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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326682/nervous-system-development-and-regeneration-in-freshwater-planarians
#1
REVIEW
Kelly G Ross, Ko W Currie, Bret J Pearson, Ricardo M Zayas
Planarians have a long history in the fields of developmental and regenerative biology. These animals have also sparked interest in neuroscience due to their neuroanatomy, spectrum of simple behaviors, and especially, their almost unparalleled ability to generate new neurons after any type of injury. Research in adult planarians has revealed that neuronal subtypes homologous to those found in vertebrates are generated from stem cells throughout their lives. This feat is recapitulated after head amputation, wherein animals are capable of regenerating whole brains and regaining complete neural function...
March 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298044/a-novel-method-of-lengthening-the-accessory-nerve-for-direct-coaptation-during-nerve-repair-and-nerve-transfer-procedures
#2
R Shane Tubbs, Andrés A Maldonado, Yolanda Stoves, Fabian N Fries, Rong Li, Marios Loukas, Rod J Oskouian, Robert J Spinner
OBJECTIVE The accessory nerve is frequently repaired or used for nerve transfer. The length of accessory nerve available is often insufficient or marginal (under tension) for allowing direct coaptation during nerve repair or nerve transfer (neurotization), necessitating an interpositional graft. An attractive maneuver would facilitate lengthening of the accessory nerve for direct coaptation. The aim of the present study was to identify an anatomical method for such lengthening. METHODS In 20 adult cadavers, the C-2 or C-3 connections to the accessory nerve were identified medial to the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and the anatomy of the accessory nerve/cervical nerve fibers within the SCM was documented...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292315/anatomical-organization-and-neural-pathways-of-the-ovarian-plexus-nerve-in-rats
#3
César F Pastelín, Nora H Rosas, Leticia Morales-Ledesma, Rosa Linares, Roberto Domínguez, Carolina Morán
BACKGROUND: In this work, a detailed anatomical description of the ovarian plexus nerve (OPN) in rats is presented. The distribution of the OPN was analyzed by gross anatomy; the features of the superior mesenteric ganglion (SMG) were determined by histological studies; and the localization of the postganglionic neurons innervating the ovary were identified with retrograde tracer. We studied 19 adult cyclic rats of the CIIZ-V strain. RESULTS: We found that the right OPN originates from the celiac ganglion, the lumbar ganglion of the sympathetic trunk (LGST) and the SMG...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291404/outcomes-and-effectiveness-of-posterior-occipitocervical-fusion-for-suboccipital-spinal-metastases
#4
Panya Luksanapruksa, Jacob M Buchowski, Neill M Wright, Frank H Valone, Colleen Peters, David B Bumpass
OBJECTIVE The incidence of suboccipital spinal metastases is rare but has increased given cancer patients' longer life expectancies. Operative treatment in this region is often challenging because of limited fixation points due to tumor lysis, as well as adjacent neural and vascular anatomy. Few studies have reported on this population of cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes and complications of patients with suboccipital spinal metastases who had undergone posterior occipitocervical fixation...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289062/mapping-neurodegenerative-disease-onset-and-progression
#5
William W Seeley
Brain networks have been of long-standing interest to neurodegeneration researchers, including but not limited to investigators focusing on conventional prion diseases, which are known to propagate along neural pathways. Tools for human network mapping, however, remained inadequate, limiting our understanding of human brain network architecture and preventing clinical research applications. Until recently, neuropathological studies were the only viable approach to mapping disease onset and progression in humans but required large autopsy cohorts and laborious methods for whole-brain sectioning and staining...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287966/deep-learning-segmentation-of-optical-microscopy-images-improves-3d-neuron-reconstruction
#6
Rongjian Li, Tao Zeng, Hanchuan Peng, Shuiwang Ji
Digital reconstruction, or tracing, of 3-dimensional (3D) neuron structure from microscopy images is a critical step toward reversing engineering the wiring and anatomy of a brain. Despite a number of prior attempts, this task remains very challenging, especially when images are contaminated by noises or have discontinued segments of neurite patterns. An approach for addressing such problems is to identify the locations of neuronal voxels using image segmentation methods prior to applying tracing or reconstruction techniques...
March 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276096/central-control-of-micturition-in-women-brain-bladder-pathways-in-continence-and-urgency-urinary-incontinence
#7
REVIEW
Nisha G Arya, Steven J Weissbart
Urinary incontinence disproportionately affects women. Anatomical textbooks typically describe continence mechanisms in women in the context of the pelvic floor support of the urinary bladder and the urethral sphincters. However, the urinary bladder and urethral sphincters are under the central control of the brain through a complex network of neurons that allow storage of urine followed by voiding when socially appropriate. Recent studies suggest that the most common type of urinary incontinence in women, urgency urinary incontinence, involves significant dysfunction of the central control of micturition...
