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Neural hypoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906839/endothelin-contributes-to-the-blood-pressure-rise-triggered-by-hypoxia-in-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#1
Christophe Janssen, Atul Pathak, Guido Grassi, Philippe van de Borne
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is strongly correlated with an increased risk of systemic hypertension. However, the link between systemic hypertension and nocturnal apneas remains incompletely understood. Animal studies suggest an implication of the endothelin system. The aim of the present study is to determine if endogenous endothelin plays a role in the increase in blood pressure observed during hypoxic episodes in OSA patients, in addition to peripheral chemoreflex and neural sympathetic activation...
January 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879258/nucleophosmin-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-npm-alk-the-ultimate-oncogene-and-therapeutic-target
#2
Michael T Werner, Chen Zhao, Qian Zhang, Mariusz A Wasik
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase physiologically expressed by fetal neural cells. However, aberrantly expressed ALK is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse malignancies including distinct types of lymphoma, lung carcinoma, and neuroblastoma. The aberrant ALK expression in non-neural cells results from chromosomal translocations that create novel fusion proteins. These protein hybrids are comprised of the proximal part of a partner gene including its promoter region and the distal part of ALK including coding sequence for the entire kinase domain...
November 22, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861919/consequences-of-maternal-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-respiratory-function-in-rat-pups
#3
Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Cécile Baldy, Alexandra Jochmans-Lemoine, Océane Mercier, Olivier Pothier-Piccinin, Tommy Seaborn, Vincent Joseph, Isabelle Marc, Richard Kinkead
Most preterm infants present respiratory instabilities and apneas owing to incomplete development of the neural circuits that control breathing. Because omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) benefit brain development, we hypothesized that n-3 PUFA supplementation (via maternal diet) improves respiratory function in rat pups. Pups received n-3 PUFA supplementation from an enriched diet (13 g kg(-1) of n-3 PUFA) administered to the mother from birth until experiments were performed (postnatal days 10-11)...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857725/blood-micrornas-as-potential-diagnostic-and-prognostic-markers-in-cerebral-ischemic-injury
#4
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
MicroRNAs are a family of small, genome-encoded endogenous RNAs that are transcribed but are not translated into proteins. They serve essential roles in virtually every aspect of brain function, including neurogenesis, neural development, and cellular responses leading to changes in synaptic plasticity. They are also implicated in neurodegeneration and neurological disorders, in responses to hypoxia and ischemia, and in ischemic tolerance induced by ischemic preconditioning. In recent developments, miRNA expression profiling has been examined in stroke, and these studies indicate that miRNAs have emerged as key mediators in ischemic stroke biology...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845038/hypoxia-pretreatment-and-epo-modification-enhance-the-protective-effects-of-msc-on-neuron-like-pc12%C3%A2-cells-in-a-similar-way
#5
Jinli Feng, Wei Wang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) based cell transplantation therapy is proved to be an attractive strategy with great potential for improvement of hypoxia induced neural damage. In the present study, MSCs were co-culture with PC12 to investigate its protective effects against hypoxia pretreatment, and the Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay, MTT and Anexin V staining were performed to analysis the cellular damage or apoptotic. RT-PCR and Western blotting were further used to investigate the underlying mechanism...
November 11, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829948/increased-hematocrit-during-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-therapy-indicates-recovery-of-tubulointerstitial-function-in-diabetic-kidneys
#6
REVIEW
Motoaki Sano, Makoto Takei, Yasuyuki Shiraishi, Yoshihiko Suzuki
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been attracting attention for cardiovascular as well as antidiabetic effects since the results of the Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients (EMPA-REG OUTCOME Trial) were reported. The hematocrit increases during treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors, which have a diuretic effect but do not cause sufficient hemoconcentration to increase the risk of cerebral infarction. Elevation of the hematocrit during SGLT2 inhibitor therapy is presumed to involve enhancement of erythropoiesis in addition to hemoconcentration...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800506/erythropoietin-and-the-use-of-a-transgenic-model-of-erythropoietin-deficient-mice
#7
REVIEW
Aurélien Pichon, Florine Jeton, Raja El Hasnaoui-Saadani, Luciana Hagström, Thierry Launay, Michèle Beaudry, Dominique Marchant, Patricia Quidu, Jose-Luis Macarlupu, Fabrice Favret, Jean-Paul Richalet, Nicolas Voituron
Despite its well-known role in red blood cell production, it is now accepted that erythropoietin (Epo) has other physiological functions. Epo and its receptors are expressed in many tissues, such as the brain and heart. The presence of Epo/Epo receptors in these organs suggests other roles than those usually assigned to this protein. Thus, the aim of this review is to describe the effects of Epo deficiency on adaptation to normoxic and hypoxic environments and to suggest a key role of Epo on main physiological adaptive functions...
