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CT imaging, increasing accuracy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551611/-68-ga-psma-pet-ct-has-a-role-in-detecting-prostate-cancer-lesions-in-patients-with-recurrent-disease
#1
REVIEW
Claire Fitzpatrick, Olwyn Lynch, Laure Marignol
BACKGROUND/AIM: Early detection of recurrent πrostate cancer (PCa) lesions is paramount to allow patients to avail of localised salvage therapy options. The most significant reason for failure of salvage therapy is undetected metastatic disease. This demonstrates the need for a more accurate monitoring tool. The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is increasingly investigated as a novel tracer for gallium 68 PET/CT to detect PCa lesions in patients with recurrent disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Embase, Pubmed and the Cochrane databases were searched to identify studies investigating the accuracy of (68)Ga-PSMA-PET/CT in detecting PCa lesions...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540209/myocardial-blood-flow-quantification-for-evaluation-of-coronary-artery-disease-by-computed-tomography
#2
REVIEW
Filippo Cademartiri, Sara Seitun, Alberto Clemente, Ludovico La Grutta, Patrizia Toia, Giuseppe Runza, Massimo Midiri, Erica Maffei
During the last decade coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has become the preeminent non-invasive imaging modality to detect coronary artery disease (CAD) with high accuracy. However, CTA has a limited value in assessing the hemodynamic significance of a given stenosis due to a modest specificity and positive predictive value. In recent years, different CT techniques for detecting myocardial ischemia have emerged, such as CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR-CT), transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG), and myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) imaging...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535919/precision-iort-image-guided-intraoperative-radiation-therapy-igiort-using-online-treatment-planning-including-tissue-heterogeneity-correction
#3
Frank Schneider, Frederic Bludau, Sven Clausen, Jens Fleckenstein, Udo Obertacke, Frederik Wenz
BACKGROUND: To the present date, IORT has been eye and hand guided without treatment planning and tissue heterogeneity correction. This limits the precision of the application and the precise documentation of the location and the deposited dose in the tissue. Here we present a set-up where we use image guidance by intraoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for precise online Monte Carlo treatment planning including tissue heterogeneity correction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An IORT was performed during balloon kyphoplasty using a dedicated Needle Applicator...
May 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530533/respiratory-motion-management-in-pet-ct-applications-and-clinical-usefulness
#4
Luca Guerra, Elena De Ponti, Sabrina Morzenti, Chiara Spadavecchia, Cinzia Crivellaro
Although breathing movement can introduce heavy bias in both image quality and quantitation, currently there is lack of interest for the respiratory motion management in PET/CT imaging. The respiratory gating technology has shown significant benefits on image quality, reducing motion related artifacts and increasing quantification. Indeed, many papers have demonstrated that there is a consistent increase of the Standardized Uptake Value (SUV) in gated PET images when compared to ungated ones, particularly for the small lesions located both in liver and in lung...
May 19, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530209/reproducible-3d-printed-head-tanks-for-electrical-impedance-tomography-with-realistic-shape-and-conductivity-distribution
#5
James Avery, Kirill Aristovich, Barney Low, David Holder
OBJECTIVE: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has many promising applications in brain injury monitoring. To evaluate both instrumentation and reconstruction algorithms, experiments are first performed in head tanks. Existing methods, whilst accurate, produce a discontinuous conductivity, and are often made by hand, making it hard for other researchers to replicate. APPROACH: We have developed a method for constructing head tanks directly in a 3D printer. Conductivity was controlled through perforations in the skull surface, which allow for saline to pass through...
May 22, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520657/ct-based-techniques-for-brain-perfusion
#6
Pradeep Krishnan, Amanda Murphy, Richard I Aviv
Recent rapid advances in endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke highlight the crucial role of neuroimaging especially multimodal computed tomography (CT) including CT perfusion in stroke triage and management decisions. With an increasing focus on changes in cerebral physiology along with time-based matrices in clinical decisions for acute ischemic stroke, CT perfusion provides a rapid and practical modality for assessment and identification of salvageable tissue at risk and infarct core and provides a better understanding of the changes in cerebral physiology...
June 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513847/transmission-characteristics-of-a-two-dimensional-antiscatter-grid-prototype-for-cbct
#7
Cem Altunbas, Brian Kavanagh, Timur Alexeev, Moyed Miften
AIM: High fraction of scattered radiation in cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging degrades CT number accuracy and visualization of low contrast objects. To suppress scatter in CBCT projections, we developed a focused, two-dimensional antiscatter grid (2DASG) prototype. In this work, we report on the primary and scatter transmission characteristics of the 2DASG prototype aimed for linac mounted, offset detector geometry CBCT systems in radiation therapy, and compared its performance to a conventional one-dimensional ASG (1DASG)...
