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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652536/the-important-role-of-ghrelin-on-gastric-contraction-in-suncus-murinus
#1
Shota Takemi, Ichiro Sakata, Kayuri Kuroda, Yuki Miyano, Anupon Mondal, Takafumi Sakai
Ghrelin, a peptide hormone produced in the stomach, has been known to be involved in the regulation of gastric contraction in humans and rodents. To elucidate the detailed mechanisms of ghrelin on gastric contractions, we used Suncus murinus, a recently established small animal model for gastrointestinal motility. S. murinus produces motilin, a family peptide of ghrelin, and its stomach anatomy and physiological patterns of gastric contractions, in fed and fasted states, are closely similar to humans. Ghrelin administration in phase II, and latter half of phase I, of the migrating motor contractions (MMC) enhanced gastric motility in S...
2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643879/inter-subject-alignment-of-meg-datasets-in-a-common-representational-space
#2
Qiong Zhang, Jelmer P Borst, Robert E Kass, John R Anderson
Pooling neural imaging data across subjects requires aligning recordings from different subjects. In magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings, sensors across subjects are poorly correlated both because of differences in the exact location of the sensors, and structural and functional differences in the brains. It is possible to achieve alignment by assuming that the same regions of different brains correspond across subjects. However, this relies on both the assumption that brain anatomy and function are well correlated, and the strong assumptions that go into solving the under-determined inverse problem given the high-dimensional source space...
June 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642689/integrating-neural-circuits-controlling-female-sexual-behavior
#3
REVIEW
Paul E Micevych, Robert L Meisel
The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617222/an-extensive-assessment-of-network-alignment-algorithms-for-comparison-of-brain-connectomes
#4
Marianna Milano, Pietro Hiram Guzzi, Olga Tymofieva, Duan Xu, Christofer Hess, Pierangelo Veltri, Mario Cannataro
BACKGROUND: Recently the study of the complex system of connections in neural systems, i.e. the connectome, has gained a central role in neurosciences. The modeling and analysis of connectomes are therefore a growing area. Here we focus on the representation of connectomes by using graph theory formalisms. Macroscopic human brain connectomes are usually derived from neuroimages; the analyzed brains are co-registered in the image domain and brought to a common anatomical space. An atlas is then applied in order to define anatomically meaningful regions that will serve as the nodes of the network - this process is referred to as parcellation...
June 6, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615334/diffusion-weighted-tractography-in-the-common-marmoset-monkey-at-9-4-t
#5
David J Schaeffer, Ramina Adam, Kyle M Gilbert, Joseph S Gati, Alex X Li, Ravi S Menon, Stefan Everling
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World primate that is becoming increasingly popular in the neurosciences as an animal model of preclinical human disease. With several major disorders characterized by alterations in neural white matter (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, schizophrenia) proposed to be transgenically modelled using marmosets, the ability to reliably isolate and characterize major white matter fiber tracts with MRI will be of utility for evaluating structural brain changes related to disease processes and symptomatology...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592695/unravelling-the-role-of-the-hippocampus-in-reversal-learning
#6
Adrià Vilà-Balló, Ernest Mas-Herrero, Pablo Ripollés, Marta Simó, Júlia Miró, David Cucurell, Diana López-Barroso, Montserrat Juncadella, Josep Marco-Pallarés, Mercè Falip, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Research in reversal learning has mainly focused on the functional role of dopamine and striatal structures in driving behavior on the basis of classic reinforcement learning mechanisms. However, recent evidence indicates that beyond classic RL adaptations, individuals may also learn the inherent task structure and anticipate the occurrence of reversals. A candidate structure to support such task representation is the hippocampus, which might create a flexible representation of the environment that can be adaptively applied to goal-directed behavior...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583412/the-embryonic-development-of-hindbrain-respiratory-networks-is-unaffected-by-mutation-of-the-planar-polarity-protein-scribble
#7
Marc Chevalier, Laura Cardoit, Maïté Moreau, Nathalie Sans, Mireille Montcouquiol, John Simmers, Muriel Thoby-Brisson
The central command for breathing arises mainly from two interconnected rhythmogenic hindbrain networks, the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG or epF at embryonic stages) and the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), which are comprised of a limited number of neurons located in confined regions of the ventral medulla. In rodents, both networks become active toward the end of gestation but little is known about the signaling pathways involved in their anatomical and functional establishment during embryogenesis...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573311/kinematics-in-the-brain-unmasking-motor-control-strategies
#8
Liesjet E H Van Dokkum, D Mottet, I Laffont, A Bonafé, N Menjot de Champfleur, J Froger, E Le Bars
In rhythmical movement performance, our brain has to sustain movement while correcting for biological noise-induced variability. Here, we explored the functional anatomy of brain networks during voluntary rhythmical elbow flexion/extension using kinematic movement regressors in fMRI analysis to verify the interest of method to address motor control in a neurological population. We found the expected systematic activation of the primary sensorimotor network that is suggested to generate the rhythmical movement...
