Read by QxMD icon Read

Neural anatomy

Cloélia Tissier, Adriano Linzarini, Geneviève Allaire-Duquette, Katell Mevel, Nicolas Poirel, Sonia Dollfus, Olivier Etard, François Orliac, Carole Peyrin, Sylvain Charron, Armin Raznahan, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire Borst, Arnaud Cachia
Inhibitory control (IC) is a core executive function that enables humans to resist habits, temptations, or distractions. IC efficiency in childhood is a strong predictor of academic and professional success later in life. Based on analysis of the sulcal pattern, a qualitative feature of cortex anatomy determined during fetal life and stable during development, we searched for evidence that interindividual differences in IC partly trace back to prenatal processes. Using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we analyzed the sulcal pattern of two key regions of the IC neural network, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the inferior frontal cortex (IFC), which limits the inferior frontal gyrus...
January 2018: ENeuro
Bo-Mi Song, Chi-Hon Lee
Many visual animals exploit spectral information for seeking food and mates, for identifying preys and predators, and for navigation. Animals use chromatic information in two ways. "True color vision," the ability to discriminate visual stimuli on the basis of their spectral content independent of brightness, is thought to play an important role in object identification. In contrast, "wavelength-specific behavior," which is strongly dependent on brightness, often associates with foraging, navigation, and other species-specific needs...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Daniele Marchioni, Angelo Musumeci, Cristoforo Fabbris, Stefano De Rossi, Davide Soloperto
BACKGROUND: The clivus is a region characterized by complex anatomy, with vascular and neural structures that are located in close proximity. Different pathologies can affect this area, and traditional surgical approaches were open approaches. Recently, the endoscopic transnasal technique has been introduced, and currently represents a good alternative for the surgical management of these lesions. This is a preliminary report on patients treated endoscopically for clival lesions by the authors' Skull Base Team...
March 8, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Rafael Gomes de Souza
The literature on crocodylian anatomy presents the transverse process in an ambiguous meaning, which could represent all lateral expansions derived from the neural arch, including vertebrae from cervical to caudal series, or in a more restrictive meaning, being applied only to lumbar vertebrae. The lateral expansion of sacrals and caudals vertebrae usually referred to as the transverse process has been discovered to be fused ribs, bringing more ambiguity to this term. Therefore, with the lack of a definition for transverse process and other associated terms, the present work aims to propose a nomenclatural standardization, as well as definitions and biological meaning, for vertebral rib related structures...
March 7, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Junji Kamogawa, Osamu Kato, Tatsunori Morizane
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to introduce a new method of producing three-dimensional (3D) images of vertebral venous plexuses (VVPs) by 3D-MRI with and without contrast media, to identify pathoanatomical features that might accelerate or modify spinal canal stenosis. METHODS: We used a 1.5-T MRI unit with two different 3D sequences with and without contrast media. Multi planar reconstruction (MPR) images of VVPs could be obtained by volume image subtraction methods with a workstation for dural sac from whole 3D volume MPR without contrast media, using images before and after gadoteridol injection...
March 7, 2018: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Natasha Pollak, Resha S Soni
Tympanic paragangliomas are uncommon vascular tumors of neural crest origin. Classically these lesions have been surgically managed via a transcanal or transmastoid approach using binocular microscopy. We describe a case in which a tympanic paraganglioma was removed via a transcanal approach, using the endoscope exclusively. Endoscopic ear surgery enhances visualization, helping to ensure complete tumor removal, while reducing unnecessary dissection and its associated morbidity. For small middle ear neoplasms, a purely endoscopic approach is feasible, with excellent results...
September 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Ana I L Namburete, Weidi Xie, Mohammad Yaqub, Andrew Zisserman, J Alison Noble
Methods for aligning 3D fetal neurosonography images must be robust to (i) intensity variations, (ii) anatomical and age-specific differences within the fetal population, and (iii) the variations in fetal position. To this end, we propose a multi-task fully convolutional neural network (FCN) architecture to address the problem of 3D fetal brain localization, structural segmentation, and alignment to a referential coordinate system. Instead of treating these tasks as independent problems, we optimize the network by simultaneously learning features shared within the input data pertaining to the correlated tasks, and later branching out into task-specific output streams...
