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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895256/relevant-anatomy-morphology-and-implantation-techniques-of-the-dorsal-root-ganglia-at-the-lumbar-levels
#1
Tim Vancamp, Robert M Levy, Isaac Peña, Antonio Pajuelo
OBJECTIVES: While dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation has been available in Europe and Australia for the past five years and in the United States for the past year, there are no published details concerning the optimal procedures for DRG lead implantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe several techniques that can be applied to implant cylindrical leads over the DRG, highlighting some tips and tricks according to our experiences. Focus is mainly shifted toward implantations in the lumbar area...
September 12, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893998/engineering-a-light-activated-caspase-3-for-precise-ablation-of-neurons-in-vivo
#2
Ashley D Smart, Roland A Pache, Nathan D Thomsen, Tanja Kortemme, Graeme W Davis, James A Wells
The circuitry of the brain is characterized by cell heterogeneity, sprawling cellular anatomy, and astonishingly complex patterns of connectivity. Determining how complex neural circuits control behavior is a major challenge that is often approached using surgical, chemical, or transgenic approaches to ablate neurons. However, all these approaches suffer from a lack of precise spatial and temporal control. This drawback would be overcome if cellular ablation could be controlled with light. Cells are naturally and cleanly ablated through apoptosis due to the terminal activation of caspases...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890416/bayesian-population-receptive-field-modelling
#3
REVIEW
Peter Zeidman, Edward Harry Silson, Dietrich Samuel Schwarzkopf, Chris Ian Baker, Will Penny
We introduce a probabilistic (Bayesian) framework and associated software toolbox for mapping population receptive fields (pRFs) based on fMRI data. This generic approach is intended to work with stimuli of any dimension and is demonstrated and validated in the context of 2D retinotopic mapping. The framework enables the experimenter to specify generative (encoding) models of fMRI timeseries, in which experimental stimuli enter a pRF model of neural activity, which in turns drives a nonlinear model of neurovascular coupling and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) response...
September 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882412/a-flavonoid-agonist-of-the-trkb-receptor-for-bdnf-improves-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-hippocampus-dependent-memory-in-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-of-ds
#4
Fiorenza Stagni, Andrea Giacomini, Sandra Guidi, Marco Emili, Beatrice Uguagliati, Maria Elisa Salvalai, Valeria Bortolotto, Mariagrazia Grilli, Roberto Rimondini, Renata Bartesaghi
Intellectual disability is the unavoidable hallmark of Down syndrome (DS), with a heavy impact on public health. Reduced neurogenesis and impaired neuron maturation are considered major determinants of altered brain function in DS. Since the DS brain starts at a disadvantage, attempts to rescue neurogenesis and neuron maturation should take place as soon as possible. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that plays a key role in brain development by specifically binding to tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB)...
September 4, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873382/development-and-anatomy-of-the-enteroendocrine-system-in-humans
#5
Carsten Posovszky
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract exhibits an enormous surface area that consists mostly of absorptive enterocytes. Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are found scattered along the GI tract between absorptive enterocytes and other secretory cells, and comprise around 1% of the epithelial cell population. Interestingly, they develop from the same crypt stem cell as the other absorptive or secretory cells of the gut. EECs differentiate along the crypt villus axis and are renewed every 4-6 days, and hence possess a high plasticity...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871030/spatiochromatic-interactions-between-individual-cone-photoreceptors-in-the-human-retina
#6
William S Tuten, Wolf M Harmening, Ramkumar Sabesan, Austin Roorda, Lawrence C Sincich
A remarkable feature of human vision is that the retina and brain have evolved circuitry to extract useful spatial and spectral information from signals originating in a photoreceptor mosaic whose trichromatic constituents vary widely in their relative numbers and local spatial configurations. A critical early transformation applied to cone signals is horizontal-cell-mediated lateral inhibition, which imparts a spatially-antagonistic surround to individual cone receptive fields, a signature inherited by downstream neurons and implicated in color signaling...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865517/management-of-radiation-toxicity-in-head-and-neck-cancers
#7
REVIEW
Farzan Siddiqui, Benjamin Movsas
Head and neck cancers account for approximately 3% of all cancers in the United States with 62,000 new cases diagnosed annually. The global incidence is approximately 700,000 new cases a year. There has also been a recent increase in human papilloma virus-related oropharyngeal cancers. External beam radiation therapy (RT) is commonly used as an effective therapy for head and neck (H&N) cancers. This is used as a definitive treatment (alone or in combination with chemotherapy) or as an adjuvant treatment after surgical resection of the tumors...