April 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266009/a-detailed-musculoskeletal-study-of-a-fetus-with-anencephaly-and-spina-bifida-craniorachischisis-and-comparison-with-other-cases-of-human-congenital-malformations
#8
Malak A Alghamdi, Janine M Ziermann, Lydia Gregg, Rui Diogo
Few descriptions of the musculoskeletal system of humans with anencephaly or spina bifida exist in the literature. Even less is published about individuals in which both phenomena occur together, i.e. about craniorachischisis. Here we provide a detailed report on the musculoskeletal structures of a fetus with craniorachischisis, as well as comparisons with the few descriptions for anencephaly and with musculoskeletal anomalies found in other congenital malformations. We focused in particular on the comparison with trisomies 13, 18, and 21 because neural tube defects have been associated with such chromosomal defects...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262607/biomechanics-of-the-human-intervertebral-disc-a-review-of-testing-techniques-and-results
#9
REVIEW
N Newell, J P Little, A Christou, M A Adams, C J Adam, S D Masouros
Many experimental testing techniques have been adopted in order to provide an understanding of the biomechanics of the human intervertebral disc (IVD). The aim of this review article is to amalgamate results from these studies to provide readers with an overview of the studies conducted and their contribution to our current understanding of the biomechanics and function of the IVD. The overview is presented in a way that should prove useful to experimentalists and computational modellers. Mechanical properties of whole IVDs can be assessed conveniently by testing 'motion segments' comprising two vertebrae and the intervening IVD and ligaments...
January 31, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250804/predictive-behavior-of-a-computational-foot-ankle-model-through-artificial-neural-networks
#10
Ruchi D Chande, Rosalyn Hobson Hargraves, Norma Ortiz-Robinson, Jennifer S Wayne
Computational models are useful tools to study the biomechanics of human joints. Their predictive performance is heavily dependent on bony anatomy and soft tissue properties. Imaging data provides anatomical requirements while approximate tissue properties are implemented from literature data, when available. We sought to improve the predictive capability of a computational foot/ankle model by optimizing its ligament stiffness inputs using feedforward and radial basis function neural networks. While the former demonstrated better performance than the latter per mean square error, both networks provided reasonable stiffness predictions for implementation into the computational model...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250637/analysis-of-the-spinal-nerve-roots-in-relation-to-the-adjacent-vertebral-bodies-with-respect-to-a-posterolateral-vertebral-body-replacement-procedure
#11
Waleed Awwad, Jonathan Bourget-Murray, Nadil Zeiadin, Juan P Mejia, Thomas Steffen, Abdulrahman D Algarni, Khalid Alsaleh, Jean Ouellet, Michael Weber, Peter F Jarzem
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to improve the understanding of the anatomic variations along the thoracic and lumbar spine encountered during an all-posterior vertebrectomy, and reconstruction procedure. This information will help improve our understanding of human spine anatomy and will allow better planning for a vertebral body replacement (VBR) through either a transpedicular or costotransversectomy approach. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The major challenge to a total posterior approach vertebrectomy and VBR in the thoracolumbar spine lies in the preservation of important neural structures...
January 2017: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202647/longitudinal-and-transversal-displacements-between-triceps-surae-muscles-during-locomotion-of-the-rat
#12
Michel Bernabei, Jaap H van Dieën, Huub Maas
The functional consequences of differential muscle activation and contractile behavior between mechanically coupled synergists are still poorly understood. Even though synergistic muscles exert similar mechanical effects at the joint they span, differences in the anatomy, morphology and neural drive may lead to non-uniform contractile conditions. This study aimed to investigate the patterns of activation and contractile behavior of triceps surae muscles, to understand how these contribute to the relative displacement between the one-joint soleus (SO) and two-joint lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle bellies and their distal tendons during locomotion in the rat...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190888/what-are-the-advantages-of-3d-cameras-in-gynaecological-laparoscopy
#13
S Baum, M Sillem, J T Ney, A Baum, M Friedrich, J Radosa, K M Kramer, B Gronwald, S Gottschling, E F Solomayer, A Rody, R Joukhadar
Introduction Minimally invasive operative techniques are being used increasingly in gynaecological surgery. The expansion of the laparoscopic operation spectrum is in part the result of improved imaging. This study investigates the practical advantages of using 3D cameras in routine surgical practice. Materials and Methods Two different 3-dimensional camera systems were compared with a 2-dimensional HD system; the operating surgeon's experiences were documented immediately postoperatively using a questionnaire...
January 2017: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154126/diagnostic-quality-of-3d-t2-space-compared-with-t2-fse-in-the-evaluation-of-cervical-spine-mri-anatomy
#14
F H Chokshi, G Sadigh, W Carpenter, J W Allen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spinal anatomy has been variably investigated using 3D MRI. We aimed to compare the diagnostic quality of T2 sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using flip angle evolution (SPACE) with T2-FSE sequences for visualization of cervical spine anatomy. We predicted that T2-SPACE will be equivalent or superior to T2-FSE for visibility of anatomic structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult patients undergoing cervical spine MR imaging with both T2-SPACE and T2-FSE sequences for radiculopathy or myelopathy between September 2014 and February 2015 were included...
