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Neural toxic reactions

Zahra Yarjanli, Kamran Ghaedi, Abolghasem Esmaeili, Soheila Rahgozar, Ali Zarrabi
BACKGROUND: In the recent decade, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been proposed for several applications in the central nervous system (CNS), including targeting amyloid beta (Aβ) in the arteries, inhibiting the microglial cells, delivering drugs, and increasing contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Conversely, a notable number of studies have reported the role of iron in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this study has reviewed the recent studies to determine whether IONPs iron can threaten the cellular viability same as iron...
June 26, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: Some quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models have been developed to predict cardiac toxicity of drugs, which have limited predictive power due to based on hERG channel inhibition. The objective of this study was try to develop a QSAR model based on all kinds of cardiac adverse effects, and to predict the potential cardiotoxicity of chemical components in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). METHODS: In this study, the compounds data of all kinds of cardiac adverse reactions were selected as the training set...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Demissew Shenegelegn Mern, Anja Tschugg, Sebastian Hartmann, Claudius Thomé
Inhibition of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, which is often accompanied by painful inflammatory and immunopathological processes, is challenging. Current IVD gene therapeutic approaches are based on adenoviral gene delivery systems, which are limited by immune reactions to their viral proteins. Their applications in IVDs near to sensitive neural structure could provoke toxicity and immunological side-effects with neurological deficits. Self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) vectors, which do not express any viral gene and are not linked with any known disease in humans, are attractive therapeutic gene delivery vectors in degenerative IVDs...
2017: PloS One
Kenneth Voss, Dojin Ryu, Lauren Jackson, Ronald Riley, Janee Gelineau-van Waes
Fumonisins are mycotoxins found in corn. They are toxic to animals and cause cancer in rodents and neural tube defects in LM/Bc mice. Reducing their concentrations in corn-based foods is therefore desirable. Chemical analysis or in vitro bioassays of food extracts might not detect toxic fumonisin reaction products that are unknown or unextractable from food matrices, thus potentially underestimating in vivo toxicity. The effectiveness of two common cooking methods, extrusion and nixtamalization (alkaline cooking), to reduce the toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn grits (extrusion) and whole kernel corn (nixtamalization) was shown by means of rat feeding bioassays using fumonisin-specific kidney effects as indicators of potential toxicity...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi, Zahra Rezvani, Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Haji Shirinzadeh, Alexander M Seifalian, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Mojgan Razaghpour, Abbas Alibakhshi, Abolfazl Yazdanpanah, Maryam Salimi, Masoud Mozafari, Aleksandra M Urbanska, Rui L Reis, Subhas C Kundu, Mazaher Gholipourmalekabadi
In this study, we present a novel chitosan-intercalated montmorillonite/poly(vinyl alcohol) (OMMT/PVA) nanofibrous mesh as a microenvironment for guiding differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) toward neuronlike cells. The OMMT was prepared through ion exchange reaction between the montmorillonite (MMT) and chitosan. The PVA solutions containing various concentrations of OMMT were electrospun to form 3D OMMT-PVA nanofibrous meshes. The biomechanical and biological characteristics of the nanofibrous meshes were evaluated by ATR-FTIR, XRD, SEM, MTT, and LDH specific activity, contact angle, and DAPI staining...
March 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Christina Boull, Kristen Hook, Christopher Moertel, Sheilagh Maguiness
BACKGROUND: The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a target for the treatment of a growing number of malignancies. The cutaneous reactions to medications that inhibit this pathway have not been described in children. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was completed for eight children with neural tumors treated with the MAPK extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor trametinib. All children were evaluated by a pediatric dermatologist with documentation of cutaneous findings...
January 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
Hadi Baharifar, Amir Amani
When designing nanoparticles for drug delivery, many variables such as size, loading efficiency, and cytotoxicity should be considered. Usually, smaller particles are preferred in drug delivery because of longer blood circulation time and their ability to escape from immune system, whereas smaller nanoparticles often show increased toxicity. Determination of parameters which affect size of particles and factors such as loading efficiency and cytotoxicity could be very helpful in designing drug delivery systems...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Tyler B Hughes, Na Le Dang, Grover P Miller, S Joshua Swamidass
Most small-molecule drug candidates fail before entering the market, frequently because of unexpected toxicity. Often, toxicity is detected only late in drug development, because many types of toxicities, especially idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (IADRs), are particularly hard to predict and detect. Moreover, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most frequent reason drugs are withdrawn from the market and causes 50% of acute liver failure cases in the United States. A common mechanism often underlies many types of drug toxicities, including both DILI and IADRs...
