 18, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666271/desynchronization-of-slow-oscillations-in-the-basal-ganglia-during-natural-sleep
#17
Aviv D Mizrahi-Kliger, Alexander Kaplan, Zvi Israel, Hagai Bergman
Slow oscillations of neuronal activity alternating between firing and silence are a hallmark of slow-wave sleep (SWS). These oscillations reflect the default activity present in all mammalian species, and are ubiquitous to anesthesia, brain slice preparations, and neuronal cultures. In all these cases, neuronal firing is highly synchronous within local circuits, suggesting that oscillation-synchronization coupling may be a governing principle of sleep physiology regardless of anatomical connectivity. To investigate whether this principle applies to overall brain organization, we recorded the activity of individual neurons from basal ganglia (BG) structures and the thalamocortical (TC) network over 70 full nights of natural sleep in two vervet monkeys...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664886/history-of-the-development-of-anesthesia-for-the-dolphin-a-quest-to-study-a-brain-as-large-as-man-s
#18
James G McCormick, Sam H Ridgway
It is important for academic-minded human anesthesiologists to have an interdisciplinary perspective when engaging in cutting-edge research as well as the practice of human anesthesiology. This was a philosophy promoted by Dr. Robert Dripps, former pioneering Chairman of the Anesthesiology Department at the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). Many human and veterinary anesthesiologists as well as biomedical engineers and neuroscientists benefited from Dr. Dripps's constructive outlook personified in the quest to develop dolphin anesthesiology...
April 17, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627304/low-fidelity-model-making-activity-by-students-a-novel-way-of-learning-concepts-of-neuroanatomy
#19
Shilpi Gupta Dixit, Pushpa Potaliya, S M Nayeemudin, Surajit Ghatak
Teaching and learning anatomy has always been an integral part of medical education. Teaching neuroanatomy has always faced innate and contextual challenges therefore various innovative teaching-learning methods have been devised on the idea of engaging learners in meaningful learning activities through apt guidance, communication among peers and cluster activities. The present study aims at such an innovative method. The study was conducted in practical sessions of first year MBBS at the Institute during second semester...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626680/intra-operative-ct-navigational-assistance-for-transforaminal-endoscopic-decompression-of-heterotopic-foraminal-bone-formation-after-oblique-lumbar-interbody-fusion-technical-note
#20
Adetokunbo Oyelese, Albert E Telfeian, Ziya L Gokaslan, Thomas A Kosztowski, David Choi, Jared Fridley, Michael Galgano
Transforaminal endoscopic spine surgery is an emerging technique in spine surgery but offers two distinct challenges to spine surgeons looking to adopt it: 1) targeting spine pathology, and 2) understanding the endoscopic anatomy visualized through the endoscope. Intraoperative CT guided navigation is also an emerging technique in spine surgery that is becoming widely adopted for its benefits in assisting surgeons in localizing pathology and guided spine instrumentation placement. In this technical note, we describe a technique that utilizes intraoperative CT guided navigation concomitantly with a transforaminal endoscopic approach to decompress a Lumbar 4-5 foraminal heterotopic bone formation after an oblique lumbar interbody fusion...
April 4, 2018: World Neurosurgery
keyword
keyword
32252
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"