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CT imaging, increasing accuracy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441370/conventional-modalities-and-novel-emerging-imaging-techniques-for-musculoskeletal-tumors
#1
Meera Raghavan
BACKGROUND: Imaging of musculoskeletal tumors requires a multimodality approach and includes radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Topics related to primary bone and soft-tissue tumors are reviewed. The fundamental imaging principles are discussed as well as the applications of emerging imaging modalities. RESULTS: MRI is the preferred technique for the evaluation of musculoskeletal tumors, whereas other imaging modalities play a complementary role...
April 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434856/can-ct-and-mr-shape-and-textural-features-differentiate-benign-versus-malignant-pleural-lesions
#2
Elena Pena, MacArinze Ojiaku, Joao R Inacio, Ashish Gupta, D Blair Macdonald, Wael Shabana, Jean M Seely, Frank J Rybicki, Carole Dennie, Rebecca E Thornhill
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to identify a radiomic approach based on CT and or magnetic resonance (MR) features (shape and texture) that may help differentiate benign versus malignant pleural lesions, and to assess if the radiomic model may improve confidence and accuracy of radiologists with different subspecialty backgrounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with pleural lesions studied on both contrast-enhanced CT and MR imaging were reviewed retrospectively...
April 20, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433399/simultaneous-68-ga-dotatate-positron-emission-tomography-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-meningioma-target-contouring-feasibility-and-impact-upon-interobserver-variability-versus-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-and-computed-tomography-magnetic
#3
J Maclean, N Fersht, K Sullivan, I Kayani, J Bomanji, J Dickson, C O'Meara, S Short
AIMS: The increasing use of highly conformal radiation techniques to treat meningioma confers a greater need for accurate targeting. Several groups have shown that positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) information alters meningioma targets contoured by single observers, but whether this translates into improved accuracy has not been defined. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the cornerstone of meningioma target contouring, simultaneous PET/MRI may be superior to PET/CT...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432674/partial-volume-correction-of-brain-pet-studies-using-iterative-deconvolution-in-combination-with-hypr-denoising
#4
Sandeep S V Golla, Mark Lubberink, Bart N M van Berckel, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Ronald Boellaard
BACKGROUND: Accurate quantification of PET studies depends on the spatial resolution of the PET data. The commonly limited PET resolution results in partial volume effects (PVE). Iterative deconvolution methods (IDM) have been proposed as a means to correct for PVE. IDM improves spatial resolution of PET studies without the need for structural information (e.g. MR scans). On the other hand, deconvolution also increases noise, which results in lower signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The aim of this study was to implement IDM in combination with HighlY constrained back-PRojection (HYPR) denoising to mitigate poor SNR properties of conventional IDM...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431197/serum-c-reactive-protein-procalcitonin-and-lactate-dehydrogenase-for-the-diagnosis-of-pancreatic-necrosis
#5
REVIEW
Oluyemi Komolafe, Stephen P Pereira, Brian R Davidson, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: The treatment of people with pancreatic necrosis differs from that of people with oedematous pancreatitis. It is important to know the diagnostic accuracy of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum procalcitonin, and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a triage test for the detection of pancreatic necrosis in people with acute pancreatitis, so that an informed decision can be made as to whether the person with pancreatic necrosis needs further investigations such as computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and treatment for pancreatic necrosis started...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430742/utility-of-single-photon-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-for-sentinel-lymph-node-localization-in-breast-cancer-patients
#6
Agnieszka Giżewska, Ewa Witkowska-Patena, Sebastian Osiecki, Andrzej Mazurek, Zofia Stembrowicz-Nowakowska, Mirosław Dziuk
OBJECTIVES: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is currently a routine technique in breast cancer management and preoperative scintigraphic imaging plays a crucial role in the process of SLN detection. The guidelines recommend performing planar acquisition and optional single-photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. The aim of this study was to verify whether routine performing of SPECT/CT in addition to planar imaging increases the sensitivity of SLN detection in patients with early-stage breast cancer...
April 20, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430115/a-systematic-review-of-3-d-printing-in-cardiovascular-and-cerebrovascular-diseases
#7
Zhonghua Sun, Shen Yuan Lee
OBJECTIVE: The application of 3-D printing has been increasingly used in medicine, with research showing many applications in cardiovascular disease. This systematic review analyzes those studies published about the applications of 3-D printed, patient-specific models in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. METHODS: A search of PubMed/Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify studies investigating the 3-D printing in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases...
