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CT imaging, increasing accuracy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904872/background-based-delineation-of-internal-tumor-volume-in-static-positron-emission-tomography-in-a-phantom-study
#1
Yangchun Chen, Xiangrong Chen, Ji-An Liu, Fanyong Li
OBJECTIVES: Considering the fact that the standardized uptake value (SUV) of a normal lung tissue is expressed as x±SD, x+3×SD could be considered as the threshold value to outline the internal tumor volume (ITV) of a lung neoplasm. METHODS: Three hollow models were filled with 55.0 kBq/mL fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) to represent tumors. The models were fixed to a barrel filled with 5.9 kBq/mL (18)F-FDG to characterize normal lung tissues as a phantom...
2016: Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880736/experimental-validation-of-a-multi-energy-x-ray-adapted-scatter-separation-method
#2
A Sossin, V Rebuffel, J Tabary, J M Létang, N Freud, L Verger
Both in radiography and computed tomography (CT), recently emerged energy-resolved x-ray photon counting detectors enable the identification and quantification of individual materials comprising the inspected object. However, the approaches used for these operations require highly accurate x-ray images. The accuracy of the images is severely compromised by the presence of scattered radiation, which leads to a loss of spatial contrast and, more importantly, a bias in radiographic material imaging and artefacts in CT...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877890/x-ray-computed-tomography-imaging-of-a-tumor-with-high-sensitivity-using-gold-nanoparticles-conjugated-to-a-cancer-specific-antibody-via-polyethylene-glycol-chains-on-their-surface
#3
Tomohiko Nakagawa, Kohsuke Gonda, Takashi Kamei, Liman Cong, Yoh Hamada, Narufumi Kitamura, Hiroshi Tada, Takanori Ishida, Takuji Aimiya, Naoko Furusawa, Yasushi Nakano, Noriaki Ohuchi
Contrast agents are often used to enhance the contrast of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging of tumors to improve diagnostic accuracy. However, because the iodine-based contrast agents currently used in hospitals are of low molecular weight, the agent is rapidly excreted from the kidney or moves to extravascular tissues through the capillary vessels, depending on its concentration gradient. This leads to nonspecific enhancement of contrast images for tissues. Here, we created gold (Au) nanoparticles as a new contrast agent to specifically image tumors with CT using an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875009/3d-printing-from-mri-data-harnessing-strengths-and-minimizing-weaknesses
#4
Beth Ripley, Dmitry Levin, Tatiana Kelil, Joshua L Hermsen, Sooah Kim, Jeffrey H Maki, Gregory J Wilson
: 3D printing facilitates the creation of accurate physical models of patient-specific anatomy from medical imaging datasets. While the majority of models to date are created from computed tomography (CT) data, there is increasing interest in creating models from other datasets, such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI, in particular, holds great potential for 3D printing, given its excellent tissue characterization and lack of ionizing radiation. There are, however, challenges to 3D printing from MRI data as well...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861205/improved-delineation-of-pulmonary-embolism-and-venous-thrombosis-through-frequency-selective-nonlinear-blending-in-computed-tomography
#5
Malte Niklas Bongers, Georg Bier, Christopher Kloth, Christoph Schabel, Jan Fritz, Konstantin Nikolaou, Marius Horger
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a novel frequency selective nonlinear blending (NLB) algorithm increases the delineation of pulmonary embolism and venous thrombosis in portal-venous phase whole-body staging computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 67 patients with incidental pulmonary embolism and/or venous thrombosis in contrast-enhanced oncological staging CT were retrospectively selected. Computed tomography data sets were acquired 65 to 90 seconds after intravenous iodine contrast administration using state-of-the-art multi-detector CT scanners...
November 17, 2016: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856475/assessment-of-cardiovascular-remodelling-following-endovascular-aortic-repair-through-imaging-and-computation-the-core-prospective-observational-cohort-study-protocol
#6
Foeke J H Nauta, Arnoud V Kamman, El-Sayed H Ibrahim, Prachi P Agarwal, Bo Yang, Karen Kim, David M Williams, Joost A van Herwaarden, Frans L Moll, Kim A Eagle, Santi Trimarchi, Himanshu J Patel, C Alberto Figueroa
INTRODUCTION: Thoracic aortic stent grafts are orders of magnitude stiffer than the native aorta. These devices have been associated with acute hypertension, elevated pulse pressure, cardiac remodelling and reduced coronary perfusion. However, a systematic assessment of such cardiovascular effects of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is missing. The CardiOvascular Remodelling following Endovascular aortic repair (CORE) study aims to (1) quantify cardiovascular remodelling following TEVAR and compare echocardiography against MRI, the reference method; (2) validate computational modelling of cardiovascular haemodynamics following TEVAR using clinical measurements, and virtually assess the impact of more compliant stent grafts on cardiovascular haemodynamics; and (3) investigate diagnostic accuracy of ECG and serum biomarkers for cardiac remodelling compared to MRI...
