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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866686/size-loading-efficiency-and-cytotoxicity-of-albumin-loaded-chitosan-nanoparticles-an-artificial-neural-networks-study
#1
Hadi Baharifar, Amir Amani
When designing nanoparticles for drug delivery, many variables such as size, loading efficiency, and cytotoxicity should be considered. Usually, smaller particles are preferred in drug delivery because of longer blood circulation time and their ability to escape from immune system, whereas smaller nanoparticles often show increased toxicity. Determination of parameters which affect size of particles and factors such as loading efficiency and cytotoxicity could be very helpful in designing drug delivery systems...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610414/modeling-reactivity-to-biological-macromolecules-with-a-deep-multitask-network
#2
Tyler B Hughes, Na Le Dang, Grover P Miller, S Joshua Swamidass
Most small-molecule drug candidates fail before entering the market, frequently because of unexpected toxicity. Often, toxicity is detected only late in drug development, because many types of toxicities, especially idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (IADRs), are particularly hard to predict and detect. Moreover, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most frequent reason drugs are withdrawn from the market and causes 50% of acute liver failure cases in the United States. A common mechanism often underlies many types of drug toxicities, including both DILI and IADRs...
August 24, 2016: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440185/pet-radiopharmaceuticals-for-personalized-medicine
#3
Sushil K Sharma
Recent advances in the self-shielded cyclotrons, improved targets, video-monitored hot cells design, and automated PET radiopharmaceutical (RPs) synthesis modules, utilizing computer-controlled graphic user interphase (GUI) has revolutionized PET molecular imaging technology for basic biomedical research and theranostics to accomplish the ultimate goal of evidence-based personalized medicine. Particularly, [18F]HX4: (3-[18F]fluoro-2-(4-((2-nitro-1Himidazol-1-yl)methyl)-1H-1,2,3,-triazol-1-yl)-propan-1-ol), 18F-FAZA: 1-(5-[18F]Fluoro-5-deoxy-α-D-arabinofuranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole, and 18F-FMSIO: 18F-Ffluoromisonidazole to assess tumor hypoxia, [18F]FB-VAD-FMK: [18F]4-fluorobenzylcarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone to determine in vivo apoptosis, 64Cu-PTSM: 64Cu-Pyrualdehyde Bis-N-Methylthiosemicarbazone for brain and myocardial perfusion imaging, and 68Ga-DOTATOC: 68Ga-DOTAD-Phy1-Tyr3-octreotide and 68Ga-DOTANOC: 68Ga-(1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid)-1-NaI3-octreotide for neuroendocrine and neural crest tumors have demonstrated great promise in personalized theranostics...
July 19, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271280/bisphenol-a-represses-dopaminergic-neuron-differentiation-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-through-downregulating-the-expression-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1
#4
Boxian Huang, Song Ning, Qinjing Zhang, Aiqin Chen, Chunyan Jiang, Yugui Cui, Jian Hu, Hong Li, Guoping Fan, Lianju Qin, Jiayin Liu
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous compound emerging as a possible toxicant during embryonic development. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) promises a valuable model for evaluating the effects of environmental chemicals on human prenatal development. In our study, 1 μM BPA were applied to hESC-derived embryoid bodies (hEBs) and effects of BPA on neural cell differentiation were investigated. The expression level of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and marker genes for ectoderm, neuron progenitor cells, and dopaminergic (DA) neurons were all repressed upon BPA exposure...
June 7, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27149473/amitriptyline-activates-trka-to-aid-neuronal-growth-and-attenuate-anesthesia-induced-neurodegeneration-in-rat-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#5
Xiaochun Zheng, Feng Chen, Ting Zheng, Fengyi Huang, Jianghu Chen, Wenshao Tu
Tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline (AM) has been shown to exert neurotrophic activity on neurons. We thus explored whether AM may aid the neuronal development and protect anesthesia-induced neuro-injury in young spinal cord dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.The DRG explants were prepared from 1-day-old rats. The effect of AM on aiding DRG neural development was examined by immunohistochemistry at dose-dependent manner. AM-induced changes in gene and protein expressions, and also phosphorylation states of tyrosine kinases receptor A (TrkA) and B (TrkB) in DRG, were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141629/-development-of-researches-on-scalp-acupuncture-for-ischemic-stroke
#6
REVIEW
Liang Tian, Jin-hai Wang, Run-jie Sun, Xing-hua Zhang, Bo Yuan, Xiao-zheng Du
Ischemic stroke is one of the commonly met diseases in clinical practice nowadays. Acupuncture therapy is widly used in the treatment of sequela of ischemic stroke in China and its mechanisms have been extensively studied in recen years. In the present paper, the authors focus on the development of studies on the mechanism of scalp acupuncture therapy in the treatment of ischemic stroke. Results indicate that scalp acupuncture intervention can 1) improve cerebral blood circulation to promote regional energy metabolism, 2) up-regulate expression of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), etc...
