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Neural hypoxia

Robert Galinsky, Joanne O Davidson, Justin M Dean, Colin R Green, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
Perinatal encephalopathy remains a major cause of disability, such as cerebral palsy. Therapeutic hypothermia is now well established to partially reduce risk of disability in late preterm/term infants. However, new and complementary therapeutic targets are needed to further improve outcomes. There is increasing evidence that glia play a key role in neural damage after hypoxia-ischemia and infection/inflammation. In this review, we discuss the role of astrocytic gap junction (connexin) hemichannels in the spread of neural injury after hypoxia-ischemia and/or infection/inflammation...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Christine Brütting, Harini Narasimhan, Frank Hoffmann, Malte E Kornhuber, Martin S Staege, Alexander Emmer
Human endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have been found to be associated with different diseases, e.g., multiple sclerosis (MS). Most human ERVs integrated in our genome are not competent to replicate and these sequences are presumably silent. However, transcription of human ERVs can be reactivated, e.g., by hypoxia. Interestingly, MS has been linked to hypoxia since decades. As some patterns of demyelination are similar to white matter ischemia, hypoxic damage is discussed. Therefore, we are interested in the association between hypoxia and ERVs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Z-W Wen, D-S Liang, X-H Cai, J Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of AMPK-mTOR signal pathway in brain injury induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in young rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (3-4 weeks old, weighing 80-100 g) were randomly assigned to four groups: 2-week-CIH group (2IH), 4-week-CIH group (4IH), 2-week-simulated air control group (2AC) and 4-week-simulated air control group (4AC). TUNEL staining was used to detect the cell apoptosis in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortexes, respectively...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Xiaoying Wu, Shengqun Liu, Zhenhua Hu, Guosong Zhu, Gaifang Zheng, Guangzhi Wang
Enriched environment (EE) has been shown to promote neurogenesis and functional recovery after ischemic stroke. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, C57BL/6 mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (60 minutes) followed by reperfusion, after which mice were housed in either standard environment (SE) or EE and allowed to survive for 3, 4, 6 or 10 weeks. Ipsilateral subventricular zone (SVZ) or striatum cells were dissociated from ischemic hemispheric brains of enriched mice at 14 days post-ischemia (dpi) and cultured in vitro...
February 22, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Ernesto Solis, Anum Afzal, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid drug that is used to alleviate acute and chronic pain. However, oxycodone is often abused and, when taken at high doses, can induce powerful CNS depression that manifests in respiratory abnormalities, hypotension, coma, and death. Here, we employed several measurement techniques to examine the effects of intravenous oxycodone at a wide range of doses on various metabolism-related parameters in awake, freely-moving rats. High-speed amperometry was used to assess how oxycodone affects oxygen and glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
February 21, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Hannah G Caldwell, Geoff B Coombs, Michael M Tymko, Daniela Nowak-Flück, Philip N Ainslie
With exposure to acute normobaric hypoxia, global cerebral oxygen delivery is maintained via increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF); therefore, regional and localized changes in oxygen tension may explain neurocognitive impairment. Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the close temporal and regional relationship of CBF to changes in neural activity and may aid in explaining the localized CBF response with cognitive activation. High-altitude related cognitive impairment is likely affected by hypocapnic cerebral vasoconstriction that may influence regional CBF regulation independent of hypoxia...
February 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Xingmiao Chen, Binghua Zhou, Tingting Yan, Hao Wu, Jinghan Feng, Hansen Chen, Chong Gao, Tao Peng, Dan Yang, Jiangang Shen
Hypoxic/ischemic stimulation could mediate growth and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) into mature neurons but its underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Peroxynitrite formation is considered as a crucial pathological process contributing to cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that peroxynitrite at low concentration could function as redox signaling to promote the growth of NSCs under hypoxic/ischemic conditions. Increased NSCs proliferation was accompanied by peroxynitrite production in the rat brains with 1hour of ischemia plus 7 days of reperfusion in vivo...
