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CT imaging, increasing accuracy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627989/computed-tomography-detection-of-extracapsular-spread-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-in-metastatic-cervical-lymph-nodes
#1
Joshua A Carlton, Adam W Maxwell, Lyndsey B Bauer, Sara M McElroy, Lester J Layfield, Humera Ahsan, Ajay Agarwal
Background and purpose In patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC), extracapsular spread (ECS) of metastases in cervical lymph nodes affects prognosis and therapy. We assessed the accuracy of intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and the utility of imaging criteria for preoperative detection of ECS in metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with HNSCC. Materials and methods Preoperative intravenous contrast-enhanced neck CT images of 93 patients with histopathological HNSCC metastatic nodes were retrospectively assessed by two neuroradiologists for ECS status and ECS imaging criteria...
June 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624849/the-accuracy-of-68-ga-psma-pet-ct-in-primary-lymph-node-staging-in-high-risk-prostate-cancer
#2
Can Öbek, Tünkut Doğanca, Emre Demirci, Meltem Ocak, Ali Rıza Kural, Asıf Yıldırım, Uğur Yücetaş, Çetin Demirdağ, Sarper M Erdoğan, Levent Kabasakal
PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of (68)Ga-PSMA PET in predicting lymph node (LN) metastases in primary N staging in high-risk and very high-risk nonmetastatic prostate cancer in comparison with morphological imaging. METHODS: This was a multicentre trial of the Society of Urologic Oncology in Turkey in conjunction with the Nuclear Medicine Department of Cerrahpasa School of Medicine, Istanbul University. Patients were accrued from eight centres. Patients with high-risk and very high-risk disease scheduled to undergo surgical treatment with extended LN dissection between July 2014 and October 2015 were included...
June 18, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604189/utility-of-single-energy-and-dual-energy-computed-tomography-in-clot-characterization-an-in-vitro-study
#3
Waleed Brinjikji, Gregory Michalak, Ramanathan Kadirvel, Daying Dai, Michael Gilvarry, Sharon Duffy, David F Kallmes, Cynthia McCollough, Shuai Leng
Background and purpose Because computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly used imaging modality for the evaluation of acute ischemic stroke patients, developing CT-based techniques for improving clot characterization could prove useful. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to determine which single-energy or dual-energy CT techniques provided optimum discrimination between red blood cell (RBC) and fibrin-rich clots. Materials and methods Seven clot types with varying fibrin and RBC densities were made (90% RBC, 99% RBC, 63% RBC, 36% RBC, 18% RBC and 0% RBC with high and low fibrin density) and their composition was verified histologically...
June 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596157/-18-f-fdg-pet-and-ct-scan-detect-new-imaging-patterns-of-response-and-progression-in-patients-with-hodgkin-lymphoma-treated-by-anti-pd1-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor
#4
Laurent Dercle, Romain-David Seban, Julien Lazarovici, Lawrence Schwartz, Roch Houot, Samy Ammari, Alina Danu, Véronique Edeline, Aurélien Marabelle, Vincent Ribrag, Jean-Marie Michot
The response evaluation criteria in patients with Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) were designed for the assessment of chemotherapy and targeted molecular agents. We investigated the accuracy of 3-month-(18)F-FDG-PET/CT for the identification of HL patients (pts) responding to immune-checkpoint blockade by Anti-Programmed Death 1 antibodies (anti-PD1). We also reported the frequency of new immune patterns of response and progression. Methods: Retrospectively, we recruited consecutive HL patients treated by anti-PD1 (Pembrolizumab or Nivolumab) at Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France, from 2013-2015...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588150/dose-mapping-after-endoradiotherapy-with-177-lu-dotatate-toc-by-one-single-measurement-after-four-days
#5
Heribert Hänscheid, Constantin Lapa, Andreas K Buck, Michael Lassmann, Rudolf A Werner
Dosimetry of organs and tumors helps to assess risks and benefit of treatment with (177)Lu-DOTATATE/ TOC. However, it is often not performed in clinical routine because of additional efforts, the complexity of data collection and analysis, and the additional burden for the patients. Aiming at a simplification of dosimetry, we analyzed the accuracy of a theoretically substantiated approximation, which allows to calculate absorbed doses from a single measurement of the abdominal activity distribution. Methods: Activity kinetics were retrospectively assessed from planar images in 29 patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET, n = 21) or meningioma (n = 8) after the administration of (177)Lu-DOTATATE (n = 22) or (177)Lu-DOTATOC (n = 7)...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583637/results-of-a-prospective-clinical-study-on-the-diagnostic-performance-of-standard-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-comparison-to-a-combination-of-3t-mri-and-additional-ct-imaging-in-kienb%C3%A3-ck-s-disease
#6
Stephane Stahl, Pascal Hentschel, Dominik Ketelsen, Ulrich Grosse, Manuel Held, Theodora Wahler, Roland Syha, Hans-Eberhard Schaller, Konstantin Nikolaou, Gerd Grözinger
PURPOSE: This prospective clinical study examined standard wrist magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations and the incremental value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of Kienböck's disease (KD) with regard to reliability and precision in the different diagnostic steps during diagnostic work-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four consecutive patients referred between January 2009 and January 2014 with positive initial suspicion of KD according to external standard wrist MRI were prospectively included (step one)...
