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Neural anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123400/comparison-of-spontaneous-brain-activity-revealed-by-regional-homogeneity-in-aqp4-igg-neuromyelitis-optica-optic-neuritis-versus-mog-igg-optic-neuritis-patients-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#1
Junqing Wang, Yuan Tian, Yi Shao, Hui Feng, Limin Qin, Weiwei Xu, Hongjuan Liu, Quangang Xu, Shihui Wei, Lin Ma
Objective: Many previous studies have demonstrated that neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients have abnormalities of brain anatomy and function. However, differences in spontaneous brain activity between myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG ON and aquaporin 4(AQP4)-neuromyelitis optica-optic neuritis (ON) remain unknown. In the current study, we investigated the brain neural homogeneity in MOG-IgG ON versus AQP4-IgG NMO-ON subjects by regional homogeneity (ReHo) method using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118107/morphological-constraints-on-cerebellar-granule-cell-combinatorial-diversity
#2
Jesse I Gilmer, Abigail L Person
Combinatorial expansion by the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) is fundamental to theories of cerebellar contributions to motor control and learning. Granule cells sample approximately four mossy fiber inputs and are thought to form a combinatorial code useful for pattern separation and learning. We constructed a spatially realistic model of the cerebellar granule cell layer and examined how GCL architecture contributes to granule cell (GrC) combinatorial diversity. We found that GrC combinatorial diversity saturates quickly as mossy fiber input diversity increases, and that this saturation is in part a consequence of short dendrites, which limit access to diverse inputs and favor dense sampling of local inputs...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117061/three-dimensional-analysis-of-the-fundus-of-the-human-internal-acoustic-canal
#3
Nadine Schart-Morén, Sune Larsson, Helge Rask-Andersen, Hao Li
OBJECTIVES: Documentation of the nerve components in the internal acoustic canal is essential before cochlea implantation surgery. Interpretations may be challenged by wide anatomical variations of the VIIIth nerve and their ramifications. Malformations may further defy proper nerve identification. DESIGN: Using microcomputed tomography, we analyzed the fundus bone channels in an archival collection of 113 macerated human temporal bones and 325 plastic inner molds...
November 7, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116158/optical-mapping-of-the-dominant-frequency-of-brain-signal-oscillations-in-motor-systems
#4
Feng-Mei Lu, Yi-Feng Wang, Juan Zhang, Hua-Fu Chen, Zhen Yuan
Recent neuroimaging studies revealed that the dominant frequency of neural oscillations is brain-region-specific and can vary with frequency-specific reorganization of brain networks during cognition. In this study, we examined the dominant frequency in low-frequency neural oscillations represented by oxygenated hemoglobin measurements after the hemodynamic response function (HRF) deconvolution. Twenty-nine healthy college subjects were recruited to perform a serial finger tapping task at the frequency of 0...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109352/mapping-of-kndy-neurons-and-immunohistochemical-analysis-of-the-interaction-between-kndy-and-substance-p-neural-systems-in-goat
#5
Hiroaki Okamura, Takashi Yamamura, Yoshihiro Wakabayashi
A population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) coexpresses kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin, and therefore they are referred to as KNDy neurons. It has been suggested that KNDy neurons participate in several brain functions, including the control of reproduction. The present study aimed to advance our understanding of the anatomy of the KNDy neural system. We first produced an antiserum against goat kisspeptin. After confirming its specificity, the antiserum was used to histochemically detect kisspeptin-positive signals...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100727/operative-and-therapeutic-advancements-in-breast-cancer-metastases-to-the-brain
#6
REVIEW
Rahul Jandial, Reid Hoshide, J Dawn Waters, George Somlo
Patients with breast cancer are surviving longer as the state of the art for care advances. Because patients are surviving longer with primary breast cancer, the incidence of secondary metastatic disease has risen. Metastatic breast cancer to the brain was once thought to be universally fatal. While it is still quite lethal, its treatment after diagnosis is increasingly safe and effective. Critical progress has been made in understanding the interaction between breast metastases and the neural niche, neuroimaging of functional anatomy, minimally invasive image-guided brain surgery, characterizing subtypes of breast cancer based on molecular and genetic profiles, and individualized pharmaceuticals and immunotherapies...
October 7, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100631/drug-cues-conditioned-reinforcement-and-drug-seeking-the-sequelae-of-a-collaborative-venture-with-athina-markou
#7
REVIEW
Barry J Everitt
Athina Markou spent a research period in my laboratory, then in the Department of Anatomy in Cambridge University, in 1991 to help us establish a cocaine-seeking procedure. Thus we embarked on developing a second-order schedule of intravenous cocaine reinforcement to investigate the neural basis of the pronounced effects of cocaine-associated conditioned stimuli on cocaine seeking. This brief review summarizes the fundamental aspects of cocaine seeking measured using this approach and the importance of the methodology in enabling us to define the neural mechanisms and circuitry underlying conditioned reinforcement and cocaine, heroin, and alcohol seeking...