February 7, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yanqun Chang, Qingqing Deng, Xiaomao Cheng, Xingang Luo, Jing Zhang, Xiaoyuan Tang
RATIONALE: Mild hypoxia conditioning induced by repeated episodes of transient ischemia is a clinically applicable method for protecting the brain against injury after hypoxia-ischemic brain damage. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of repeated mild hypoxia postconditioning on brain damage and long-term neural functional recovery after hypoxia-ischemic brain damage. METHODS: and Results Rats received different protocols of repeated mild hypoxia postconditioning...
February 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Ding-Wei Chen, Hong Wang, Ya-Fang Bao, Kun Xie
Pancreatic cancer exhibits a high mortality rate resulting from metastasis and there is currently no effective treatment strategy. Hypoxia serves an important role in cancer cells, where cellular metabolic rate is high. The underlying mechanisms that trigger hypoxia and the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells remain unknown. Investigation of the importance of hypoxia in the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells for potential, novel treatment strategies is of primary concern. Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay, invasion assay, western blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to investigate invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the expression of Notch1 in MiaPaCa2 cells treated with cobalt II chloride (CoCl2)...
January 26, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Hiroyasu Kamei, Yosuke Yoneyama, Fumihiko Hakuno, Rie Sawada, Toshiaki Shimizu, Cunming Duan, Shin-Ichiro Takahashi
Most animals display retarded growth in adverse conditions; however, upon the removal of unfavorable factors, they often show quick growth restoration, which is known as "catch-up" growth. In zebrafish embryos, hypoxia causes growth arrest but subsequent reoxygenation induces the catch-up growth. Here we report the role of Irs1-mediated insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and the involvement of stem cells in catch-up growth in reoxygenated zebrafish embryos. Disturbed irs1 expression attenuated IIS resulting in greater growth inhibition in catch-up growth than in normal growth, and forced IIS-activation restored the catch-up growth...
January 30, 2018: Endocrinology
Solam Lee, Hana Bak, Sung Ku Ahn
A neurofibroma is a common cutaneous benign tumor of neural origin. Various histological variants have been reported. Recently, sporadic reports of fatty variants have been reported but their clinicopathological features have not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to examine liponeurofibroma, and to report the distinctive clinicopathological features and histogenesis in comparison with the classic form. A retrospective study was performed on 130 cases. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for S100, factor VIIIa, perilipin and vascular endothelial growth factor...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
Slaven Crnkovic, Leigh M Marsh, Elie El Agha, Robert Voswinckel, Bahil Ghanim, Walter Klepetko, Elvira Stacher-Priehse, Horst Olschewski, Wilhelm Bloch, Saverio Bellusci, Andrea Olschewski, Grazyna Kwapiszewska
Pulmonary vascular remodeling is the main pathological hallmark of pulmonary hypertension disease. We undertook a comprehensive and multilevel approach to investigate the origin of smooth muscle actin-expressing cells in remodeled vessels. Transgenic mice that allow for specific, inducible and permanent labeling of endothelial (Cdh5-tdTomato), smooth muscle (Acta2-, Myh11-tdTomato), pericyte (Cspg4-tdTomato) and fibroblast (Pdgfra-tdTomato) lineages were used to delineate the cellular origins of pulmonary vascular remodeling...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Nanna Dreyer-Andersen, Ana Sofia Almeida, Pia Jensen, Morad Kamand, Justyna Okarmus, Tine Rosenberg, Stig Düring Friis, Alberto Martínez Serrano, Morten Blaabjerg, Bjarne Winther Kristensen, Troels Skrydstrup, Jan Bert Gramsbergen, Helena L A Vieira, Morten Meyer
Exploratory studies using human fetal tissue have suggested that intrastriatal transplantation of dopaminergic neurons may become a future treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the use of human fetal tissue is compromised by ethical, regulatory and practical concerns. Human stem cells constitute an alternative source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but efficient protocols for controlled dopaminergic differentiation need to be developed. Short-term, low-level carbon monoxide (CO) exposure has been shown to affect signaling in several tissues, resulting in both protection and generation of reactive oxygen species...
