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CT imaging, increasing accuracy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776851/treatment-planning-dose-accuracy-improvement-in-the-presence-of-dental-implants
#1
Holly M Parenica, John R Ford, Panayiotis Mavroidis, Ying Li, Nikos Papanikolaou, Sotirios Stathakis
Streaking artifacts in computed tomography (CT) scans caused by metallic dental implants (MDIs) can lead to inaccuracies in dose calculations. This study quantifies and compares the effect of MDIs on dose distributions using the collapsed cone convolution superposition (CCCS) and Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms, with and without correcting for the density of the MDIs. Ion chamber measurements were taken to test the ability of the algorithms in Pinnacle3 and Monaco to calculate dose near high-Z materials. Nine previously treated patients with head and neck cancer were included in this study...
May 15, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774751/evaluation-of-articular-cartilage-injury-using-computed-tomography-with-axial-traction-in-the-ankle-joint
#2
Tomoyuki Nakasa, Yasunari Ikuta, Mikiya Sawa, Masahiro Yoshikawa, Yusuke Tsuyuguchi, Yuki Ota, Munekazu Kanemitsu, Nobuo Adachi
BACKGROUND: Although chondral or osteochondral injuries are usually assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, its accuracy can be low, presumably related to the relatively thin cartilage layer and the close apposition of the cartilage of the talus and tibial plafond. We hypothesized that axial traction could provide a contrast between the articular cartilage and joint cavity, and it enabled the simultaneous evaluation of cartilage and subchondral bone. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using computed tomography (CT) imaging with axial traction for the diagnosis of articular cartilage injuries...
May 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772061/an-image-guided-radiotherapy-decision-support-framework-incorporating-a-bayesian-network-and-visualization-tool
#3
Catriona Hargrave, Timothy Deegan, Tomasz Bednarz, Michael Poulsen, Fiona Harden, Kerrie Mengersen
PURPOSE: To describe a Bayesian network (BN) and complementary visualization tool, that aim to support decision-making during online cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based image guide radiotherapy (IGRT) for prostate cancer patients. METHODS: The BN was created to represent relationships between observed prostate, proximal seminal vesicle (PSV), bladder and rectum volume variations, an image feature alignment score (FASTV _ OAR ), delivered dose and treatment plan compliance (TPC)...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772057/a-4d-global-respiratory-motion-model-of-the-thorax-based-on-ct-images-a-proof-of-concept
#4
H Fayad, M Gilles, T Pan, D Visvikis
PURPOSE: Respiratory motion reduces the sensitivity and specificity of medical images especially in the thoracic and abdominal areas. It may affect applications such as cancer diagnostic imaging and/or radiation therapy (RT). Solutions to this issue include modelling of the respiratory motion in order to optimize both diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. Personalised motion modeling required patient specific four dimensional (4D) imaging which in the case of 4D computed tomography (4D CT) acquisition is associated with an increased dose...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764028/-application-of-3d-virtual-reality-technology-with-multi-modality-fusion-in-resection-of-glioma-located-in-central-sulcus-region
#5
T N Chen, X T Yin, X G Li, J Zhao, L Wang, N Mu, K Ma, K Huo, D Liu, B Y Gao, H Feng, F Li
Objective: To explore the clinical and teaching application value of virtual reality technology in preoperative planning and intraoperative guide of glioma located in central sulcus region. Method: Ten patients with glioma in the central sulcus region were proposed to surgical treatment. The neuro-imaging data, including CT, CTA, DSA, MRI, fMRI were input to 3dgo sczhry workstation for image fusion and 3D reconstruction. Spatial relationships between the lesions and the surrounding structures on the virtual reality image were obtained...
May 8, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749664/the-role-of-neuroimaging-in-the-determination-of-brain-death
#6
Derek MacDonald, Brandie Stewart-Perrin, Jai Jai Shiva Shankar
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain death determination (BDD) is primarily a clinical diagnosis, where death is defined as the permanent loss of brainstem function. In scenarios where clinical examinations are inaccurate, ancillary imaging tests are required. The choice of ancillary imaging test is variable, but the common denominator for all of them is to establish a lack of cerebral blood flow. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy and interrater reliability of different ancillary imaging tests used for BDD...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746490/clinical-evaluation-of-semi-automatic-open-source-algorithmic-software-segmentation-of-the-mandibular-bone-practical-feasibility-and-assessment-of-a-new-course-of-action
#7
Jürgen Wallner, Kerstin Hochegger, Xiaojun Chen, Irene Mischak, Knut Reinbacher, Mauro Pau, Tomislav Zrnc, Katja Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Wolfgang Zemann, Dieter Schmalstieg, Jan Egger
INTRODUCTION: Computer assisted technologies based on algorithmic software segmentation are an increasing topic of interest in complex surgical cases. However-due to functional instability, time consuming software processes, personnel resources or licensed-based financial costs many segmentation processes are often outsourced from clinical centers to third parties and the industry. Therefore, the aim of this trial was to assess the practical feasibility of an easy available, functional stable and licensed-free segmentation approach to be used in the clinical practice...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727481/helium-ct-monte-carlo-simulation-results-for-an-ideal-source-and-detector-with-comparison-to-proton-ct
#8
Pierluigi Piersimoni, Bruce A Faddegon, José Ramos Méndez, Reinhard W Schulte, Lennart Volz, Joao Seco
PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of relative stopping power reconstructed with simulated helium CT (HeCT) in comparison to proton CT (pCT). METHODS: A Monte Carlo (MC) study with the TOPAS tool was performed to compare the accuracy of relative stopping power (RSP) reconstruction and spatial resolution of low-fluence HeCT to pCT, both using 200 MeV/u particles. An ideal setup consisting of a flat beam source and a totally absorbing energy-range detector was implemented to estimate the theoretically best achievable RSP accuracy for the calibration and reconstruction methods currently used for pCT...
