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Neural anatomy

Dattatraya Muzumdar, Manoj Patil, Atul Goel, Sangeeta Ravat, Nina Sawant, Urvashi Shah
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is one of the commonest indications for epilepsy surgery. Presurgical evaluation for drug resistant epilepsy and identification of appropriate candidates for surgery is essential for optimal seizure freedom. The anatomy of mesial temporal lobe is complex and needs to be understood in the context of the advanced imaging, ictal and interictal Video_EEG monitoring, neuropsychology and psychiatric considerations. The completeness of disconnection of epileptogenic neural networks is paramount and is correlated with the extent of resection of the mesial temporal structures...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Xintao Hu, Lei Guo, Junwei Han, Christine Cong Guo
Neural discrimination of auditory intensity is one of the fundamental questions in human auditory perception. Human neuroimaging studies have demonstrated specific neural activations during intensity discrimination tasks. The detailed functional anatomy, however, remains elusive. Most of the existing studies examined the entire auditory cortex as a whole, neglecting the potential functional differentiation within the auditory cortex. Moreover, these previous results based on controlled auditory stimuli might not necessarily extend to the neural mechanism of natural auditory processing...
October 21, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Anand Kaul, Sunil Manjila, Jonathan P Miller
: Isadore Max Tarlov (1905-1977) is primarily remembered for his 1938 description of the eponymous perineural "Tarlov cyst." However, during his long career as a neurosurgeon and researcher, he was responsible for many other observations and inventions that influenced the development of neurosurgery in the 20th century. While studying at Johns Hopkins Medical School he was acquainted with Walter Dandy, and he became the first resident to study under Wilder Penfield at the newly formed Montreal Neurological Institute...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
Athanasios Raikos, Thomas English, Omar Khalid Yousif, Mandeep Sandhu, Allan Stirling
PURPOSE: The great auricular point (GAP) marks the exit of the great auricular nerve at the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). It is a key landmark for the identification of the spinal accessory nerve, and its intraoperative localization is vital to avoid neurological sequelae. This study delineates the topography and surface anatomy landmarks that used to localize the GAP. METHODS: Thirty cadaveric heminecks were dissected on a layer-by-layer approach...
October 15, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Russell S Frautschi, Brianna Halasa, Susan Orra, Karolina Mlynek, Charles P Steiner, Francis A Papay
The sphenopalatine ganglion is an extracranial neural structure within the pterygopalatine fossa. Modulation of this region via implantation of a neuromodulatory device presents a novel therapy for the treatment of facial and head pain. Yet sex, race, and genetic factors contribute to morphological variations between individuals. This study defines the standards and variations of the bony landmarks surrounding the pterygopalatine fossa. One hundred dry skulls were analyzed from the Hamann-Todd osteological collection...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Valeriya Gritsenko, Russell L Hardesty, Mathew T Boots, Sergiy Yakovenko
Neural control of movement can only be realized though the interaction between the mechanical properties of the limb and the environment. Thus, a fundamental question is whether anatomy has evolved to simplify neural control by shaping these interactions in a beneficial way. This inductive data-driven study analyzed the patterns of muscle actions across multiple joints using the musculoskeletal model of the human upper limb. This model was used to calculate muscle lengths across the full range of motion of the arm and examined the correlations between these values between all pairs of muscles...
2016: PloS One
Carlo Serra, Uğur Türe, Niklaus Krayenbühl, Gülgün Şengül, Dianne C H Yaşargil, M Gazi Yaşargil
OBJECT: To describe the topographic anatomy of the surgically accessible surfaces of the human thalamus as a guide to surgical exploration of this sensitive area. METHODS: Using the operating microscope, we applied the fiber microdissection technique to study 10 brain specimens. Step by step dissections in superior-inferior, medial-lateral and posterior-anterior directions were conducted in order to expose the surfaces and nuclei of the thalamus and to investigate the relevant anatomic relationships and visible connections...
October 7, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Lauren E Salminen, Thomas E Conturo, Jacob D Bolzenius, Ryan P Cabeen, Erbil Akbudak, Robert H Paul
Technological advances over recent decades now allow for in vivo observation of human brain tissue through the use of neuroimaging methods. While this field originated with techniques capable of capturing macrostructural details of brain anatomy, modern methods such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) that are now regularly implemented in research protocols have the ability to characterize brain microstructure. DTI has been used to reveal subtle micro-anatomical abnormalities in the prodromal phase ofº various diseases and also to delineate "normal" age-related changes in brain tissue across the lifespan...
April 2016: Technology and Innovation
Jeremy Kawahara, Colin J Brown, Steven P Miller, Brian G Booth, Vann Chau, Ruth E Grunau, Jill G Zwicker, Ghassan Hamarneh
We propose BrainNetCNN, a convolutional neural network (CNN) framework to predict clinical neurodevelopmental outcomes from brain networks. In contrast to the spatially local convolutions done in traditional image-based CNNs, our BrainNetCNN is composed of novel edge-to-edge, edge-to-node and node-to-graph convolutional filters that leverage the topological locality of structural brain networks. We apply the BrainNetCNN framework to predict cognitive and motor developmental outcome scores from structural brain networks of infants born preterm...