August 24, 2016: ACS Central Science
Sushil Sharma
Recent advances in the self-shielded cyclotrons, improved targets, videomonitored hot cells design, and automated PET radiopharmaceutical (RPs) synthesis modules, utilizing computer-controlled graphic user interphase (GUI) has revolutionized PET molecular imaging technology for basic biomedical research and theranostics to accomplish the ultimate goal of evidence-based personalized medicine. Particularly, [18F]HX4: (3-[18F]fluoro-2-(4-((2-nitro-1Himidazol-1-yl)methyl)-1H-1,2,3,-triazol-1- yl)-propan-1-ol), 18F-FAZA: 1-(5-[18F]Fluoro-5-deoxy-α-D-arabinofuranosyl)-2- nitroimidazole, and 18F-FMSIO: 18F-Ffluoromisonidazole to assess tumor hypoxia, [18F]FB-VAD-FMK: [18F]4-fluorobenzylcarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone to determine in vivo apoptosis, 64Cu-PTSM: 64Cu-Pyrualdehyde Bis-NMethylthiosemicarbazone for brain and myocardial perfusion imaging, and 68Ga-DOTATOC: 68Ga- DOTAD-Phy1-Tyr3-octreotide and 68Ga-DOTANOC: 68Ga-(1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane- N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid)-1-NaI3-octreotide for neuroendocrine and neural crest tumors have demonstrated great promise in personalized theranostics...
2016: Current Drug Targets
Boxian Huang, Song Ning, Qinjing Zhang, Aiqin Chen, Chunyan Jiang, Yugui Cui, Jian Hu, Hong Li, Guoping Fan, Lianju Qin, Jiayin Liu
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous compound emerging as a possible toxicant during embryonic development. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) promises a valuable model for evaluating the effects of environmental chemicals on human prenatal development. In our study, 1 μM BPA were applied to hESC-derived embryoid bodies (hEBs) and effects of BPA on neural cell differentiation were investigated. The expression level of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and marker genes for ectoderm, neuron progenitor cells, and dopaminergic (DA) neurons were all repressed upon BPA exposure...
July 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Xiaochun Zheng, Feng Chen, Ting Zheng, Fengyi Huang, Jianghu Chen, Wenshao Tu
Tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline (AM) has been shown to exert neurotrophic activity on neurons. We thus explored whether AM may aid the neuronal development and protect anesthesia-induced neuro-injury in young spinal cord dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.The DRG explants were prepared from 1-day-old rats. The effect of AM on aiding DRG neural development was examined by immunohistochemistry at dose-dependent manner. AM-induced changes in gene and protein expressions, and also phosphorylation states of tyrosine kinases receptor A (TrkA) and B (TrkB) in DRG, were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Liang Tian, Jin-hai Wang, Run-jie Sun, Xing-hua Zhang, Bo Yuan, Xiao-zheng Du
Ischemic stroke is one of the commonly met diseases in clinical practice nowadays. Acupuncture therapy is widly used in the treatment of sequela of ischemic stroke in China and its mechanisms have been extensively studied in recen years. In the present paper, the authors focus on the development of studies on the mechanism of scalp acupuncture therapy in the treatment of ischemic stroke. Results indicate that scalp acupuncture intervention can 1) improve cerebral blood circulation to promote regional energy metabolism, 2) up-regulate expression of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), etc...
February 2016: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Ana Popović-Bijelić, Miloš Mojović, Stefan Stamenković, Miloš Jovanović, Vesna Selaković, Pavle Andjus, Goran Bačić
Extensive clinical investigations, in hand with biochemical and biophysical research, have associated brain iron accumulation with the pathogenesis of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease. The origin of iron is still not identified, but it is proposed that it forms redox active complexes that can participate in the Fenton reaction generating the toxic hydroxyl radical. In this paper, the state of iron in the neural tissues isolated from SOD1(G93A) transgenic rats was investigated using low temperature EPR spectroscopy and is compared with that of nontransgenic (NTg) littermates...