November 17, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833386/fibrosis-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-noninvasive-assessment-using-computed-tomography-volumetry
#7
Nobuhiro Fujita, Akihiro Nishie, Yoshiki Asayama, Kousei Ishigami, Yasuhiro Ushijima, Yukihisa Takayama, Daisuke Okamoto, Ken Shirabe, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Kazuhiro Kotoh, Norihiro Furusyo, Tomoyuki Hida, Yoshinao Oda, Taisuke Fujioka, Hiroshi Honda
AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) volumetry for discriminating the fibrosis stage in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: A total of 38 NAFLD patients were enrolled. On the basis of CT imaging, the volumes of total, left lateral segment (LLS), left medial segment, caudate lobe, and right lobe (RL) of the liver were calculated with a dedicated liver application. The relationship between the volume percentage of each area and fibrosis stage was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient...
October 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833312/common-patterns-of-perineural-spread-in-head-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-identified-on-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#8
Piyush Chandra, Nilendu Purandare, Sneha Shah, Archi Agrawal, Venkatesh Rangarajan
Perineural spread in HNSCC is associated with dismal prognosis and decreased overall survival. Clinical diagnosis of this relatively asymptomatic entity is usually delayed and made incidentally on imaging. MRI is gold standard imaging for early diagnosing of this condition owing to its excellent anatomic resolution. With the ever increasing use of PET/CT in commonly encountered cancer such as HNSCC for staging and re-staging, observing perineural spread on PET/CT is not infrequent. Through this pictorial essay we demonstrate the common patterns of perineural spread in HNSCC on PET/CT with the aim of improving reporting accuracy across readers...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832419/temporal-averaging-for-analysis-of-four-dimensional-whole-heart-computed-tomography-perfusion-of-the-myocardium-proof-of-concept-study
#9
S Feger, A Shaban, S Lukas, C Kendziorra, M Rief, E Zimmermann, M Dewey
To assess the feasibility of four-dimensional (4D) whole-heart computed tomography perfusion (CTP) of the myocardium and the added value of temporal averaging of consecutive 3D datasets from different heartbeats for analysis. We included 30 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent 320-row coronary CT angiography (CTA) and myocardial CTP. Out of these, 15 patients underwent magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging (MR MPI). All CTP examinations were initiated after 3 min of intravenous infusion of adenosine (140 µg/kg/min) and were performed dynamically covering the entire heart every heart beat over a period of 20 ± 3 heart beats...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826994/diagnostic-efficacy-of-single-pass-abdominal-multidetector-row-ct-prospective-evaluation-of-a-low-dose-protocol
#10
Luigi Camera, Immacolata Liccardo, Federica Romano, Raffaele Liuzzi, Antonio Rispo, Massimo Imbriaco, Anna Testa, Gaetano Luglio, Simona De Fronzo, Fabiana Castiglione, Luigi Bucci, Arturo Brunetti
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of single-pass contrast-enhanced multi-detector CT (CE-MDCT) performed with a low radiation-high contrast (LR-HC) dose protocol in selected patients with non traumatic acute bowel disease. METHODS: Sixty-five (32 M; 33 F; aged 20-67 years) consecutive patients with non traumatic acute bowel disease underwent single-pass CE-MDCT performed 70-100 sec after i.v. bolus injection of a non ionic iodinated contrast media (370 mgI/ml)...
November 9, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826137/imaging-in-pancreatic-disease
#11
REVIEW
Julien Dimastromatteo, Teresa Brentnall, Kimberly A Kelly
Pancreatic diseases, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus, taken together, occur in >10% of the world population. Pancreatic diseases, as with other diseases, benefit from early intervention and appropriate diagnosis. Although imaging technologies have given clinicians an unprecedented toolbox to aid in clinical decision-making, advances in these technologies and development of molecular-based diagnostic tools could enable physicians to identify diseases at an even earlier stage and, thereby, improve patient outcomes...
November 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824487/small-4-cm-renal-tumors-with-predominantly-low-signal-intensity-on-t2-weighted-images-differentiation-of-minimal-fat-angiomyolipoma-from-renal-cell-carcinoma
#12
Jung Jae Park, Chan Kyo Kim
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the utility of multiparametric MRI in differentiating minimal-fat angiomyolipoma (AML) from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in small renal tumors with predominantly low signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-six patients with pathologically identified renal tumors (1-4 cm) with predominantly low signal intensity on T2-weighted images without visible fat on unenhanced CT images were enrolled...
November 8, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814768/impact-of-3t-multiparametric-mri-and-fdg-pet-ct-in-the-evaluation-of-occult-primary-cancer-with-cervical-node-metastasis
#13
Mária Gődény, Zsolt Lengyel, Gábor Polony, Zoltán Takácsi Nagy, Gergely Léránt, Orsolya Zámbó, Éva Remenár, László Tamás, Miklós Kásler
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the ability of multimodal evaluation with multiparametric 3T-MRI (MPMRI) and positron emission tomography - computed tomography (PET/CT) to detect cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) with neck lymph node (LN) metastasis. METHODS: The study group comprised 38 retrospectively analysed consecutive patients with LN metastasis in the head and neck (HN) region without known primary tumours (PTs). Statistical values of 3T-MRI and of FDG-PET/CT scans were evaluated...