2016: Hypoxia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800505/fifteen-days-of-3-200-m-simulated-hypoxia-marginally-regulates-markers-for-protein-synthesis-and-degradation-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#8
Gommaar D'Hulst, Alessandra Ferri, Damien Naslain, Luc Bertrand, Sandrine Horman, Marc Francaux, David J Bishop, Louise Deldicque
Chronic hypoxia leads to muscle atrophy. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are not well defined in vivo. We sought to determine how chronic hypoxia regulates molecular markers of protein synthesis and degradation in human skeletal muscle and whether these regulations were related to the regulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. Eight young male subjects lived in a normobaric hypoxic hotel (FiO2 14.1%, 3,200 m) for 15 days in well-controlled conditions for nutrition and physical activity...
2016: Hypoxia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783860/neural-control-of-the-upper-airway-respiratory-and-state-dependent-mechanisms
#9
Leszek Kubin
Upper airway muscles subserve many essential for survival orofacial behaviors, including their important role as accessory respiratory muscles. In the face of certain predisposition of craniofacial anatomy, both tonic and phasic inspiratory activation of upper airway muscles is necessary to protect the upper airway against collapse. This protective action is adequate during wakefulness, but fails during sleep which results in recurrent episodes of hypopneas and apneas, a condition known as the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA)...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717376/rapid-and-efficient-generation-of-neural-progenitors-from-adult-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-by-hypoxic-preconditioning
#10
Kwan-Long Mung, Yat-Ping Tsui, Evelyn Wing-Yin Tai, Ying-Shing Chan, Daisy Kwok-Yan Shum, Graham Ka-Hon Shea
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are attractive as a source of neural progenitors for ex vivo generation of neurons and glia. Limited numbers of this subpopulation, however, hinder translation into autologous cell-based therapy. Here, we demonstrate rapid and efficient conditioning with hypoxia to enrich for these neural progenitor cells prior to further expansion in neurosphere culture. METHOD: Adherent cultures of BMSCs (rat/human) were subjected to 1 % oxygen for 24 h and then subcultured as neurospheres with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor supplementation...
October 7, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714697/prenatal-systemic-hypoxia-ischemia-and-oligodendroglia-loss-in-cerebellum
#11
Penha Cristina Barradas, Tiago Savignon, Alex C Manhães, Frank Tenório, Alan P da Costa, Marta C Cunha-Rodrigues, Juliana Vaillant
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury is an important cause of death and disabilities. Despite all improvements in neonatal care, the number of children who suffer some kind of injury during birth has remained stable in the last decade. A great number of studies have shown alterations in neural cells and many animal models have been proposed in the last 5 decades. Robinson et al. (2005) proposed an HI model in which the uterine arteries are temporarily clamped on the 18th gestation day. The findings were quite similar to the ones observed in postmortem studies...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688941/long-term-acclimatization-to-high-altitude-hypoxia-modifies-interhemispheric-functional-and-structural-connectivity-in-the-adult-brain
#12
Ji Chen, Jinqiang Li, Qiaoqing Han, Jianzhong Lin, Tianhe Yang, Ziqian Chen, Jiaxing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Structural and functional networks can be reorganized to adjust to environmental pressures and physiologic changes in the adult brain, but such processes remain unclear in prolonged adaptation to high-altitude (HA) hypoxia. This study aimed to characterize the interhemispheric functionally and structurally coupled modifications in the brains of adult HA immigrants. METHODS: We performed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 16 adults who had immigrated to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2300-4400 m) for 2 years and in 16 age-matched sea-level (SL) controls...
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683416/prolyl-4-hydroxylase-2-and-3-co-regulate-murine-erythropoietin-in-brain-pericytes
#13
Andres A Urrutia, Aqeela Afzal, Jacob Nelson, Olena Davidoff, Kenneth W Gross, Volker H Haase
A classic response to systemic hypoxia is the increased production of red blood cells due to hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-mediated induction of erythropoietin (EPO). EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is essential for normal erythropoiesis and is predominantly synthesized by peritubular renal interstitial fibroblast-like cells, which express cellular markers characteristic of neuronal cells and pericytes. To investigate whether the ability to synthesize EPO is a general functional feature of pericytes, we used conditional gene targeting to examine the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) / prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) / HIF axis in cell expressing neural glial antigen 2 (NG2), a known molecular marker of pericytes in multiple organs...