May 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506021/metal-artifact-reduction-in-spiral-fan-beam-ct-using-a-new-sinogram-segmentation-scheme
#8
Mehran Yazdi, Zohre Mansourian
Objective of this study is to present and test a new method for metal artifact reduction (MAR) by segmenting raw CT data (sinogram). The artifact suppression technique incorporates two steps namely, metal projection segmentation in the sinogram and replacement of segmented regions by new values using an interpolation method. The proposed segmentation algorithm uses the sinogram instead of reconstructed CT slices. First, one of the best and newest region-based geometric active contour models is used to detect projection data affected by metal objects (missing projections)...
May 6, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489677/futility-of-imaging-to-stage-melanoma-patients-with-a-positive-sentinel-lymph-node
#9
Lodewijka H J Holtkamp, Rebecca L Read, Louise Emmett, John F Thompson, Omgo E Nieweg
The use of staging imaging in melanoma patients with a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) has been reported to be of limited value. Improved accuracy resulting from the development of time-of-flight positron emission tomography (PET) and ongoing image quality improvement of computed tomography (CT) may challenge this statement. Our retrospective study assessed the clinical value of routine staging CT and PET/CT imaging in a recent cohort of asymptomatic SLN-positive patients. Between January 2011 and April 2014, 143 patients with a positive SLN were routinely staged using CT of various parts of the body or whole-body PET/CT...
May 4, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489534/dynamic-2-d-3-d-rigid-registration-framework-using-point-to-plane-correspondence-model
#10
Jian Wang, Roman Schaffert, Anja Borsdorf, Benno Heigl, Xiaolin Huang, Joachim Hornegger, Andreas Maier
In image-guided interventional procedures, live 2-D X-ray images can be augmented with preoperative 3-D CT or MRI images to provide planning landmarks and enhanced spatial perception. An accurate alignment between the 3-D and 2-D images is a prerequisite for fusion applications. This paper presents a dynamic rigid 2-D/3-D registration framework, which measures the local 3-D-to-2-D misalignment and efficiently constrains the update of both planar and non-planar 3-D rigid transformations using a novel point-to-plane correspondence model...
May 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482387/-the-limitation-of-transthoracic-echocardiography-in-diagnosing-partial-anomalous-pulmonary-venous-drainage
#11
J Zhang, Y Gao, J L Yang, W D Chen, G Y Huang, X J Ma
Objective: To improve the diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) by analyzing its limitations in diagnosing partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (PAPVD). Method: This was a retrospective analysis of PAPVD patients seen at the Children's Hospital of Fudan University from October 1 2006 to October 1 2016. The echocardiographic data were compared to findings on multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT), cardiac catheterization or surgery. The echocardiography machines used were Philip IE33, GE Vivid 7 and Vivid i with frequency ranging from 5...
May 4, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474192/dual-time-point-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-in-prosthetic-heart-valve-endocarditis
#12
A M Scholtens, L E Swart, H J Verberne, R P J Budde, M G E H Lam
PURPOSE: FDG PET/CT has been of increasing interest in the diagnostic workup of prosthetic heart valve endocarditis (PVE). Some reports advocate later imaging time points to improve the diagnostic accuracy for PVE. In this study, we compared standard and late FDG PET/CT images in patients with a clinical suspicion of PVE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen scans in 13 patients referred for FDG PET/CT for suspicion of PVE performed at standard (60 min post injection) and late (150 min post injection) time points were scored based on visual interpretation and semi-quantitatively with SUVmax and target-to-background ratio (TBR, defined as [SUVmax valve/SUVmean blood pool])...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473853/3d-evaluation-of-maxillary-sinus-using-computed-tomography-a-sexual-dimorphic-study
#13
Balaji Babu Bangi, Uday Ginjupally, Lakshmi Kavitha Nadendla, Bhavana Vadla
Purpose. Gender determination is considered to be an important step in the reconstruction of the biological profile in forensic medicine. Maxillary sinus can be used for identification of sex when other methods are indecisive. Computed tomography (CT) provides an excellent method for examining maxillary sinuses. Hence the aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of gender determination using maxillary sinus with CT. Materials and Methods. CT images were used to measure the mediolateral, superoinferior, and anteroposterior dimensions and the volume of the maxillary sinuses in 100 patients (50 males and 50 females) to determine the gender of an individual for forensic identification...