November 4, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809936/impact-of-combined-fdg-pet-ct-and-mri-on-the-detection-of-local-recurrence-and-nodal-metastases-in-thyroid-cancer
#14
Johann-Martin Hempel, Roman Kloeckner, Sandra Krick, Daniel Pinto Dos Santos, Simin Schadmand-Fischer, Patrick Boeßert, Sotirios Bisdas, Matthias M Weber, Christian Fottner, Thomas J Musholt, Mathias Schreckenberger, Matthias Miederer
BACKGROUND: Suspected recurrence of thyroid carcinoma is a diagnostic challenge when findings of both a radio iodine whole body scan and ultrasound are negative. PET/CT and MRI have shown to be feasible for detection of recurrent disease. However, the added value of a consensus reading by the radiologist and the nuclear medicine physician, which has been deemed to be helpful in clinical routines, has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the impact of combined FDG-PET/ldCT and MRI on detection of locally recurrent TC and nodal metastases in high-risk patients with special focus on the value of the multidisciplinary consensus reading...
November 3, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806605/technical-note-rod-phantom-analysis-for-comparison-of-pet-detector-sampling-and-reconstruction-methods
#15
Scott D Wollenweber, Brad J Kemp
PURPOSE: This investigation aimed to develop a scanner quantification performance methodology and compare multiple metrics between two scanners under different imaging conditions. Most PET scanners are designed to work over a wide dynamic range of patient imaging conditions. Clinical constraints, however, often impact the realization of the entitlement performance for a particular scanner design. Using less injected dose and imaging for a shorter time are often key considerations, all while maintaining "acceptable" image quality and quantitative capability...
November 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806602/whole-body-bone-segmentation-from-mri-for-pet-mri-attenuation-correction-using-shape-based-averaging
#16
Hossein Arabi, Habib Zaidi
PURPOSE: The authors evaluate the performance of shape-based averaging (SBA) technique for whole-body bone segmentation from MRI in the context of MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) in hybrid PET/MRI. To enhance the performance of the SBA scheme, the authors propose to combine it with statistical atlas fusion techniques. Moreover, a fast and efficient shape comparison-based atlas selection scheme was developed and incorporated into the SBA method. METHODS: Clinical studies consisting of PET/CT and MR images of 21 patients were used to assess the performance of the SBA method...
November 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806581/analytically-based-photon-scatter-modeling-for-a-multipinhole-cardiac-spect-camera
#17
Amir Pourmoghaddas, R Glenn Wells
PURPOSE: Dedicated cardiac SPECT scanners have improved performance over standard gamma cameras allowing reductions in acquisition times and/or injected activity. One approach to improving performance has been to use pinhole collimators, but this can cause position-dependent variations in attenuation, sensitivity, and spatial resolution. CT attenuation correction (AC) and an accurate system model can compensate for many of these effects; however, scatter correction (SC) remains an outstanding issue...
November 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804009/a-new-method-for-the-automatic-retrieval-of-medical-cases-based-on-the-radlex-ontology
#18
A B Spanier, D Cohen, L Joskowicz
PURPOSE: The goal of medical case-based image retrieval (M-CBIR) is to assist radiologists in the clinical decision-making process by finding medical cases in large archives that most resemble a given case. Cases are described by radiology reports comprised of radiological images and textual information on the anatomy and pathology findings. The textual information, when available in standardized terminology, e.g., the RadLex ontology, and used in conjunction with the radiological images, provides a substantial advantage for M-CBIR systems...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803734/usefulness-of-spectral-computed-tomography-for-evaluation-of-intestinal-activity-and-severity-in-ileocolonic-crohn-s-disease
#19
Jiang Chen Peng, Qi Feng, Jiong Zhu, Jun Shen, Yu Qi Qiao, Jian Rong Xu, Zhi Hua Ran
BACKGROUND: Assessment of intestinal activity and severity of Crohn's disease (CD) is crucial to guide treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate the accuracy of spectral computed tomography (CT) in this assessment and make a comparison with conventional CT. METHODS: A total of 50 patients with ileocolonic CD underwent spectral CT scanning. Conventional CT and spectral CT images were reconstructed. Endoscopic lesions were classified as absent, mild lesions and severe lesions...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782851/surefire-infusion-system-versus-standard-microcatheter-use-during-holmium-166-radioembolization-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Andor F van den Hoven, Jip F Prince, Rutger C G Bruijnen, Helena M Verkooijen, Gerard C Krijger, Marnix G E H Lam, Maurice A A J van den Bosch
BACKGROUND: An anti-reflux catheter (ARC) may increase the tumor absorbed dose during radioembolization (RE) by elimination of particle reflux and its effects on hemodynamics. Since the catheter is fixed in a centro-luminal position, it may also increase the predictive accuracy of a scout dose administration before treatment. The purpose of the SIM trial is to compare the effects of ARC use during RE with holmium-166 ((166)Ho) microspheres in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), with the use of a standard end-hole microcatheter...
October 25, 2016: Trials
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