2018: PloS One
Verónica Sobrino, Patricia González-Rodríguez, Valentina Annese, José López-Barneo, Ricardo Pardal
Unlike other neural peripheral organs, the adult carotid body (CB) has a remarkable structural plasticity, as it grows during acclimatization to hypoxia. The CB contains neural stem cells that can differentiate into oxygen-sensitive glomus cells. However, an extended view is that, unlike other catecholaminergic cells of the same lineage (sympathetic neurons or chromaffin cells), glomus cells can divide and thus contribute to CB hypertrophy. Here, we show that O2-sensitive mature glomus cells are post-mitotic...
January 15, 2018: EMBO Reports
Joana F Sacramento, Daniel J Chew, Bernardete F Melo, Matteo Donegá, Wesley Dopson, Maria P Guarino, Alison Robinson, Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Sonal Patel, Bradley J Holinski, Nishan Ramnarain, Victor Pikov, Kristoffer Famm, Silvia V Conde
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A new class of treatments termed bioelectronic medicines are now emerging that aim to target individual nerve fibres or specific brain circuits in pathological conditions to repair lost function and reinstate a healthy balance. Carotid sinus nerve (CSN) denervation has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant and glucose-intolerant rats; however, these positive effects from surgery appear to diminish over time and are heavily caveated by the severe adverse effects associated with permanent loss of chemosensory function...
January 14, 2018: Diabetologia
Patricia D B Tiburcio, Séan B Lyne, L Eric Huang
Hypoxia has long been recognized as a driving force of tumor progression and therapeutic resistance, and the transcription factor HIF-1α is believed to play a crucial role in these processes. Here we describe an efficient RCAS/Nes-TVA system that allows for in vivo manipulation of HIF-1α expression in the mouse neural progenitor cells. Simple production of the recombinant avian virus RCAS enables quick delivery of gene of interest through injection into the neural progenitors of transgenic mice expressing the viral cognate receptor TVA under the nestin promoter...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Robert W Dettman, Derin Birch, Augusta Fernando, John A Kessler, Maria L V Dizon
Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HI) to the neonatal human brain results in myelin loss that, in some children, can manifest as cerebral palsy. Previously, we had found that neuronal overexpression of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) inhibitor noggin during development increased oligodendroglia and improved motor function in an experimental model of HI utilizing unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia. As BMPs are known to negatively regulate oligodendroglial fate specification of neural stem cells and alter differentiation of committed oligodendroglia, BMP signaling is likely an important mechanism leading to myelin loss...
January 12, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Amalia Merelli, Julio Cesar Garcia Rodriguez, Jaume Folch, Marcelo R Regueiro, Antoni Camins, Lazarowski Alberto
Neurodegeneration (NDG) is linked with the progressive loss of neural function with intellectual and/or motor impairment. Several diseases affecting older individuals, including Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, Multiple Sclerosis and many others, are the most relevant disorders associated with NDG. Since other pathologies such as refractory epilepsy, brain infections, or hereditary diseases such as "neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation", also lead to chronic brain inflammation with loss of neural cells, NDG can be said to affect all ages...
January 10, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Qingsong Ye, Yanqing Wu, Jiamin Wu, Shuang Zou, Ali Ahmed Al-Zaazaai, Hongyu Zhang, Hongxue Shi, Ling Xie, Yanlong Liu, Ke Xu, Huacheng He, Fabiao Zhang, Yiming Ji, Yan He, Jian Xiao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) causes severe brain damage and significantly increases neonatal morbidity and mortality. Increasing evidences have verified that stem cell-based therapy has the potential to rescue the ischemic tissue and restore function via secreting growth factors after HI. Here, we had investigated whether intranasal neural stem cells (NSCs) treatment improves the recovery of neonatal HI, and NSCs overexpressing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has a better therapeutic effect for recovery than NSCs treatment only...
December 22, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Genta Ochi, Yuhki Yamada, Kazuki Hyodo, Kazuya Suwabe, Takemune Fukuie, Kyeongho Byun, Ippeita Dan, Hideaki Soya
While accumulating evidence suggests positive effects of exercise on executive function, such effects vary with environment. In particular, exercise in a hypoxic environment (hypobaric or normobaric hypoxia), leading to decreased oxygen supply, may dampen or cancel such effects. Thus, we further explore the relation between the effects of hypoxic exercise on executive function and their underlying neural mechanisms by monitoring changes of cortical activation patterns using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
January 2, 2018: NeuroImage
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