February 2016: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130034/iron-sulfur-cluster-damage-by-the-superoxide-radical-in-neural-tissues-of-the-sod1-g93a-als-rat-model
#7
Ana Popović-Bijelić, Miloš Mojović, Stefan Stamenković, Miloš Jovanović, Vesna Selaković, Pavle Andjus, Goran Bačić
Extensive clinical investigations, in hand with biochemical and biophysical research, have associated brain iron accumulation with the pathogenesis of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease. The origin of iron is still not identified, but it is proposed that it forms redox active complexes that can participate in the Fenton reaction generating the toxic hydroxyl radical. In this paper, the state of iron in the neural tissues isolated from SOD1(G93A) transgenic rats was investigated using low temperature EPR spectroscopy and is compared with that of nontransgenic (NTg) littermates...
July 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27108875/defining-potential-roles-of-pb-2-in-neurotoxicity-from-a-calciomics-approach
#8
Rakshya Gorkhali, Kenneth Huang, Michael Kirberger, Jenny J Yang
Metal ions play crucial roles in numerous biological processes, facilitating biochemical reactions by binding to various proteins. An increasing body of evidence suggests that neurotoxicity associated with exposure to nonessential metals (e.g., Pb(2+)) involves disruption of synaptic activity, and these observed effects are associated with the ability of Pb(2+) to interfere with Zn(2+) and Ca(2+)-dependent functions. However, the molecular mechanism behind Pb(2+) toxicity remains a topic of debate. In this review, we first discuss potential neuronal Ca(2+) binding protein (CaBP) targets for Pb(2+) such as calmodulin (CaM), synaptotagmin, neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1), N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and family C of G-protein coupled receptors (cGPCRs), and their involvement in Ca(2+)-signalling pathways...
June 1, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27108742/the-antioxidative-property-of-melatonin-against-brain-ischemia
#9
Irene Paterniti, Marika Cordaro, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
INTRODUCTION: This review briefly summarizes some of the large amount of data documenting the ability of melatonin to limit molecular and organ tissue damage in neural ischemia-reperfusion injury (stroke), where free radicals are generally considered as being responsible for much of the resulting tissue destruction. AREA COVERED: Melatonin actions that have been identified include its ability to directly neutralize a number of toxic reactants and stimulate antioxidative enzymes...
July 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099087/central-nervous-system-oxygen-toxicity-and-hyperbaric-oxygen-seizures
#10
Edward P Manning
INTRODUCTION: The use of hyperbaric oxygen (O2) as a therapeutic agent carries with it the risk of central nervous system (CNS) O2 toxicity. METHODS: To further the understanding of this risk and the nature of its molecular mechanism, a review was conducted on the literature from various fields. RESULTS: Numerous physiological changes are produced by increased partial pressures of oxygen (Po2), which may ultimately result in CNS O2 toxicity...
May 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26935530/neuroprotective-effects-of-ginsenosides-on-neural-progenitor-cells-against-oxidative-injury
#11
Jun Ye, Jian-Ping Yao, Xu Wang, Minying Zheng, Peng Li, Chengwei He, Jian-Bo Wan, Xiaoli Yao, Huanxing Su
Ginsenosides exhibit various neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. However, which ginsenoside provides optimal effects for the treatment of neurological disorders as a potent antioxidant remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated and compared the neuroprotective effects of the Rb1, Rd, Rg1 and Re ginsenosides on neural progenitor cells (NPCs) following tert-Butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury. Primary rat embryonic cortical NPCs were prepared from E14.5 embryos of Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26582458/the-effects-of-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-on-the-development-and-function-of-the-blood-brain-barrier
#12
Wataru Miyazaki, Yuki Fujiwara, Takahiko Katoh
Prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals such as dioxins is known to have adverse effects on the developing central nervous system (CNS) in mammals. Because the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB) is immature, dioxins are thought to exert their toxic effects on the CNS by crossing the BBB and acting on neural cells directly. However, little is known whether dioxins alter the BBB. In this study, to investigate the effects of dioxins on BBB function, we exposed an in vitro BBB system comprising rat endothelial cells, astrocytes, and pericytes to the toxicant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) either before or after BBB formation...
January 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26167274/transgenic-supplementation-of-sirt1-fails-to-alleviate-acute-loss-of-nigrostriatal-dopamine-neurons-and-gliosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-mptp-induced-parkinsonism
#13
Yasuko Kitao, Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Ryosuke Takahashi, Makoto Kinoshita, Osamu Hori
Background Dopamine (DA) neuron-selective uptake and toxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) causes parkinsonism in humans. Loss of DA neurons via mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress is reproduced by systemic injection of MPTP in animals, which serves as models of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to test whether pan-neural supplementation of the longevity-related, pleiotropic deacetylase SIRT1, which confers partial tolerance to at least three models of stroke and neurodegeneration, could also alleviate MPTP-induced acute pathological changes in nigrostriatal DA neurons and neighboring glia...
2015: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26032300/joint-toxicity-of-lead-chromium-cobalt-and-nickel-to-photobacterium-phosphoreum-at-no-observed-effect-concentration
#14
Yaling Zeng, Lan Wang, Long Jiang, Xiaoyu Cai, Yu Li
Joint toxicity of Pb2+, Cr3+, Co2+ and Ni2+ toward Photobacterium phosphoreum (Ph. phosphoreum) at the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was determined through a factorial experiment. A neural network model was designed according to experimental results and employed for toxicity prediction of unary, binary, ternary and quaternary combinations. The mechanism and trends of joint toxicity were interpreted by quantitative structure-activity relationship, Michaelis-Menten kinetic model, and concentration addition (CA) theory...