February 2, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149807/continuous-intraoperative-neural-monitoring-of-the-recurrent-nerves-in-thyroid-surgery-a-quantum-leap-in-technology
#15
REVIEW
Rick Schneider, Gregory W Randolph, Marcin Barczynski, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Che-Wei Wu, Feng-Yu Chiang, Andreas Machens, Dipti Kamani, Henning Dralle
The continuous intraoperative neural monitoring (CIONM) technique is increasingly acknowledged as a useful tool to recognize impending nerve injury and to abort the related manoeuvre to prevent nerve injury during thyroid surgery. CIONM provides valuable real-time information constantly, which is really useful during complex thyroid surgeries especially in the settings of unusual anatomy. Thus, CIONM overcomes the key methodological limitation inherent in intermittent nerve monitoring (IINOM); which is allowing the nerve to be at risk in between the stimulations...
December 2016: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146061/the-glia-response-after-peripheral-nerve-injury-a-comparison-between-schwann-cells-and-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-and-their-uses-for-neural-regenerative-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Matthew J Barton, James St John, Mary Clarke, Alison Wright, Jenny Ekberg
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) exhibits a much larger capacity for regeneration than the central nervous system (CNS). One reason for this difference is the difference in glial cell types between the two systems. PNS glia respond rapidly to nerve injury by clearing debris from the injury site, supplying essential growth factors and providing structural support; all of which enhances neuronal regeneration. Thus, transplantation of glial cells from the PNS is a very promising therapy for injuries to both the PNS and the CNS...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135902/mapping-common-aphasia-assessments-to-underlying-cognitive-processes-and-their-neural-substrates
#17
Elizabeth H Lacey, Laura M Skipper-Kallal, Shihui Xing, Mackenzie E Fama, Peter E Turkeltaub
BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationships between clinical tests, the processes they measure, and the brain networks underlying them, is critical in order for clinicians to move beyond aphasia syndrome classification toward specification of individual language process impairments. OBJECTIVE: To understand the cognitive, language, and neuroanatomical factors underlying scores of commonly used aphasia tests. METHODS: Twenty-five behavioral tests were administered to a group of 38 chronic left hemisphere stroke survivors and a high-resolution magnetic resonance image was obtained...
January 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127590/motion-robust-reconstruction-based-on-simultaneous-multi-slice-registration-for-diffusion-weighted-mri-of-moving-subjects
#18
Bahram Marami, Benoit Scherrer, Onur Afacan, Simon K Warfield, Ali Gholipour
Simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) echo-planar imaging has had a huge impact on the acceleration and routine use of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) in neuroimaging studies in particular the human connectome project; but also holds the potential to facilitate DWI of moving subjects, as proposed by the new technique developed in this paper. We present a novel registration-based motion tracking technique that takes advantage of the multi-plane coverage of the anatomy by simultaneously acquired slices to enable robust reconstruction of neural microstructure from SMS DWI of moving subjects...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119154/conductive-nanogel-interfaced-neural-microelectrode-arrays-with-electrically-controlled-in-situ-delivery-of-manganese-ions-enabling-high-resolution-memri-for-synchronous-neural-tracing-with-deep-brain-stimulation
#19
Wei-Chen Huang, Yu-Chih Lo, Chao-Yi Chu, Hsin-Yi Lai, You-Yin Chen, San-Yuan Chen
Chronic brain stimulation has become a promising physical therapy with increased efficacy and efficiency in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The application of deep brain electrical stimulation (DBS) combined with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) provides an unbiased representation of the functional anatomy, which shows the communication between areas of the brain responding to the therapy. However, it is challenging for the current system to provide a real-time high-resolution image because the incorporated MnCl2 solution through microinjection usually results in image blurring or toxicity due to the uncontrollable diffusion of Mn(2+)...
January 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116780/r1-autonomic-nervous-system-in-acute-kidney-injury
#20
REVIEW
Dagmara Hering, Pawel J Winklewski
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rapid loss of kidney function resulting in accumulation of end metabolic products and associated abnormalities in fluid, electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. The pathophysiology of AKI is complex and multifactorial involving numerous vascular, tubular and inflammatory pathways. Neurohumoral activation with heightened activity of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system play a critical role in this scenario. Inflammation and/or local renal ischaemia are underlying mechanisms triggering renal tissue hypoxia and resultant renal microcirculation dysfunction; a common feature of AKI occurring in numerous clinical conditions leading to a high morbidity and mortality rate...
February 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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