July 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Rakshya Gorkhali, Kenneth Huang, Michael Kirberger, Jenny J Yang
Metal ions play crucial roles in numerous biological processes, facilitating biochemical reactions by binding to various proteins. An increasing body of evidence suggests that neurotoxicity associated with exposure to nonessential metals (e.g., Pb(2+)) involves disruption of synaptic activity, and these observed effects are associated with the ability of Pb(2+) to interfere with Zn(2+) and Ca(2+)-dependent functions. However, the molecular mechanism behind Pb(2+) toxicity remains a topic of debate. In this review, we first discuss potential neuronal Ca(2+) binding protein (CaBP) targets for Pb(2+) such as calmodulin (CaM), synaptotagmin, neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1), N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and family C of G-protein coupled receptors (cGPCRs), and their involvement in Ca(2+)-signalling pathways...
June 1, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Irene Paterniti, Marika Cordaro, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
INTRODUCTION: This review briefly summarizes some of the large amount of data documenting the ability of melatonin to limit molecular and organ tissue damage in neural ischemia-reperfusion injury (stroke), where free radicals are generally considered as being responsible for much of the resulting tissue destruction. AREA COVERED: Melatonin actions that have been identified include its ability to directly neutralize a number of toxic reactants and stimulate antioxidative enzymes...
July 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Edward P Manning
INTRODUCTION: The use of hyperbaric oxygen (O2) as a therapeutic agent carries with it the risk of central nervous system (CNS) O2 toxicity. METHODS: To further the understanding of this risk and the nature of its molecular mechanism, a review was conducted on the literature from various fields. RESULTS: Numerous physiological changes are produced by increased partial pressures of oxygen (Po2), which may ultimately result in CNS O2 toxicity...
May 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Jun Ye, Jian-Ping Yao, Xu Wang, Minying Zheng, Peng Li, Chengwei He, Jian-Bo Wan, Xiaoli Yao, Huanxing Su
Ginsenosides exhibit various neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. However, which ginsenoside provides optimal effects for the treatment of neurological disorders as a potent antioxidant remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated and compared the neuroprotective effects of the Rb1, Rd, Rg1 and Re ginsenosides on neural progenitor cells (NPCs) following tert-Butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury. Primary rat embryonic cortical NPCs were prepared from E14.5 embryos of Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Wataru Miyazaki, Yuki Fujiwara, Takahiko Katoh
Prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals such as dioxins is known to have adverse effects on the developing central nervous system (CNS) in mammals. Because the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB) is immature, dioxins are thought to exert their toxic effects on the CNS by crossing the BBB and acting on neural cells directly. However, little is known whether dioxins alter the BBB. In this study, to investigate the effects of dioxins on BBB function, we exposed an in vitro BBB system comprising rat endothelial cells, astrocytes, and pericytes to the toxicant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) either before or after BBB formation...
January 2016: Neurotoxicology
Yasuko Kitao, Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Ryosuke Takahashi, Makoto Kinoshita, Osamu Hori
Background Dopamine (DA) neuron-selective uptake and toxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) causes parkinsonism in humans. Loss of DA neurons via mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress is reproduced by systemic injection of MPTP in animals, which serves as models of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to test whether pan-neural supplementation of the longevity-related, pleiotropic deacetylase SIRT1, which confers partial tolerance to at least three models of stroke and neurodegeneration, could also alleviate MPTP-induced acute pathological changes in nigrostriatal DA neurons and neighboring glia...
2015: F1000Research
Yaling Zeng, Lan Wang, Long Jiang, Xiaoyu Cai, Yu Li
Joint toxicity of Pb2+, Cr3+, Co2+ and Ni2+ toward Photobacterium phosphoreum (Ph. phosphoreum) at the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was determined through a factorial experiment. A neural network model was designed according to experimental results and employed for toxicity prediction of unary, binary, ternary and quaternary combinations. The mechanism and trends of joint toxicity were interpreted by quantitative structure-activity relationship, Michaelis-Menten kinetic model, and concentration addition (CA) theory...
August 2015: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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