September 28, 2016: NeuroImage
Dasfne Lee-Liu, Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Rosana Muñoz, Juan Larraín
While an injury to the central nervous system (CNS) in humans and mammals is irreversible, amphibians and teleost fish have the capacity to fully regenerate after severe injury to the CNS. Xenopus laevis has a high potential to regenerate the brain and spinal cord during larval stages (47-54), and loses this capacity during metamorphosis. The optic nerve has the capacity to regenerate throughout the frog's lifespan. Here, we review CNS regeneration in frogs, with a focus in X. laevis, but also provide some information about X...
September 29, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Sanne de Wit, Lara M Wierenga, Bob Oranje, Tim B Ziermans, Patricia F Schothorst, Herman van Engeland, René S Kahn, Sarah Durston
BACKGROUND: The main focus of studies of individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) has been on identifying brain changes in those individuals who will develop psychosis. However, longitudinal studies have shown that up to half of UHR individuals are resilient, with symptomatic remission and good functioning at follow-up. Yet little is known about brain development in resilient individuals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in brain development between resilient and non-resilient individuals...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Andrew A Nicholson, Tomas Ros, Paul A Frewen, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Rosemarie C Kluetsch, Rakesh Jetly, Ruth A Lanius
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback aimed at reducing the amplitude of the alpha-rhythm has been shown to alter neural networks associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), leading to symptom alleviation. Critically, the amygdala is thought to be one of the central brain regions mediating PTSD symptoms. In the current study, we compare directly patterns of amygdala complex connectivity using fMRI, before and after EEG neurofeedback, in order to observe subcortical mechanisms associated with behavioural and alpha oscillatory changes among patients...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
G Chen, W W Zhai, Z Q Yu
Objective: To explore experience and methods in the microsurgical treatment of midline deep brain lesions. Methods: The clinical data of patients with midline deep brain lesions were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical manifestation, imaging findings, lesion locations, surgical procedures, pathological diagnosis and follow-up results were summarized and analyzed. All the lesions were located deeply in the brain midline: corpus callosum (n=1), thalamus and basal ganglia (n=6), lateral ventricle (n=4), the third ventricle (n=2), pineal region (n=8), brainstem and fourth ventricle region (n=4)...
September 13, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
C K Barha, L S Nagamatsu, T Liu-Ambrose
This chapter presents an overview of the anatomy and functioning of the central nervous system. We begin the discussion by first examining the cellular basis of neural transmission. Then we present a brief description of the brain's white and gray matter and associated diseases, including a discussion of white-matter lesions. Finally, we place this information into context by discussing how the central nervous system integrates complex information to guide key functional systems, including the visual, auditory, chemosensory, somatic, limbic, motor, and autonomic systems...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Juliana Mayara Magalhães Oliveira, Maria Beatriz Carrazzone Cal Alonso, Maria José Albuquerque Pereira de Sousa E Tucunduva, Acácio Fuziy, Ana Carla Raphaelli Nahás Scocate, André Luiz Ferreira Costa
PURPOSE: The sphenoid sinus is the most inaccessible part of the face, being inside the sphenoid bone and closely related to numerous vital neural and vascular structures. The objective of this study was to analyze and evaluate the variation of anatomy and the volume of the sphenoid sinus using helical computed tomography and medical imaging software. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 47 helical CT scans of sinuses of male and female individuals aged 18-86 years were selected...
September 15, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Eric Diaz, Humberto Morales
We review the anatomy of the spinal cord, providing correlation with key functional and clinically relevant neural pathways, as well as magnetic resonance imaging. Peripherally, the main descending (corticospinal tract) and ascending (gracilis or cuneatus fasciculi and spinothalamic tracts) pathways compose the white matter. Centrally, the gray matter can be divided into multiple laminae. Laminae 1-5 carry sensitive neuron information in the posterior horn, and lamina 9 carries most lower motor neuron information in the anterior horn...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Samantha D McElyea, John M Starbuck, Danika M Tumbleson-Brink, Emily Harrington, Joshua D Blazek, Ahmed Ghoneima, Katherine Kula, Randall J Roper
Trisomy 21 (Ts21) affects craniofacial precursors in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The resultant craniofacial features in all individuals with Ts21 may significantly affect breathing, eating and speaking. Using mouse models of DS, we have traced the origin of DS-associated craniofacial abnormalities to deficiencies in neural crest cell (NCC) craniofacial precursors early in development. Hypothetically, three copies of Dyrk1a (dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), a trisomic gene found in most humans with DS and mouse models of DS, may significantly affect craniofacial structure...
September 5, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Peter T Bell, James M Shine
Higher brain function requires integration of distributed neuronal activity across large-scale brain networks. Recent scientific advances at the interface of subcortical brain anatomy and network science have highlighted the possible contribution of subcortical structures to large-scale network communication. We begin our review by examining neuroanatomical literature suggesting that diverse neural systems converge within the architecture of the basal ganglia and thalamus. These findings dovetail with those of recent network analyses that have demonstrated that the basal ganglia and thalamus belong to an ensemble of highly interconnected network hubs...
August 31, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Peter G Collin, Anthony V D'Antoni, Marios Loukas, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
As elderly populations rise worldwide, the amount of hip fractures have continued to increase and result in substantial medical burdens in many countries. This increase goes hand-in-hand with an increase in surgical procedures to correct hip fractures. The medical burden imparted by hip fractures and their corrective surgeries necessitate a clinically relevant understanding of the hip joint including the vascular, neural and musculoskeletal structures directly associated with and neighboring the joint. It is critical to appreciate how the normal hip anatomy is disrupted by a fracture and how this disruption is heavily influenced by the fracture's location...
August 31, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
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