April 10, 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429044/-68-ga-dotatate-pet-ct-in-recurrent-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-a-lesion-by-lesion-comparison-with-111-in-octreotide-spect-ct-and-conventional-imaging
#8
Lilian Yuri Itaya Yamaga, Marcelo L Cunha, Guilherme C Campos Neto, Marcio R T Garcia, Ji H Yang, Cleber P Camacho, Jairo Wagner, Marcelo B G Funari
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the detection rate of (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT with (111)In-octreotide SPECT-CT and conventional imaging (CI) in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) patients with increased calcitonin (Ctn) levels but negative CI after thyroidectomy. METHODS: Fifteen patients with raised Ctn levels and/or CI evidence of recurrence underwent (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT, (111)In-octreotide SPECT-CT and CI. Histopathology, CI and biochemical/clinical/imaging follow-up were used as the reference standard...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419815/diagnostic-performance-of-and-breast-tissue-changes-at-early-breast-mr-imaging-surveillance-in-women-after-breast-conservation-therapy
#9
Eun Jeong Kim, Bong Joo Kang, Sung Hun Kim, In Kyung Youn, Ji Eun Baek, Hyun Sil Lee
Purpose To investigate the diagnostic performance and tissue changes in early (1 year or less) breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging surveillance in women who underwent breast conservation therapy for breast cancer. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained. Between April 2014 and June 2016, 414 women (mean age, 51.5 years; range, 21-81 years) who underwent 422 early surveillance breast MR imaging examinations (median, 6...
April 18, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418366/-the-role-of-3d-ct-in-surgery-for-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-post-processing-and-tissue-volume-calculation
#10
Ya I Nerestyuk, G G Karmazanovsky, V A Kubyshkin, A G Krieger, A V Khairieva
AIM: To define the indications for pancreatoduodenectomy using 3D CT-imaging, to calculate the volume of damaged and intact tissues and to determine type of surgery depending on severity of disease in case of ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of CT-scans of 30 patients with ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma was performed. In groups 1 and 2 by 15 patients total pancreatectomy and pancreatoduodenectomy were made respectively...
2017: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418006/radiomics-based-prognosis-analysis-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
Yucheng Zhang, Anastasia Oikonomou, Alexander Wong, Masoom A Haider, Farzad Khalvati
Radiomics characterizes tumor phenotypes by extracting large numbers of quantitative features from radiological images. Radiomic features have been shown to provide prognostic value in predicting clinical outcomes in several studies. However, several challenges including feature redundancy, unbalanced data, and small sample sizes have led to relatively low predictive accuracy. In this study, we explore different strategies for overcoming these challenges and improving predictive performance of radiomics-based prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415140/imaging-modalities-for-characterising-focal-pancreatic-lesions
#12
REVIEW
Lawrence Mj Best, Vishal Rawji, Stephen P Pereira, Brian R Davidson, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of incidental pancreatic lesions are being detected each year. Accurate characterisation of pancreatic lesions into benign, precancerous, and cancer masses is crucial in deciding whether to use treatment or surveillance. Distinguishing benign lesions from precancerous and cancerous lesions can prevent patients from undergoing unnecessary major surgery. Despite the importance of accurately classifying pancreatic lesions, there is no clear algorithm for management of focal pancreatic lesions...
April 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413240/detection-of-increased-vasa-vasorum-in-artery-walls-improving-ct-number-accuracy-using-image-deconvolution
#13
Kishore Rajendran, Shuai Leng, Steven M Jorgensen, Dilbar Abdurakhimova, Erik L Ritman, Cynthia H McCollough
Changes in arterial wall perfusion are an indicator of early atherosclerosis. This is characterized by an increased spatial density of vasa vasorum (VV), the micro-vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arterial wall. Detection of increased VV during contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging is limited due to contamination from blooming effect from the contrast-enhanced lumen. We report the application of an image deconvolution technique using a measured system point-spread function, on CT data obtained from a photon-counting CT system to reduce blooming and to improve the CT number accuracy of arterial wall, which enhances detection of increased VV...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410679/dual-energy-imaging-method-to-improve-the-image-quality-and-the-accuracy-of-dose-calculation-for-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#14
Kuo Men, Jianrong Dai, Xinyuan Chen, Minghui Li, Ke Zhang, Peng Huang
PURPOSE: To improve the image quality and accuracy of dose calculation for cone-beam computed tomography (CT) images through implementation of a dual-energy cone-beam computed tomography method (DE-CBCT), and evaluate the improvement quantitatively. METHODS: Two sets of CBCT projections were acquired using the X-ray volumetric imaging (XVI) system on a Synergy (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) system with 120kV (high) and 70kV (low) X-rays, respectively. Then, the electron density relative to water (relative electron density (RED)) of each voxel was calculated using a projection-based dual-energy decomposition method...