May 4, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724800/the-importance-of-quality-in-pulmonary-v-q-imaging
#9
April Mann, Mario DiDea, France Fournier, Daniel Tempesta, Jessica Williams, Norman LaFrance
As the healthcare environment continues to change and morph into a system focusing on increased quality and evidence-based outcomes, nuclear medicine technologists must be reminded they play a critical role in achieving high quality interpretable images used to drive patient care, treatments and best possible outcomes. A survey performed by the Quality Committee, Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging-Technologist Section demonstrated a clear knowledge gap exists amongst technologists regarding their understanding of quality, how it is measured, and how it should be achieved throughout all practicing technologists despite role and education level...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721694/current-status-of-ultrasound-and-dual-energy-computed-tomography-in-the-evaluation-of-gout
#10
REVIEW
Hillary W Garner, Daniel E Wessell
Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis and is increasing in relevance due to its rising prevalence and incidence. Dual-energy CT (DECT) and ultrasound (US) are the most frequently used imaging modalities for the diagnosis of gout and for the follow-up of patients receiving therapy. Although DECT has the highest diagnostic accuracy for gout and shows consistently excellent reader agreement in the assessment of urate deposition change after therapy, US also performs well and remains just as important an imaging tool in these realms due to its practical advantages in cost, availability, and safety...
May 2, 2018: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720611/blooming-artifact-reduction-in-coronary-artery-calcification-by-a-new-de-blooming-algorithm-initial-study
#11
Ping Li, Lei Xu, Lin Yang, Rui Wang, Jiang Hsieh, Zhonghua Sun, Zhanming Fan, Jonathon A Leipsic
The aim of this study was to investigate the use of de-blooming algorithm in coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for optimal evaluation of calcified plaques. Calcified plaques were simulated on a coronary vessel phantom and a cardiac motion phantom. Two convolution kernels, standard (STND) and high-definition standard (HD STND), were used for imaging reconstruction. A dedicated de-blooming algorithm was used for imaging processing. We found a smaller bias towards measurement of stenosis using the de-blooming algorithm (STND: bias 24...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715308/analysis-of-dual-energy-spectral-ct-and-pathological-grading-of-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-ccrcc
#12
Jinyan Wei, Jianhong Zhao, Xueling Zhang, Dan Wang, Wenjuan Zhang, Zhiping Wang, Junlin Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the dual energy spectral computer tomography (CT) imaging features of the pathological grading of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and the correlation between spectral CT imaging features and pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed analyses of 62 patients with confirmed diagnosis of ccRCC. All patients underwent non-enhanced CT and dual-phase (cortex phase, CP and parenchyma phase, PP) contrast-enhanced CT with dual energy spectral mode...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715249/acute-headache-in-the-emergency-department-is-lumbar-puncture-still-necessary-to-rule-out-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#13
Sarah Steffens, Paula Tucker, Dian Dowling Evans
The purpose of the Research to Practice column is to review current primary journal articles that directly affect the practice of the advanced practice nurse (APN) in the emergency department. This review examines the findings of Carpenter et al. (2016) from their article, "Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Describing the Diagnostic Accuracy of History, Physical Exam, Imaging, and Lumbar Puncture With an Exploration of Test Thresholds." The authors concluded that although no history or physical examination finding can be used to rule in or rule out spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the complaint of neck stiffness can increase the likelihood of SAH...