October 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863720/harmonic-brain-modes-a-unifying-framework-for-linking-space-and-time-in-brain-dynamics
#8
Selen Atasoy, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Joel Pearson
A fundamental characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is coherent oscillations covering a wide range of frequencies. Interestingly, these temporal oscillations are highly correlated among spatially distributed cortical areas forming structured correlation patterns known as the resting state networks, although the brain is never truly at "rest." Here, we introduce the concept of harmonic brain modes-fundamental building blocks of complex spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity. We define these elementary harmonic brain modes as harmonic modes of structural connectivity; that is, connectome harmonics, yielding fully synchronous neural activity patterns with different frequency oscillations emerging on and constrained by the particular structure of the brain...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851612/-all-in-one-mesh-hernioplasty-a-new-procedure-for-primary-inguinal-hernia-open-repair
#9
Angelo Guttadauro, Matteo Maternini, Silvia Frassani, Matilde De Simone, Marco Chiarelli, Daniele Macchini, Nicoletta Pecora, Aimone Bertolini, Ugo Cioffi, Francesco Gabrielli
BACKGROUND: We propose a new open mesh hernia repair procedure for the treatment of inguinal hernias in adults aiming to improve patients' comfort and to reduce the incidence of chronic neuralgia. METHODS: From September 2012 to August 2015, 250 consecutive patients were treated with "all in-one" mesh hernioplasty procedure in our Institution. According to the devised technique, a new smaller prosthesis was placed on the floor of the inguinal canal in order to strengthen all areas of weakness from which hernias may originate...
August 26, 2017: Asian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837460/normal-palmar-anatomy-and-variations-that-impact-median-nerve-decompression
#10
John G Seiler, Jimmy H Daruwalla, Samuel H Payne, Gregory K Faucher
Annually, carpal tunnel release is one of the most commonly executed orthopaedic procedures. Despite the frequency of the procedure, complications may occur as a result of anatomic variations. Understanding both normal and variant anatomy, including anomalies in neural, vascular, tendinous, and muscular structures about the carpal tunnel, is fundamental to achieving both safe and efficacious surgery. Reviewing and aggregating this information reveals certain principles that may lead to the safest possible surgical approach...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833372/axonal-components-of-nerves-innervating-the-human-arm
#11
Bernhard Gesslbauer, Laura A Hruby, Aidan D Roche, Dario Farina, Roland Blumer, Oskar C Aszmann
OBJECTIVE: Axons traveling within the brachial plexus are responsible for the dexterous control of human arm and hand movements. Despite comprehensive knowledge on the topographical anatomy of nerves innervating the human upper limbs, the definite quantity of sensory and motor axons within this neural network remains elusive. Our aim was to perform a quantitative analysis of the axonal components of human upper limb nerves based on highly specific molecular features from spinal cord level to the terminal nerves at wrist level...
August 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813460/mechanisms-for-pattern-specificity-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Osvaldo Matías Velarde, Germán Mato, Damián Dellavale
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widely used technique for treating advanced stages of neurological and psychiatric illness. In the case of motor disorders related to basal ganglia (BG) dysfunction, several mechanisms of action for the DBS therapy have been identified which might be involved simultaneously or in sequence. However, the identification of a common key mechanism underlying the clinical relevant DBS configurations has remained elusive due to the inherent complexity related to the interaction between the electrical stimulation and the neural tissue, and the intricate circuital structure of the BG-thalamocortical network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810903/a-neural-network-multi-task-learning-approach-to-biomedical-named-entity-recognition
#13
Gamal Crichton, Sampo Pyysalo, Billy Chiu, Anna Korhonen
BACKGROUND: Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a key task in biomedical text mining. Accurate NER systems require task-specific, manually-annotated datasets, which are expensive to develop and thus limited in size. Since such datasets contain related but different information, an interesting question is whether it might be possible to use them together to improve NER performance. To investigate this, we develop supervised, multi-task, convolutional neural network models and apply them to a large number of varied existing biomedical named entity datasets...
August 15, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805947/penile-neurovascular-structure-revisited-immunohistochemical-studies-with-three-dimensional-reconstruction
#14
G N Yin, S-H Park, M-J Choi, A Limanjaya, K Ghatak, N N Minh, J Ock, K-M Song, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Penile erection is a neurovascular phenomenon that requires well coordinated and functional interaction between penile vascular and nervous systems. In order to provide a useful tool to examine pathologic changes in the erectile tissue, mainly focusing on penile neurovascular dysfunction, we established the technique to determine the differential distribution of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and nerve fibers in the mouse penis using immunohistochemical staining with three-dimensional reconstruction...