April 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393301/structured-reporting-of-ct%C3%A2-enterography%C3%A2-for%C3%A2-inflammatory-bowel-disease-effect-on-key-feature%C3%A2-reporting-accuracy-across-training-levels-and-subjective-assessment-of-disease-by-referring-physicians
#15
Benjamin Wildman-Tobriner, Brian C Allen, Mustafa R Bashir, Morgan Camp, Chad Miller, Lauren E Fiorillo, Alan Cubre, Sanaz Javadi, Alex D Bibbey, Wendy L Ehieli, Nancy McGreal, Reinaldo Quevedo, Julie K Thacker, Maciej Mazurowski, Tracy A Jaffe
PURPOSE: To compare the content and accuracy of structured reporting (SR) versus non-structured reporting (NSR) for computed tomographic enterography (CTE) of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study included 30 adult subjects (15 male, 15 female; mean age 41.9 years) with IBD imaged with CTE. Nine radiologists (3 faculty, 3 abdominal imaging fellows, and 3 senior radiology residents) independently interpreted all examinations using both NSR and SR, separated by four weeks...
April 9, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390297/the-addition-of-whole-body-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-body-computerised-tomography-alters-treatment-decisions-in-patients-with-metastatic-breast-cancer
#16
Michael Kosmin, Andreas Makris, Priya V Joshi, Mei-Lin Ah-See, David Woolf, Anwar R Padhani
AIM: Accurate evaluation of distribution of disease and response to systemic anti-cancer therapy (SACT) is important in the optimal management of metastatic breast cancer. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) has increased accuracy over computerised tomography of the chest, abdomen and pelvis (CT-CAP) for detecting liver and bone disease, but its effect on patient management is largely unexplored. This study investigates the effects of using WB-MRI alongside CT-CAP on SACT decisions in standard clinical practice for patients with metastatic breast cancer...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387436/2d-3d-reconstruction-of-the-distal-femur-using-statistical-shape-models-addressing-personalized-surgical-instruments-in-knee-arthroplasty-a-feasibility-analysis
#17
Pietro Cerveri, Costanza Sacco, Gianluca Olgiati, Alfonso Manzotti, Guido Baroni
BACKGROUND: Personalized surgical instruments (PSI) have gained success in the domain of total knee replacement, demonstrating clinical outcomes similar or even superior to both traditional and navigated surgeries. The key requirement for prototyping PSI is the availability of the digital bony surface. In this paper, we aim at verifying whether the 2D/3D reconstruction of the distal femur, based on statistical shape models (SSM), grants sufficient accuracy, especially in the condylar regions, to support a PSI technique...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383464/intra-and-interobserver-variability-of-cochlear-length-measurements-in-clinical-ct
#18
John E Iyaniwura, Mai Elfarnawany, Sadegh Riyahi-Alam, Manas Sharma, Zahra Kassam, Yves Bureau, Lorne S Parnes, Hanif M Ladak, Sumit K Agrawal
HYPOTHESIS: The cochlear A-value measurement exhibits significant inter- and intraobserver variability, and its accuracy is dependent on the visualization method in clinical computed tomography (CT) images of the cochlea. BACKGROUND: An accurate estimate of the cochlear duct length (CDL) can be used to determine electrode choice, and frequency map the cochlea based on the Greenwood equation. Studies have described estimating the CDL using a single A-value measurement, however the observer variability has not been assessed...
April 5, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382828/use-of-fdg-pet-ct-in-identification-of-bone-marrow-involvement-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-and-follicular-lymphoma-comparison-with-iliac-crest-bone-marrow-biopsy
#19
Alexandra R Teagle, Hannah Barton, Elizabeth Charles-Edwards, Sabina Dizdarevic, Timothy Chevassut
Background Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) accounts for around 4% of new cancer cases annually. Bone marrow involvement is important for staging and management. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) is used increasingly to identify this, in addition to bone marrow biopsy (BMB), which is seen as "gold" reference standard. Purpose To compare determination of bone marrow involvement by FDG PET/CT against BMB in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL)...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380247/a-new-ct-reconstruction-technique-using-adaptive-deformation-recovery-and-intensity-correction-adric
#20
You Zhang, Jianhua Ma, Puneeth Iyenga, Yuncheng Zhong, Jing Wang
PURPOSE: Sequential same-patient CT images may involve deformation-induced and non-deformation-induced voxel intensity changes. An adaptive deformation recovery and intensity correction (ADRIC) technique was developed to improve the CT reconstruction accuracy, and to separate deformation from non-deformation-induced voxel intensity changes between sequential CT images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ADRIC views the new CT volume as a deformation of a prior high-quality CT volume, but with additional non-deformation-induced voxel intensity changes...
April 5, 2017: Medical Physics
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