2017: International Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473596/does-antibiotic-treatment-affect-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-fdg-pet-ct-studies-in-patients-with-suspected-infectious-processes
#14
Olga Kagna, Marina Kurash, Nesrin Ghanem-Zouabi, Zohar Keidar, Ora Israel
Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emmission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) plays a significant role in the assessment of various infectious processes. Patients with suspected or known sites of infection are often referred for FDG imaging while already receiving antibiotic treatment. Current study assesses whether antibiotic therapy affects the detectability rate of infectious processes by FDG PET/CT. Methods: A 5-year retrospective study of all adult patients who underwent FDG PET/CT in search of a focal source of infection was performed...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470387/comparison-of-ct-enterography-and-mr-enterography-imaging-features-of-active-crohn-disease-in-children-and-adolescents
#15
Heather I Gale, Steven M Sharatz, Mayureewan Taphey, William F Bradley, Katherine Nimkin, Michael S Gee
BACKGROUND: Assessment for active Crohn disease by CT enterography and MR enterography relies on identifying mural and perienteric imaging features. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of established imaging features of active Crohn disease in children and adolescents on CT and MR enterography compared with histological reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included patients ages 18 years and younger who underwent either CT or MR enterography from 2007 to 2014 and had endoscopic biopsy within 28 days of imaging...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464835/streamlining-staging-of-lung-and-colorectal-cancer-with-whole-body-mri-study-protocols-for-two-multicentre-non-randomised-single-arm-prospective-diagnostic-accuracy-studies-streamline-c-and-streamline-l
#16
Stuart A Taylor, Sue Mallett, Anne Miles, Sandy Beare, Gauraang Bhatnagar, John Bridgewater, Rob Glynne-Jones, Vicky Goh, Ashley M Groves, Sam M Janes, Dow Mu Koh, Steve Morris, Alison Morton, Neal Navani, Alf Oliver, Anwar R Padhani, Shonit Punwani, Andrea G Rockall, Steve Halligan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rapid and accurate cancer staging following diagnosis underpins patient management, in particular the identification of distant metastatic disease. Current staging guidelines recommend sequential deployment of various imaging platforms such as computerised tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) which can be time and resource intensive and onerous for patients. Recent studies demonstrate that whole body magnetic resonance Imaging (WB-MRI) may stage cancer efficiently in a single visit, with potentially greater accuracy than current staging investigations...
May 2, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457507/age-estimation-by-ossification-of-thyroid-cartilage-of-japanese-males-using-bayesian-analysis-of-postmortem-ct-images
#17
Tomomi Aramaki, Tomoya Ikeda, Akihito Usui, Masato Funayama
Many studies have reported that the degree of thyroid cartilage ossification correlates with age. However, its use in forensics has been limited by individual variation, tissue fragility, and observer subjectivity. We examined a new method for age estimation from the degree of ossification of thyroid cartilage using postmortem computed tomography (CT) and Bayesian analysis. The scoring of CT density values, ossification rate, and morphological changes was performed in 131 Japanese males (20-80years old), and an age estimation table was created and verified in 39 other Japanese males...
March 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453537/an-efficient-and-robust-mri-guided-radiotherapy-planning-approach-for-targeting-abdominal-organs-and-tumours-in-the-mouse
#18
Veerle Kersemans, John S Beech, Stuart Gilchrist, Paul Kinchesh, Philip D Allen, James Thompson, Ana L Gomes, Zenobia D'Costa, Luke Bird, Iain D C Tullis, Robert G Newman, Aurelien Corroyer-Dulmont, Nadia Falzone, Abul Azad, Katherine A Vallis, Owen J Sansom, Ruth J Muschel, Borivoj Vojnovic, Mark A Hill, Emmanouil Fokas, Sean C Smart
INTRODUCTION: Preclinical CT-guided radiotherapy platforms are increasingly used but the CT images are characterized by poor soft tissue contrast. The aim of this study was to develop a robust and accurate method of MRI-guided radiotherapy (MR-IGRT) delivery to abdominal targets in the mouse. METHODS: A multimodality cradle was developed for providing subject immobilisation and its performance was evaluated. Whilst CT was still used for dose calculations, target identification was based on MRI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451938/quantitative-accuracy-of-computed-tomography-perfusion-under-low-dose-conditions-measured-using-a-hollow-fiber-phantom
#19
Kazufumi Suzuki, Hiroyuki Hashimoto, Eiji Okaniwa, Hiroshi Iimura, Shingo Suzaki, Kayoko Abe, Shuji Sakai
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the quantitative accuracy under low-dose conditions on computed tomography (CT) perfusion using a hollow-fiber phantom that had the theoretical absolute values of perfusion indices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our phantom comprised two components, i.e., a hollow-fiber hemodialyzer to pump the diluted contrast material and a surrounding syringe-shaped X-ray-absorbing body to simulate the absorption of X-rays by a brain and cranium...
April 27, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450317/the-segment-dependent-changes-in-lumbar-intervertebral-space-height-during-flexion-extension-motion
#20
M Fu, Q Ye, C Jiang, L Qian, D Xu, Y Wang, P Sun, J Ouyang
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have investigated the kinematics of the lumbar spine and the morphological features of the lumbar discs. However, the segment-dependent immediate changes of the lumbar intervertebral space height during flexion-extension motion are still unclear. This study examined the changes of intervertebral space height during flexion-extension motion of lumbar specimens. METHODS: First, we validated the accuracy and repeatability of a custom-made mechanical loading equipment set-up...
April 2017: Bone & Joint Research
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