April 2018: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692523/comparison-of-mdct-mri-and-mri-with-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-evaluation-of-focal-renal-lesions-the-defender-challenger-and-winner
#14
Ankur Goyal, Raju Sharma, Ashu S Bhalla, Shivanand Gamanagatti, Amlesh Seth
Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the characterization of focal renal lesions. We also compared MDCT and MRI in the staging of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty adult patients underwent MDCT (40-row and 128-row scanners), MRI (at 1.5 T), and DWI (at b-values of 0 and 500 s/mm2 ) for characterization of 225 renal lesions...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683931/value-of-18f-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-in-the-staging-restaging-monitoring-of-response-to-therapy-and-surveillance-of-uterine-leiomyosarcomas
#15
Ophélie Bélissant, Laurence Champion, Hind Thevenet, Pierre Weinmann, Jean-Louis Alberini
OBJECTIVE: Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is the most common subtype of uterine sarcomas. It is a rare and aggressive tumour. The aim of the present study was to assess the performance of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/CT imaging in four clinical settings: initial staging, restaging, monitoring of response to therapy and post-therapy surveillance of uterine LMS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A bicentric retrospective study was carried out on a group of 21 patients with uterine LMS for whom a total of 52 PET/CT scans were available in initial staging (n=11), restaging (n=11), monitoring of response to therapy (n=17) and post-therapy surveillance (n=13)...
April 20, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676025/an-unsupervised-automatic-segmentation-algorithm-for-breast-tissue-classification-of-dedicated-breast-computed-tomography-images
#16
Marco Caballo, John M Boone, Ritse Mann, Ioannis Sechopoulos
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a new automatic classification algorithm able to identify voxels containing skin, vasculature, adipose and fibroglandular tissue in dedicated breast CT images. METHODS: The proposed algorithm combines intensity and region-based segmentation methods with energy minimizing splines and unsupervised data mining approaches for classifying and segmenting the different tissue types. Breast skin segmentation is achieved by a region growing method which uses constraints from the previously extracted skin centerline to add robustness to the model and to reduce the false positive rate...
April 19, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672405/necrotizing-soft-tissue-infection-diagnostic-accuracy-of-physical-examination-imaging-and-lrinec-score-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Shannon M Fernando, Alexandre Tran, Wei Cheng, Bram Rochwerg, Kwadwo Kyeremanteng, Andrew J E Seely, Kenji Inaba, Jeffrey J Perry
OBJECTIVE: We sought to summarize accuracy of physical examination, imaging, and Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC) score in diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI) in adults with a soft tissue infection clinically concerning for NSTI. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: NSTI is a life-threatening diagnosis. Delay to diagnosis and surgical management is associated with increased mortality. METHODS: We searched 6 databases from inception through November 2017...
April 18, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664244/the-role-of-68ga-psma-pet-ct-scan-in-biochemical-recurrence-after-primary-treatment-for-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#18
Ahmed Eissa, Ahmed El Sherbiny, Rafael F Coelho, Jens Rassweiler, John W Davis, Francesco Porpiglia, Vipul R Patel, Napoleone Prandini, Salvatore Micali, Maria C Sighinolfi, Stefano Puliatti, Bernardo Rocco, Giampaolo Bianchi
INTRODUCTION: Recurrence after primary treatment of prostate cancer is one of the major challenges facing urologists. Biochemical recurrence is not rare and occurs in up to one third of the patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Management of biochemical recurrence is tailored according to the site and the burden of recurrence. Therefore, developing an imaging technique to early detect recurrent lesions represents an urgent need. Positron emission tomography (PET) of 68Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA) is an emerging imaging modality that seems to be a promising tool with capability to localize recurrent prostate cancer...
April 17, 2018: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663370/deformable-torso-phantoms-of-chinese-adults-for-personalized-anatomy-modelling
#19
Hongkai Wang, Xiaobang Sun, Tongning Wu, Congsheng Li, Zhonghua Chen, Meiying Liao, Mengci Li, Wen Yan, Hui Huang, Jia Yang, Ziyu Tan, Libo Hui, Yue Liu, Hang Pan, Yue Qu, Zhaofeng Chen, Liwen Tan, Lijuan Yu, Hongcheng Shi, Li Huo, Yanjun Zhang, Xin Tang, Shaoxiang Zhang, Changjian Liu
In recent years, there has been increasing demand for personalized anatomy modelling for medical and industrial applications, such as ergonomics device development, clinical radiological exposure simulation, biomechanics analysis, and 3D animation character design. In this study, we constructed deformable torso phantoms that can be deformed to match the personal anatomy of Chinese male and female adults. The phantoms were created based on a training set of 79 trunk computed tomography (CT) images (41 males and 38 females) from normal Chinese subjects...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663038/-relevance-of-spinal-navigation-in-reconstructive-surgery-of-the-cervical-spine
#20
REVIEW
R Kothe, M Richter
BACKGROUND: Spinal navigation has made significant advances in the last two decades. After initial experiences with pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar spine, technological improvements have resulted in their increased application in the cervical spine. Instrumentation techniques like cervical pedicle screws, lateral mass screws in C1 and transarticular screws C1/C2 have become standard due to the application of image guidance. TECHNIQUE: Different navigation techniques can be distinguished based on the type of imaging...
April 16, 2018: Der Orthopäde
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