February 21, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Christian A Webb, Elizabeth A Olson, William D S Killgore, Diego A Pizzagalli, Scott L Rauch, Isabelle M Rosso
BACKGROUND: Rostral and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (rACC and sgACC) activity and, to a lesser extent, volume have been shown to predict depressive symptom improvement across different antidepressant treatments. This study extends prior work by examining whether rACC and/or sgACC morphology predicts treatment response to Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for major depressive disorder. This is the first study to examine neural predictors of response to iCBT. METHODS: Hierarchical linear modeling tested whether pretreatment rACC and sgACC volumes predicted depressive symptom improvement during a six-session (10-week) randomized clinical trial of iCBT (n = 35) versus a monitored attention control condition (n = 38)...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Lydia A Trupe, Rachel W Mulheren, Donna Tippett, Argye E Hillis, Marlís González-Fernández
Speech and swallowing utilize overlapping anatomy and are thus inherently related processes. We sought to identify common neural mechanisms between risk of swallowing dysfunction and apraxia of speech (AOS). This was a retrospective analysis using data from a prospectively collected cohort. Left hemisphere stroke patients (68 subjects) tested with the Apraxia Battery for Adults II, a swallow screen, and MRI were included in the study. Main outcome measure was the presence of AOS or aspiration risk after stroke...
February 24, 2018: Dysphagia
S M Masudur Rahman Al Arif, Karen Knapp, Greg Slabaugh
The cervical spine is a highly flexible anatomy and therefore vulnerable to injuries. Unfortunately, a large number of injuries in lateral cervical X-ray images remain undiagnosed due to human errors. Computer-aided injury detection has the potential to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis. Towards building an automatic injury detection system, in this paper, we propose a deep learning-based fully automatic framework for segmentation of cervical vertebrae in X-ray images. The framework first localizes the spinal region in the image using a deep fully convolutional neural network...
April 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Ashley A Blackwell, Mark Banovetz, Qandeel, Ian Q Whishaw, Douglas G Wallace
Arm and hand use by the mouse have been studied in a variety of tasks in order to understand the structure of skilled movements and motor learning, the anatomy and function of neural pathways, and to develop animal models of neurological conditions. The present study describes string-pulling by the mouse, a behavior in which a mouse uses hand-over-hand movements to pull down a string that hangs from the top of a test cage. Mice both spontaneously string-pull and also string-pull to obtain cashew nuts tied to the end of the string as food reward...
February 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Karen A Mesce, Magda Alania, Quentin Gaudry, Joshua G Puhl
Blood feeding is an essential and signature activity of the medicinal leech species, Hirudo verbana Despite keen interest in understanding the neuronal substrates of this behavior, a major component of the nervous system associated with feeding has remained overlooked. In this study, for the first time, we report on the presence and characteristics of five stomatogastic ganglia (STGs) comprising the visceral stomatogastric nervous system (STN) of the leech. Although Hanke (1948) provided a brief report that a ring of three ganglia (not five) was associated with the cephalic ganglia, this information was never integrated into subsequent neurobiological studies of feeding...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Yanqun Chang, Qingqing Deng, Xiaomao Cheng, Xingang Luo, Jing Zhang, Xiaoyuan Tang
RATIONALE: Mild hypoxia conditioning induced by repeated episodes of transient ischemia is a clinically applicable method for protecting the brain against injury after hypoxia-ischemic brain damage. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of repeated mild hypoxia postconditioning on brain damage and long-term neural functional recovery after hypoxia-ischemic brain damage. METHODS: and Results Rats received different protocols of repeated mild hypoxia postconditioning...