August 14, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803834/transcutaneous-auricular-vagal-nerve-stimulation-tavns-might-be-a-mechanism-behind-the-analgesic-effects-of-auricular-acupuncture
#15
Taras Usichenko, Henriette Hacker, Martin Lotze
BACKGROUND: Randomized clinical trials (RCT) demonstrated that auricular acupuncture (AA) is effective in treatment of acute and chronic pain, although the mechanisms behind AA are not elucidated. METHODS: The data concerning the localization of AA points, which are commonly used to treat pain, were extracted from the meta-analysis of 17 RCTs and evaluated using the anatomical map of auricular afferent nerve supply. RESULTS: Fifteen out of 20 specific AA points, used in the treatment of pain, are situated in areas innervated mostly by the auricular branch of the vagal nerve (ABVN), whereas sham stimulation was applied at the helix of the auricle, innervated by cervical nerves...
August 2, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799757/immobilization-of-growth-factors-to-collagen-surfaces-using-pulsed-visible-light
#16
Gabriella M Fernandes-Cunha, Hyun Jong Lee, Alisha Kumar, Alexander Kreymerman, Sarah Heilshorn, David Myung
In the treatment of traumatic injuries, burns, and ulcers of the eye, inadequate epithelial tissue healing remains a major challenge. Wound healing is a complex process involving the temporal and spatial interplay between cells and their extracellular milieu. It can be impaired by a variety of causes including infection, poor circulation, loss of critical cells, and/or proteins, and a deficiency in normal neural signaling (e.g., neurotrophic ulcers). Ocular anatomy is particularly vulnerable to lasting morbidity from delayed healing, whether it be scarring or perforation of the cornea, destruction of the conjunctival mucous membrane, or cicatricial changes to the eyelids and surrounding skin...
September 1, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799490/neurotransplantation-therapy-and-cerebellar-reserve
#17
Jan Cendelin, Hiroshi Mitoma, Mario Manto
Neurotransplantation has been recently the focus of interest as a promising therapy to substitute lost cerebellar neurons and improve cerebellar ataxias. However, since cell differentiation and synaptic formation are required to obtain a functional circuitry, highly integrated reproduction of cerebellar anatomy is not a simple process. Rather than a genuine replacement, recent studies have shown that grafted cells rescue surviving cells from neurodegeneration by exerting trophic effects, supporting mitochondrial function, modulating neuroinflammation, stimulating endogenous regenerative processes, and facilitating cerebellar compensatory properties thanks to neural plasticity...
August 10, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762509/vertebral-column-regionalisation-in-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha
#18
A De Clercq, M R Perrott, P S Davie, M A Preece, B Wybourne, N Ruff, A Huysseune, P E Witten
Teleost vertebral centra are often similar in size and shape, but vertebral-associated elements, i.e. neural arches, haemal arches and ribs, show regional differences. Here we examine how the presence, absence and specific anatomical and histological characters of vertebral centra-associated elements can be used to define vertebral column regions in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). To investigate if the presence of regions within the vertebral column is independent of temperature, animals raised at 8 and 12 °C were studied at 1400 and 1530 degreedays, in the freshwater phase of the life cycle...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760682/the-bulbus-arteriosus-of-the-holocephalan-heart-gross-anatomy-histomorphology-pigmentation-and-evolutionary-significance
#19
Cristina Rodríguez, Miguel Lorenzale, Miguel A López-Unzu, Borja Fernández, Francisca Salmerón, Valentín Sans-Coma, Ana C Durán
This study was designed to determine whether the outflow tract of the holocephalan heart is composed of a myocardial conus arteriosus and a non-myocardial bulbus arteriosus, as is the case in elasmobranchs. This is a key issue to verify the hypothesis that these two anatomical components existed from the onset of the jawed vertebrate radiation. The Holocephali are the sister group of the elasmobranchs, sharing with them a common, still unknown Palaeozoic ancestor. The sample examined herein consisted of hearts from individuals of four species, two of them belonging to the Chimaeridae and the other two to the Rhinochimaeridae...
June 3, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756622/fully-automatic-multi-organ-segmentation-in-normal-whole-body-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-using-classification-forests-cfs-convolutional-neural-networks-cnns-and-a-multi-atlas-ma-approach
#20
Ioannis Lavdas, Ben Glocker, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Daniel Rueckert, Henrietta Mair, Amandeep Sandhu, Stuart A Taylor, Eric O Aboagye, Andrea G Rockall
PURPOSE: As part of a programme to implement automatic lesion detection methods for whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in oncology, we have developed, evaluated and compared three algorithms for fully automatic, multi-organ segmentation in healthy volunteers. METHODS: The first algorithm is based on classification forests (CFs), the second is based on 3D convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and the third algorithm is based on a multi-atlas (MA) approach...
July 30, 2017: Medical Physics
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