September 25, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094783/surface-based-electrode-localization-and-standardized-regions-of-interest-for-intracranial-eeg
#8
Michael S Trotta, John Cocjin, Emily Whitehead, Srikanth Damera, John H Wittig, Ziad S Saad, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
Intracranial recordings captured from subdural electrodes in patients with drug resistant epilepsy offer clinicians and researchers a powerful tool for examining neural activity in the human brain with high spatial and temporal precision. There are two major challenges, however, to interpreting these signals both within and across individuals. Anatomical distortions following implantation make accurately identifying the electrode locations difficult. In addition, because each implant involves a unique configuration, comparing neural activity across individuals in a standardized manner has been limited to broad anatomical regions such as cortical lobes or gyri...
November 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065120/neural-field-model-to-reconcile-structure-with-function-in-primary-visual-cortex
#9
James Rankin, Frédéric Chavane
Voltage-sensitive dye imaging experiments in primary visual cortex (V1) have shown that local, oriented visual stimuli elicit stable orientation-selective activation within the stimulus retinotopic footprint. The cortical activation dynamically extends far beyond the retinotopic footprint, but the peripheral spread stays non-selective-a surprising finding given a number of anatomo-functional studies showing the orientation specificity of long-range connections. Here we use a computational model to investigate this apparent discrepancy by studying the expected population response using known published anatomical constraints...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059922/precise-localization-of-silicone-based-intercranial-planar-electrodes-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#10
J B Erhardt, K Koenig, J Leupold, C Pasluosta, T Stieglitz
Intercranial planar electrodes enable neural recordings with high spatial resolution in diagnosis as well as for treatments. The value of the measurements increases with the precision of localization of the electrodes related to the individual anatomy. In this context, post-implantation MRI provides excellent soft tissue contrast, but the accurate localization of electrodes is impaired by magnetic susceptibility artifacts. We have addressed this problem without adding a substantial burden to the electrode fabrication process...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058356/predicting-auditory-feedback-control-of-speech-production-from-subregional-shape-of-subcortical-structures
#11
Xiaoying Tang, Na Chen, Siyun Zhang, Jeffery A Jones, Baofeng Zhang, Jingyuan Li, Peng Liu, Hanjun Liu
Although a growing body of research has focused on the cortical sensorimotor mechanisms that support auditory feedback control of speech production, much less is known about the subcortical contributions to this control process. This study examined whether subregional anatomy of subcortical structures assessed by statistical shape analysis is associated with vocal compensations and cortical event-related potentials in response to pitch feedback errors. The results revealed significant negative correlations between the magnitudes of vocal compensations and subregional shape of the right thalamus, between the latencies of vocal compensations and subregional shape of the left caudate and pallidum, and between the latencies of cortical N1 responses and subregional shape of the left putamen...
October 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057352/morphometric-anatomy-of-the-lumbar-sympathetic-trunk-with-respect-to-the-anterolateral-approach-to-lumbar-interbody-fusion-a-cadaver-study
#12
Gareth Rutter, Kevin Phan, Adam Smith, Fiona Stewart, Kevin Seex, Cristian Gragnaniello
BACKGROUND: An approach to lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) utilizing an oblique corridor anterior to the psoas muscle was first described by Mayer in 1997 and subsequently by other authors. The only consistent structure of note in this corridor is the lumbar sympathetic trunk (LST), which at times must be mobilized in order to perform a discectomy and interbody fusion, thereby placing the LST at risk. This study was designed to describe the morphometric anatomy of the LST in relation to surgically relevant landmarks for the anterolateral approach to the lumbar spine at L3/L4 to L5/S1...
September 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054427/common-brain-networks-for-distinct-deficits-in-visual-neglect-a-combined-structural-and-tractography-mri-approach
#13
Monica N Toba, Raffaella Migliaccio, Bénédicte Batrancourt, Clémence Bourlon, Christophe Duret, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Bruno Dubois, Paolo Bartolomeo
Visual neglect is a heterogeneous, multi-component syndrome resulting from right hemisphere damage. Neglect patients do not pay attention to events occurring on their left side, and have a poor functional outcome. The intra-hemispheric location of lesions producing neglect is debated, because studies using different methods reported different locations in the grey matter and in the white matter of the right hemisphere. These reported locations show various patterns of overlapping with the fronto-parietal attention networks demonstrated by functional neuroimaging...