June 2, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552391/where-are-we-the-anatomy-of-the-murine-cortical-meninges-revisited-for-intravital-imaging-immunology-and-clearance-of-waste-from-the-brain
#9
REVIEW
Jonathan A Coles, Elmarie Myburgh, James M Brewer, Paul G McMenamin
Rapid progress is being made in understanding the roles of the cerebral meninges in the maintenance of normal brain function, in immune surveillance, and as a site of disease. Most basic research on the meninges and the neural brain is now done on mice, major attractions being the availability of reporter mice with fluorescent cells, and of a huge range of antibodies useful for immunocytochemistry and the characterization of isolated cells. In addition, two-photon microscopy through the unperforated calvaria allows intravital imaging of the undisturbed meninges with sub-micron resolution...
May 25, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552138/spinal-arteriovenous-malformations-surgical-management
#10
David S Xu, Hai Sun, Robert F Spetzler
Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a diverse population of vascular lesions associated with significant long-term morbidity and neurologic impairment. Spinal AVMs can be classified into three categories: intramedullary, extradural-intradural, and conus, depending on their angioarchitecture and anatomy. Extradural-intradural lesions are typically incurable due to their diffuse nature, but patients may benefit from targeted therapy of symptomatic components. Intramedullary and conus AVMs are amenable to safe surgical resection when combined with endovascular embolization and use of a pial dissection technique that spares entry into the neural parenchyma...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551749/neuroanatomy-and-neuropathology-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-humans
#11
Christine Ecker, Michael J Schmeisser, Eva Loth, Declan G Murphy
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition that is associated with differences in brain anatomy and connectivity. Yet, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underpin the atypical developmental of the brain in ASD remain poorly understood. Here, we review the findings of in vivo neuroimaging studies examining the time course of atypical brain development in ASD and relate the different neurodevelopmental stages that are atypical in ASD to the known neurobiological mechanisms that drive the maturation of the typically developing brain...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545994/the-impact-of-atypical-sensory-processing-on-social-impairments-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Melissa D Thye, Haley M Bednarz, Abbey J Herringshaw, Emma B Sartin, Rajesh K Kana
Altered sensory processing has been an important feature of the clinical descriptions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is evidence that sensory dysregulation arises early in the progression of ASD and impacts social functioning. This paper reviews behavioral and neurobiological evidence that describes how sensory deficits across multiple modalities (vision, hearing, touch, olfaction, gustation, and multisensory integration) could impact social functions in ASD. Theoretical models of ASD and their implications for the relationship between sensory and social functioning are discussed...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516212/anatomical-visualization-of-neural-course-and-distribution-of-anterior-ascending-aortic-plexus
#13
Tomokazu Kawashima, Fumi Sato
The aim of this study was to document the detailed anatomy of neural course and distribution on the anterior ascending aorta, to identify the high and low density areas of the anterior ascending aortic plexus for further understandings in cardiovascular surgery. The embalmed hearts of 42 elderly individuals were submacroscopically and microscopically examined, after excluding any that were macroscopically abnormal. With its origins in the anterior ascending aortic plexus, the right coronary plexus substantially innervated the right coronary artery, the right atrium and ventricle, and the sinus node...