August 2015: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25944626/sialic-acid-hydroxamate-a-potential-antioxidant-and-inhibitor-of-metal-induced-%C3%AE-amyloid-aggregates
#15
Rohan Yadav, Raghavendra Vasudeva Murthy, Raghavendra Kikkeri
Current methods for Alzheimer's treatment require a three-component system: metal chelators, antioxidants, and amyloid β (Aβ)-peptide-binding scaffolds. We report sialic acid (Sia) hydroxamate as a potential radical scavenger and metal chelator to inhibit Aβ aggregation. A cell viability assay revealed that Sia hydroxamate can protect HeLa and glioblastoma (LN229) cells from oxidative damage induced by the Fenton reaction. Sedimentation and turbidity assays showed profound protection of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells from metal-induced Aβ aggregation and neural toxicity...
July 6, 2015: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25850246/-the-antibodies-to-neurohormonal-anti-genes-as-a-criterion-of-early-diagnostic-and-neurointoxication-in-workers-of-chemical-enterprises
#16
G M Bodienkova, R Iu Alekseev
The examination was applied to enterprise workers laboring in conditions of vinyl chloride (79 patients), caustic soda (24 patients) and 10 patients with professional chronic mercury intoxication. The differences are established concerning manifestation of autoimmune reactions of personnel working in conditions of chronic effecting of vinyl chloride distinct of parameters characterizing autoimmune reactions of personnel working under impact of another neuro-toxicants (vapors of metallic mercury). The increasing of auto-antibodies to MAG was detected in healthy personnel and increasing of concentrations of auto-antibodies to protein S-100 and DNA was detected in personnel with initial manifestations of neuro-intoxication...
November 2014: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25825206/gene-expression-profiling-of-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-in-an-adult-toxicity-study-captures-a-variety-of-neurodevelopmental-dysfunctions-in-rat-models-of-hypothyroidism
#17
Ayako Shiraki, Fumiyo Saito, Hirotoshi Akane, Yumi Akahori, Nobuya Imatanaka, Megu Itahashi, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
We previously found that developmental hypothyroidism changed the expression of genes in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus, a brain region where adult neurogenesis is known to occur. In the present study, we performed brain region-specific global gene expression profiling in an adult rat hypothyroidism model to see if it reflected the developmental neurotoxicity we saw in the developmental hypothyroidism model. Starting when male rats were 5 weeks old, we administered 6-propyl-2-thiouracil at a doses of 0, 0...
January 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25790514/application-of-artificial-neural-networks-for-prediction-of-photocatalytic-reactor
#18
Mohammad Delnavaz
In this paper, forecasting of kinetic constant and efficiency of photocatalytic process of TiO2 nano powder immobilized on light expanded clay aggregates (LECA) was investigated. Synthetic phenolic wastewater, which is toxic and not easily biodegradable, was selected as the pollutant. The efficiency of the process in various operation conditions, including initial phenol concentration, pH, TiO2 concentration, retention time, and UV lamp intensity, was then measured. The TiO2 nano powder was immobilized on LECA using slurry and sol-gel methods...
February 2015: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25448288/exposure-to-swainsonine-impairs-adult-neurogenesis-and-spatial-learning-and-memory
#19
Jiutao Wang, Lingzhen Song, Qi Zhang, Wei Zhang, Lei An, Yamei Zhang, Dewen Tong, Baoyu Zhao, Shulin Chen, Shanting Zhao
Swainsonine (SW) is an indolizidine triol plant alkaloid isolated from the species Astragalus, colloquially termed locoweed. Ingestion induces severe neurological symptoms of livestock and wildlife, including ataxia, trembling, exaggerated fright reactions. Toxicity to the central and peripheral nervous system is caused by inhibition of lysosomal a-mannosidase (AMA) and accumulation of intracellular oligosaccharide. However, the effects of SW on adult neurogenesis and cognition have remained unclear. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine the effects of SW on adult neurogenesis and learning as well as memory performance in adult mice...
January 5, 2015: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25085727/potential-neurotoxic-effects-of-polymethylmethacrylate-during-cranioplasty
#20
Stylianos Pikis, Jacob Goldstein, Sergey Spektor
Cranioplasty for the surgical correction of cranial defects is often performed using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), or bone cement. Immediately prior to PMMA application, a liquid monomer form (methylacrylate) and a benzoyl peroxide accelerator are mixed resulting in polymerization, an exothermic reaction during which monomer linking and subsequent formation of solid polymer occur. The potential side effects of residual methylacrylate monomer toxicity and thermal damage of neural tissue during PMMA hardening have been described in various in vitro, animal, and cadaveric studies; however, clinically documented in vivo neurotoxicity in humans attributed to either of the above two mechanisms during PMMA cranioplasty is lacking...
January 2015: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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