October 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044049/acute-in-vivo-testing-of-a-conformal-polymer-microelectrode-array-for-multi-region-hippocampal-recordings
#14
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman Hirschberg, Kee Scholten, Ted W Berger, Dong Song, Ellis Meng
OBJECTIVE: The success of a cortical prosthetic device relies upon its ability to attain resolvable spikes from many neurons in particular neural networks over long periods of time. Traditionally, lifetimes of neural recordings are greatly limited by the body's immune response against the foreign implant which causes neuronal death and glial scarring. This immune reaction is posited to be exacerbated by micromotion between the implant, which is often rigid, and the surrounding, soft brain tissue and attenuates the quality of recordings over time...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021927/split-femoral-nerve-due-to-psoas-tertius-muscle-a-review-with-other-cases-of-variant-muscles-traversing-the-femoral-nerve
#15
Shehzad Khalid, Joe Iwanaga, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs
Leg pain from lumbar disc herniation is a common presentation. However, certain muscular and peripheral nerve variants may present similarly and represent an unrecognized etiology of femoral nerve dysfunction. Such cases might affect the outcome of specific treatment regimes. Therefore, recognition of these variations in anatomy may be useful to the clinician when treating the patient with medically refractory lower limb pain. Some reports have reported variant slips of the psoas and iliacus muscles, which may split the femoral nerve causing a potential risk for nerve entrapment...
August 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994665/combining-deep-learning-with-anatomy-analysis-for-segmentation-of-portal-vein-for-liver-sbrt-planning
#16
Bulat Ibragimov, Diego Toesca, Daniel Chang, Albert Koong, Lei Xing
Automated segmentation of portal vein (PV) for liver radiotherapy planning is a challenging task due to potentially low vasculature contrast, complex PV anatomy and image artifacts originated from fiducial markers and vasculature stents. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for automated PV segmentation from computed tomography (CT) images. We apply convolutional neural networks (CNN) to learn consistent appearance patterns of PV using a training set of CT images with reference annotations and then enhance PV in previously unseen CT images...
October 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988909/detailed-muscular-structure-and-neural-control-anatomy-of%C3%A2-the-levator-ani-muscle-a-study-based-on-female-human%C3%A2-fetuses
#17
Krystel Nyangoh Timoh, David Moszkowicz, Mazen Zaitouna, Cedric Lebacle, Jelena Martinovic, Djibril Diallo, Maud Creze, Vincent Lavoue, Emile Darai, Gérard Benoit, Thomas Bessede
BACKGROUND: Injury to the levator ani muscle or pelvic nerves during pregnancy and vaginal delivery is responsible for pelvic floor dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: We sought to demonstrate the presence of smooth muscular cell areas within the levator ani muscle and describe their localization and innervation. STUDY DESIGN: Five female human fetuses were studied after approval from the French Biomedicine Agency. Specimens were serially sectioned and stained by Masson trichrome and immunostained for striated and smooth muscle, as well as for somatic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and nitriergic nerve fibers...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980142/chordoma-of-the-head-and-neck-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Jason K Wasserman, Denis Gravel, Bibianna Purgina
Chordoma is a rare malignant bone tumor that can arise anywhere along the central neural axis and many involve head and neck sites, most commonly the skull base. The relative rarity of these tumors, combined with the complex anatomy of the head and neck, pose diagnostic challenges to pathologists. This article describes the pertinent clinical, pathologic, and molecular features of chordomas and describes how these features can be used to aid in formulating a differential diagnosis. Emphasis is placed on key diagnostic pitfalls and the importance of incorporating immunohistochemical information into the diagnosis...
October 4, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972121/gaze-stabilizing-central-vestibular-neurons-project-asymmetrically-to-extraocular-motoneuron-pools
#19
David Schoppik, Isaac H Bianco, David A Prober, Adam D Douglass, Drew N Robson, Jennifer M B Li, Joel S F Greenwood, Edward Soucy, Florian Engert, Alexander F Schier
Within reflex circuits, specific anatomical projections allow central neurons to relay sensations to effectors that generate movements. A major challenge is to relate anatomical features of central neural populations -- such as asymmetric connectivity -- to the computations the populations perform. To address this problem, we mapped the anatomy, modeled the function, and discovered a new behavioral role for a genetically-defined population of central vestibular neurons in rhombomeres 5-7 of larval zebrafish...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969383/a-ventral-glomerular-deficit-in-parkinson-s-disease-revealed-by-whole-olfactory-bulb-reconstruction
#20
Bolek Zapiec, Birger V Dieriks, Sheryl Tan, Richard L M Faull, Peter Mombaerts, Maurice A Curtis
Olfactory dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease and is an early symptom, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Hindering progress in our mechanistic understanding of olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is the paucity of literature about the human olfactory bulb, both from normal and Parkinson's disease cases. Qualitatively it is well established that the neat arrangement of the glomerular array seen in the mouse olfactory bulb is missing in humans. But rigorous quantitative approaches to describe and compare the thousands of glomeruli in the human olfactory bulb are not available...
October 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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