May 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583277/dual-time-point-18-f-fdg-pet-and-pet-ct-for-differentiating-benign-from-malignant-musculoskeletal-lesions-opportunities-and-limitations
#7
REVIEW
Rahul V Parghane, Sandip Basu
In this review, we summarize the false-positive and false-negative results of standard (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in characterizing musculoskeletal lesions and discussed the added value and limitations of dual-time point imaging (DTPI) and delayed imaging in differentiating malignant from benign musculoskeletal lesions, based on review of the peer-reviewed literature. The quantitative and semiquantitative parameters adopted for DTPI are standardized uptake value (mainly maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax]) and retention index (RI), calculated as RI (%) = 100% × (SUV [maxD-Delayed] - SUV [maxE-Early])/SUV [maxE-Early], although the criteria and cutoff for diagnosing malignancy in studies have varied considerably...
July 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572289/parametric-method-performance-for-dynamic-3-deoxy-3-18-f-fluorothymidine-pet-ct-in-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutated-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-patients-before-and-during-therapy
#8
Gerbrand Maria Kramer, Virginie Frings, Dennis Heijtel, E F Smit, Otto S Hoekstra, Ronald Boellaard
The objective of this study was to validate several parametric methods for quantification of 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) PET in advanced-stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients with an activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation who were treated with gefitinib or erlotinib. Furthermore, we evaluated the impact of noise on accuracy and precision of the parametric analyses of dynamic (18)F-FLT PET/CT to assess the robustness of these methods. Methods: Ten NSCLC patients underwent dynamic (18)F-FLT PET/CT at baseline and 7 and 28 d after the start of treatment...
June 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559934/the-current-status-of-spect-or-spect-ct-in-south-korea
#9
REVIEW
Ikdong Yoo, Eun Kyoung Choi, Yong-An Chung
The first step to nuclear medicine in Korea started with introduction of the gamma camera in 1969. Although planar images with the gamma camera give important functional information, they have the limitations that result from 2-dimensional images. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) due to its 3-dimensional image acquisition is superior to earlier planar gamma imaging in image resolution and diagnostic accuracy. As demand for a hybrid functional and anatomical imaging device has increased, integrated SPECT/CT systems have been used...
June 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554551/applying-quantitative-ct-image-feature-analysis-to-predict-response-of-ovarian-cancer-patients-to-chemotherapy
#10
Gopichandh Danala, Theresa Thai, Camille C Gunderson, Katherine M Moxley, Kathleen Moore, Robert S Mannel, Hong Liu, Bin Zheng, Yuchen Qiu
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate the role of applying quantitative image features computed from computed tomography (CT) images for early prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy in the clinical trials for treating ovarian cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A dataset involving 91 patients was retrospectively assembled. Each patient had two sets of pre- and post-therapy CT images. A computer-aided detection scheme was applied to segment metastatic tumors previously tracked by radiologists on CT images and computed image features...
May 26, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552125/computer-aided-diagnosis-of-liver-tumors-on-computed-tomography-images
#11
Chin-Chen Chang, Hong-Hao Chen, Yeun-Chung Chang, Ming-Yang Yang, Chung-Ming Lo, Wei-Chun Ko, Yee-Fan Lee, Kao-Lang Liu, Ruey-Feng Chang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Liver cancer is the tenth most common cancer in the USA, and its incidence has been increasing for several decades. Early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease are very important. Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most common and robust imaging techniques for the detection of liver cancer. CT scanners can provide multiple-phase sequential scans of the whole liver. In this study, we proposed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to diagnose liver cancer using the features of tumors obtained from multiphase CT images...
July 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551611/-68-ga-psma-pet-ct-has-a-role-in-detecting-prostate-cancer-lesions-in-patients-with-recurrent-disease
#12
REVIEW
Claire Fitzpatrick, Olwyn Lynch, Laure Marignol
BACKGROUND/AIM: Early detection of recurrent πrostate cancer (PCa) lesions is paramount to allow patients to avail of localised salvage therapy options. The most significant reason for failure of salvage therapy is undetected metastatic disease. This demonstrates the need for a more accurate monitoring tool. The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is increasingly investigated as a novel tracer for gallium 68 PET/CT to detect PCa lesions in patients with recurrent disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Embase, Pubmed and the Cochrane databases were searched to identify studies investigating the accuracy of (68)Ga-PSMA-PET/CT in detecting PCa lesions...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540209/myocardial-blood-flow-quantification-for-evaluation-of-coronary-artery-disease-by-computed-tomography
#13
REVIEW
Filippo Cademartiri, Sara Seitun, Alberto Clemente, Ludovico La Grutta, Patrizia Toia, Giuseppe Runza, Massimo Midiri, Erica Maffei
During the last decade coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has become the preeminent non-invasive imaging modality to detect coronary artery disease (CAD) with high accuracy. However, CTA has a limited value in assessing the hemodynamic significance of a given stenosis due to a modest specificity and positive predictive value. In recent years, different CT techniques for detecting myocardial ischemia have emerged, such as CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR-CT), transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG), and myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) imaging...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535919/precision-iort-image-guided-intraoperative-radiation-therapy-igiort-using-online-treatment-planning-including-tissue-heterogeneity-correction
#14
Frank Schneider, Frederic Bludau, Sven Clausen, Jens Fleckenstein, Udo Obertacke, Frederik Wenz
BACKGROUND: To the present date, IORT has been eye and hand guided without treatment planning and tissue heterogeneity correction. This limits the precision of the application and the precise documentation of the location and the deposited dose in the tissue. Here we present a set-up where we use image guidance by intraoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for precise online Monte Carlo treatment planning including tissue heterogeneity correction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An IORT was performed during balloon kyphoplasty using a dedicated Needle Applicator...