September 28, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661001/astrocyte-produced-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-expands-the-neural-stem-progenitor-pool-following-perinatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#14
Ryan J Felling, Matthew V Covey, Paul Wolujewicz, Mona Batish, Steven W Levison
Brain injuries, such as cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (H-I), induce a regenerative response from the neural stem/progenitors (NSPs) of the subventricular zone (SVZ); however, the mechanisms that regulate this expansion have not yet been fully elucidated. The Notch- Delta-Serrate-Lag2 (DSL) signaling pathway is considered essential for the maintenance of neural stem cells, but it is not known if it is necessary for the expansion of the NSPs subsequent to perinatal H-I injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether this pathway contributes to NSP expansion in the SVZ after H-I and, if so, to establish whether this pathway is directly induced by H-I or regulated by paracrine factors...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651951/influence-of-electromagnetic-fields-on-lead-toxicity-a-study-of-conformational-changes-in-human-blood-proteins
#15
Hadi Ansarihadipour, Mohamadreza Bayatiani
BACKGROUND: Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are associated with oxidative stress, which is in turn associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), anemia, and hypoxia. OBJECTIVES: This study focused on the synergistic effects of lead ions and EMF on oxidative modifications in hemoglobin (Hb) and plasma proteins. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, the blood samples were obtained from age- and sex-matched healthy subjects at Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran...
July 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648352/glucose-transport-meeting-the-metabolic-demands-of-cancer-and-applications-in-glioblastoma-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Collin M Labak, Paul Y Wang, Rishab Arora, Maheedhara R Guda, Swapna Asuthkar, Andrew J Tsung, Kiran K Velpula
GLUT1, and to a lesser extent, GLUT3, appear to be interesting targets in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. The current review aims to give a brief history of the scientific community's understanding of these glucose transporters and to relate their importance to the metabolic changes that occur as a result of cancer. One of the primary changes that occurs in cancer, the Warburg Effect, is characterized by an extreme shift toward glycolysis from the usual reliance on oxidative phosphorylation and is currently being investigated to target the upstream and downstream factors responsible for Warburg-induced changes...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632779/delayed-administration-of-neural-stem-cells-after-hypoxia-ischemia-reduces-sensorimotor-deficits-cerebral-lesion-size-and-neuroinflammation-in-neonatal-mice
#17
Luca Braccioli, Cobi J Heijnen, Paul J Coffer, Cora H Nijboer
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy causes mortality and severe morbidity in neonates. Treatments with a therapeutic window >6 h are currently not available. Here, we explored whether delayed transplantation of allogenic neural stem cells (NSCs) at 10 d after HI could be a tool to repair HI brain injury and improve behavioral impairments. METHODS: HI was induced in 9-d-old mice. Animals received NSCs or vehicle intracranially in the hippocampus at 10 d post-HI...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632778/an-in-vivo-study-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-signaling-in-ginsenoside-rg1-mediated-brain-repair-after-hypoxia-ischemia-brain-injury
#18
Binzhi Tang, Dejian Wang, Maojun Li, Qing Wu, Qian Yang, Wei Shi, Changhui Chen
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia/ischemia (HI) brain injury is a common central nervous system insult in newborns. Studies have demonstrated bioactivity of ginsenoside Rg1 in increasing neural viability and promoting angiogenesis. However, there are few reports on roles of Rg1 in brain repair of neonatal HI, and the mechanisms involved are unclear. METHODS: a neonatal HI model was established by a modified Rice-Vannucci model (RVM) and pups received ginsenoside Rg1 or monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside (GM1) treatment...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627796/hypoxia-enhances-differentiation-of-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells-to-cardiac-muscle-cells
#19
Kyoumi Shirai, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Aiko Yamazaki, Natsuko Tohgi, Ryoichi Aki, Sumiyuki Mii, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
We have previously demonstrated that the neural stem-cell marker nestin is expressed in hair follicle stem cells located in the bulge area which are termed hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. HAP stem cells from mouse and human could form spheres in culture, termed hair spheres, which are keratin 15-negative and CD34-positive and could differentiate to neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. Subsequently, we demonstrated that nestin-expressing stem cells could effect nerve and spinal cord regeneration in mouse models...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616300/neuroprotective-effects-of-hypothermia-in-inflammatory-sensitized-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#20
Mathilde Chevin, Clémence Guiraut, Caroline Maurice-Gelinas, Jessica Deslauriers, Sylvain Grignon, Guillaume Sébire
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent introduction of hypothermia as a mandatory standard of care, the incidence of neonatal encephalopathy in full-term newborns and its devastating neuro-behavioral outcomes continues to be a major individual, familial and social issue. Neonatal encephalopathy is mainly due to the compounding and interacting effects of hypoxia-ischemia and inflammation resulting from placental and other perinatal infections. It is unclear why hypothermia is effective in alleviating neonatal encephalopathy in some, but not all, full-term newborns...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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