February 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Bhillie D Luciani, David M Desmet, Amani A Alkayyali, Joshua M Leonardis, David Benjamin Lipps
Neck muscles are preferentially activated in specific force directions, but the constraints that the central nervous system considers when programming these preferred directions of muscle activity are unknown. The current study utilized ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) to investigate whether the material properties of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles exhibit preferred directions similar to their preferred direction of muscle activity during an isometric task. Twenty-four healthy participants matched isometric forces in 16 axial directions...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Lau M Andersen
An important aim of an analysis pipeline for magnetoencephalographic data is that it allows for the researcher spending maximal effort on making the statistical comparisons that will answer the questions of the researcher, while in turn spending minimal effort on the intricacies and machinery of the pipeline. I here present a set of functions and scripts that allow for setting up a clear, reproducible structure for separating raw and processed data into folders and files such that minimal effort can be spend on: (1) double-checking that the right input goes into the right functions; (2) making sure that output and intermediate steps can be accessed meaningfully; (3) applying operations efficiently across groups of subjects; (4) re-processing data if changes to any intermediate step are desirable...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Hong-Bo Li, Xian-Qing Jin, Xin Jin, Zheng-Hua Guo, Xiong-Hui Ding, Quan Wang, Rui-Zhuo Liu
Transplacental bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4 RNA interference (RNAi) is a technique used to knockdown genes in embryos. BMP4 are essential for the development of nervous system in the differentiation of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs). The failure of differentiation and migration of NCSCs may lead to aganglionosis. In the present study, pregnant mice were divided into three groups: Ringer's group, pSES group and RNAi‑BMP4 group. In order to silence the BMP4 gene in the first generation (F1), 11.5 day pregnant mice were injected with the small interfering RNA BMP4 plasmid, pSES or Ringer's solution via the tail vein...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Milan Halgren, Daniel Fabó, István Ulbert, Joseph R Madsen, Lorand Erőss, Werner K Doyle, Orrin Devinsky, Donald Schomer, Sydney S Cash, Eric Halgren
The neocortex is composed of six anatomically and physiologically specialized layers. It has been proposed that integration of activity across cortical areas is mediated anatomically by associative connections terminating in superficial layers, and physiologically by slow cortical rhythms. However, the means through which neocortical anatomy and physiology interact to coordinate neural activity remains obscure. Using laminar microelectrode arrays in 19 human participants, we found that most EEG activity is below 10-Hz (delta/theta) and generated by superficial cortical layers during both wakefulness and sleep...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Albert Y Han, Sandeep Gupta, Bennett G Novitch
Orofacial muscles are critical for life-sustaining behaviors, such as feeding and breathing. Centuries of work by neuroanatomists and surgeons resulted in the mapping of bulbar motor neurons in the brainstem and the course of the cranial nerves that carry their axons. Despite the sophisticated understanding of the anatomy of the region, the molecular mechanisms that dictate the development and maturation of facial motor neurons remain poorly understood. This fundamental problem has been recently revisited by physiologists with novel techniques of studying the rhythmic contraction of orofacial muscles in relationship to breathing...
January 29, 2018: Developmental Biology
Vural Hamzaoglu, Mustafa Aktekin, Onur Ismi, Hakan Ozalp, Dilan Karşiyaka, Fuat Cem Baskan, Yusuf Vayisoglu, Rabia Bozdogan Arpaci, Filiz Cayan, Can Mehmet Eti, Emine Ecem Cakir, Perihan Gocer, Merve Turkegun, Arzu Kanik, Celal Bagdatoglu, Derya Umit Talas
BACKGROUND: As the skull base has a complex anatomy, we underline the importance of anomalies for side asymmetry. It is useful to investigate relationship between anatomical structures for the surgical procedure orientations. Dural adherence, enlarged superior petrosal sinus, influence of neural crest cells, and cranial base ossification are among the factors in morphometric growth on skull base. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-five fetuses of an estimated gestational age ranging from 17 to 34 weeks were studied in the Anatomy Laboratory of Mersin University Medical Faculty...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Cassiano O Becker, Sérgio Pequito, George J Pappas, Michael B Miller, Scott T Grafton, Danielle S Bassett, Victor M Preciado
Understanding the relationship between the dynamics of neural processes and the anatomical substrate of the brain is a central question in neuroscience. On the one hand, modern neuroimaging technologies, such as diffusion tensor imaging, can be used to construct structural graphs representing the architecture of white matter streamlines linking cortical and subcortical structures. On the other hand, temporal patterns of neural activity can be used to construct functional graphs representing temporal correlations between brain regions...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"