May 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530533/respiratory-motion-management-in-pet-ct-applications-and-clinical-usefulness
#15
Luca Guerra, Elena De Ponti, Sabrina Morzenti, Chiara Spadavecchia, Cinzia Crivellaro
Although breathing movement can introduce heavy bias in both image quality and quantitation, currently there is lack of interest for the respiratory motion management in PET/CT imaging. The respiratory gating technology has shown significant benefits on image quality, reducing motion related artifacts and increasing quantification. Indeed, many papers have demonstrated that there is a consistent increase of the Standardized Uptake Value (SUV) in gated PET images when compared to ungated ones, particularly for the small lesions located both in liver and in lung...
May 19, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530209/reproducible-3d-printed-head-tanks-for-electrical-impedance-tomography-with-realistic-shape-and-conductivity-distribution
#16
James Avery, Kirill Aristovich, Barney Low, David Holder
OBJECTIVE: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has many promising applications in brain injury monitoring. To evaluate both instrumentation and reconstruction algorithms, experiments are first performed in head tanks. Existing methods, whilst accurate, produce a discontinuous conductivity, and are often made by hand, making it hard for other researchers to replicate. APPROACH: We have developed a method for constructing head tanks directly in a 3D printer. Conductivity was controlled through perforations in the skull surface, which allow for saline to pass through...
May 22, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520657/ct-based-techniques-for-brain-perfusion
#17
Pradeep Krishnan, Amanda Murphy, Richard I Aviv
Recent rapid advances in endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke highlight the crucial role of neuroimaging especially multimodal computed tomography (CT) including CT perfusion in stroke triage and management decisions. With an increasing focus on changes in cerebral physiology along with time-based matrices in clinical decisions for acute ischemic stroke, CT perfusion provides a rapid and practical modality for assessment and identification of salvageable tissue at risk and infarct core and provides a better understanding of the changes in cerebral physiology...
June 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513847/transmission-characteristics-of-a-two-dimensional-antiscatter-grid-prototype-for-cbct
#18
Cem Altunbas, Brian Kavanagh, Timur Alexeev, Moyed Miften
AIM: High fraction of scattered radiation in cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging degrades CT number accuracy and visualization of low contrast objects. To suppress scatter in CBCT projections, we developed a focused, two-dimensional antiscatter grid (2DASG) prototype. In this work, we report on the primary and scatter transmission characteristics of the 2DASG prototype aimed for linac mounted, offset detector geometry CBCT systems in radiation therapy, and compared its performance to a conventional one-dimensional ASG (1DASG)...
May 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506021/metal-artifact-reduction-in-spiral-fan-beam-ct-using-a-new-sinogram-segmentation-scheme
#19
Mehran Yazdi, Zohre Mansourian
Objective of this study is to present and test a new method for metal artifact reduction (MAR) by segmenting raw CT data (sinogram). The artifact suppression technique incorporates two steps namely, metal projection segmentation in the sinogram and replacement of segmented regions by new values using an interpolation method. The proposed segmentation algorithm uses the sinogram instead of reconstructed CT slices. First, one of the best and newest region-based geometric active contour models is used to detect projection data affected by metal objects (missing projections)...
May 6, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489677/futility-of-imaging-to-stage-melanoma-patients-with-a-positive-sentinel-lymph-node
#20
Lodewijka H J Holtkamp, Rebecca L Read, Louise Emmett, John F Thompson, Omgo E Nieweg
The use of staging imaging in melanoma patients with a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) has been reported to be of limited value. Improved accuracy resulting from the development of time-of-flight positron emission tomography (PET) and ongoing image quality improvement of computed tomography (CT) may challenge this statement. Our retrospective study assessed the clinical value of routine staging CT and PET/CT imaging in a recent cohort of asymptomatic SLN-positive patients. Between January 2011 and April 2014, 143 patients with a positive SLN were routinely staged using CT of various parts of the body or whole-body PET/CT...
May 4, 2017: Melanoma Research
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