May 17, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505166/brain-activation-of-semantic-category-based-grouping-in-multiple-identity-tracking-task
#14
Liuqing Wei, Xuemin Zhang, Chuang Lyu, Siyuan Hu, Zhen Li
Using Multiple Identity Tracking task and the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, the present study aimed to isolate and visualize the functional anatomy of neural systems involved in the semantic category-based grouping process. Three experiment conditions were selected and compared: the category-based targets grouping (TG) condition, the targets-distractors grouping (TDG) condition and the homogenous condition. In the TG condition, observers could utilize the categorical distinction between targets and distractors, to construct a uniform presentation of targets, that is, to form a group of the targets to facilitate tracking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504548/the-lumbar-neural-foramen-and-transforaminal-epidural-steroid-injections-an-anatomic-review-with-key-safety-considerations-in-planning-the-percutaneous-approach
#15
Jacob C Mandell, Gregory J Czuczman, Glenn C Gaviola, Varand Ghazikhanian, Charles H Cho
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy of the lumbar neural foramen and to describe techniques of transforaminal epidural steroid injections with emphasis on safety. Rare cases of paraplegia have been reported. CONCLUSION: Although no consensus currently exists about which approach is the safest, knowledge of the foraminal anatomy is a key consideration when choosing a needle approach for transforaminal epidural steroid injections.
May 15, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503544/update-on-foregut-molecular-embryology-and-role-of-regenerative-medicine-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Silvia Perin, Conor J McCann, Osvaldo Borrelli, Paolo De Coppi, Nikhil Thapar
Esophageal atresia (OA) represents one of the commonest and most severe developmental disorders of the foregut, the most proximal segment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (esophagus and stomach) in embryological terms. Of intrigue is the common origin from this foregut of two very diverse functional entities, the digestive and respiratory systems. OA appears to result from incomplete separation of the ventral and dorsal parts of the foregut during development, resulting in disruption of esophageal anatomy and frequent association with tracheo-oesophageal fistula...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477340/a-neural-network-approach-for-fast-automated-quantification-of-dir-performance
#17
John Neylon, Yugang Min, Daniel A Low, Anand Santhanam
PURPOSE: A critical step in adaptive radiotherapy (ART) workflow is deformably registering the simulation CT with the daily or weekly volumetric imaging. Quantifying the deformable image registration accuracy under these circumstances is a complex task due to the lack of known ground-truth landmark correspondences between the source data and target data. Generating landmarks manually (using experts) is time-consuming, and limited by image quality and observer variability. While image similarity metrics (ISM) may be used as an alternative approach to quantify the registration error, there is a need to characterize the ISM values by developing a non-linear cost function and translate them to physical distance measures in order to enable fast, quantitative comparison of registration performance...
May 5, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459522/information-integration-research-on-cumulative-effect-of-siqi-wuwei-and-guijing-in-traditional-chinese-medicine
#18
Xuming Yang, Mingyuan Qi, Qian Li, Li Chen, Zhongyi Yu, Lin Yang
OBJECTIVE: To study the morphological basis of the role of Siqi (cold as winter, cool as autumn, warm as spring, hot as summer), Wuwei (five flavors: sweet, pungent, salty, sour, and bitter), and Guijing (meridian tropism) through the use of information integration. METHODS: A 14C-2-deoxy-glucose autoradiography method was adopted to determine the overall impact of treatment with 39 herbs on functions of various tissues and organs. Data was measured at 4 hs after a single dose and following the last treatment of repeated doses for a week...
August 2016: Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chung i Tsa Chih Ying Wen Pan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453669/image-based-correction-of-continuous-and-discontinuous-non-planar-axial-distortion-in-serial-section-microscopy
#19
Philipp Hanslovsky, John A Bogovic, Stephan Saalfeld
Motivation: Serial section microscopy is an established method for detailed anatomy reconstruction of biological specimen. During the last decade, high resolution electron microscopy (EM) of serial sections has become the de-facto standard for reconstruction of neural connectivity at ever increasing scales (EM connectomics). In serial section microscopy, the axial dimension of the volume is sampled by physically removing thin sections from the embedded specimen and subsequently imaging either the block-face or the section series...
May 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445740/right-brain-left-brain-in-depressive-disorders-clinical-and-theoretical-implications-of-behavioral-electrophysiological-and-neuroimaging-findings
#20
REVIEW
Gerard E Bruder, Jonathan W Stewart, Patrick J McGrath
The right and left side of the brain are asymmetric in anatomy and function. We review electrophysiological (EEG and event-related potential), behavioral (dichotic and visual perceptual asymmetry), and neuroimaging (PET, MRI, NIRS) evidence of right-left asymmetry in depressive disorders. Recent electrophysiological and fMRI studies of emotional processing have provided new evidence of altered laterality in depressive disorders. EEG alpha asymmetry and neuroimaging findings at rest and during cognitive or emotional tasks are consistent with reduced left prefrontal activity in depressed patients, which may impair downregulation of amygdala response to negative emotional information...
April 23, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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