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Neural hypoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775678/synaptic-transmission-and-excitability-during-hypoxia-with-inflammation-and-reoxygenation-in-hippocampal-ca1-neurons
#1
Yoon-Sil Yang, Sook Jin Son, Joon Ho Choi, Jong-Cheol Rah
Although a number of experimental and clinical studies have shown that hypoxia typically accompanies acute inflammatory responses, the combinatorial effect of the two insults on basic neural function has not been thoroughly investigated. Previous studies have predominantly suggested that hypoxia reduces network activity; however, several studies suggest the opposite effect. Of note, inflammation is known to increase neural activity. In the current study, we examined the effects of limited oxygen in combination with an inflammatory stimulus, as well as the effects of reoxygenation, on synaptic transmission and excitability...
May 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775479/acute-intermittent-hypoxia-and-rehabilitative-training-following-cervical-spinal-injury-alters-neuronal-hypoxia-and-plasticity-associated-protein-expression
#2
Atiq Hassan, Breanna M Arnold, Sally Caine, Behzad M Toosi, Valerie M K Verge, Gillian D Muir
One of the most promising approaches to improve recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the augmentation of spontaneously occurring plasticity in uninjured neural pathways. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH, brief exposures to reduced O2 levels alternating with normal O2 levels) initiates plasticity in respiratory systems and has been shown to improve recovery in respiratory and non-respiratory spinal systems after SCI in experimental animals and humans. Although the mechanism by which AIH elicits its effects after SCI are not well understood, AIH is known to alter protein expression in spinal neurons in uninjured animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774668/varicocele-and-testicular-pain-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Sunghyun Paick, Woo Suk Choi
Varicocele is the dilatation of the scrotal portion of pampiniform plexus and the internal spermatic venous system. About 15% of men suffer from scrotal varicocele and 2% to 10% of them complain of pain. The probable mechanisms for pain include compression of the surrounding neural fibers by the dilated venous complex, elevated testicular temperature, increased venous pressure, hypoxia, oxidative stress, hormonal imbalances, and the reflux of toxic metabolites of adrenal or renal origin. Testicular pain associated with varicoceles is typically described as a dull, aching, or throbbing pain in the testicle, scrotum, or groin; rarely, it can be acute, sharp, or stabbing...
May 16, 2018: World Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772556/perinatal-brain-injury-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-approaches
#4
Joanne O Davidson, Justin M Dean, Mhoyra Fraser, Guido Wassink, Ted C Andelius, Simerdeep K Dhillon, Laura Bennet, Alistair Jan Gunn
Brain damage resulting from perinatal hypoxia-ischemia evolves slowly over time. While a small number of brain cells may die during a sufficiently profound period of hypoxia-ischemia, many will show initial recovery during a "latent" phase characterized by actively suppressed neural metabolism and activity. Critically, this transient recovery may be followed after ~6 hours by a phase of secondary deterioration, with delayed seizures, failure of mitochondrial function, cytotoxic edema, and bulk cell death over ~72 hours...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768254/neuroprotection-against-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors-and-bdnf-trkb-pathway
#5
Shiying Sheng, Jingzhong Huang, Yi Ren, Feng Zhi, Xuansong Tian, Guoqiang Wen, Guanghong Ding, Terry C Xia, Fei Hua, Ying Xia
The delta-opioid receptor (DOR) is one of three classic opioid receptors in the opioid system. It was traditionally thought to be primarily involved in modulating the transmission of messages along pain signaling pathway. Although there were scattered studies on its other neural functions, inconsistent results and contradicting conclusions were found in past literatures, especially in terms of DOR's role in a hypoxic/ischemic brain. Taking inspiration from the finding that the turtle brain exhibits a higher DOR density and greater tolerance to hypoxic/ischemic insult than the mammalian brain, we clarified DOR's specific role in the brain against hypoxic/ischemic injury and reconciled previous controversies in this aspect...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763928/identification-and-verification-of-candidate-genes-regulating-neural-stem-cells-behavior-under-hypoxia
#6
Zhongju Shi, Zhijian Wei, Jiahe Li, Shiyang Yuan, Bin Pan, Fujiang Cao, Hengxing Zhou, Yan Zhang, Yao Wang, Shiwei Sun, Xiaohong Kong, Shiqing Feng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in a hypoxic environment, and hypoxia plays an important role in their development and differentiation. This study aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms by which hypoxia affects NSC behavior. METHODS: In the current study, we downloaded the gene expression dataset GSE68572 and identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by analyzing high-throughput gene expression in hypoxic and normoxic NSCs. Subsequently, we analyzed these data using a combined bioinformatics approach and predicted the microRNAs (miRNAs) targeting the key gene using miRNA databases...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751028/role-of-c1-neurons-in-anti-inflammatory-reflex-mediation-between-afferents-and-efferents
#7
REVIEW
Chikara Abe, Tsuyoshi Inoue
Neuroimmune communication, the connection between the autonomic regulatory pathway and immune cells, has been implicated in the regulation of immune function and inflammation. The role of afferents (vagal afferent and somatic sensory nerves) and efferents (autonomic nervous and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems) in the inflammatory reflex has been well studied; however, the central pathway remains unknown. C1 neurons include both catecholaminergic and glutamatergic neurons, which are located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720941/neonatal-seizure-models-to-study-epileptogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Yuka Kasahara, Yuji Ikegaya, Ryuta Koyama
Current therapeutic strategies for epilepsy include anti-epileptic drugs and surgical treatments that are mainly focused on the suppression of existing seizures rather than the occurrence of the first spontaneous seizure. These symptomatic treatments help a certain proportion of patients, but these strategies are not intended to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the primary process of epilepsy development, i.e., epileptogenesis. Epileptogenic changes include reorganization of neural and glial circuits, resulting in the formation of an epileptogenic focus...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715544/semantic-memory-in-developmental-amnesia
#9
REVIEW
Rachael L Elward, Faraneh Vargha-Khadem
Patients with developmental amnesia resulting from bilateral hippocampal atrophy associated with neonatal hypoxia-ischaemia typically show relatively preserved semantic memory and factual knowledge about the natural world despite severe impairments in episodic memory. Understanding the neural and mnemonic processes that enable this context-free semantic knowledge to be acquired throughout development without the support of the contextualised episodic memory system is a serious challenge. This review describes the clinical presentation of patients with developmental amnesia, contrasts its features with those reported for adult-onset hippocampal amnesia, and analyses the effects of variables that influence the learning of new semantic information...
April 28, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715442/hydrogen-peroxide-extracellular-concentration-in-the-ventrolateral-medulla-and-its-increase-in-response-to-hypoxia-in-vitro-possible-role-of-microglia
#10
Pardo-Peña Kenia, Lorea-Hernández Jonathan Julio, Camacho-Hernández Neira Polet, Ordaz Benito, Villasana-Salazar Benjamín, Morales-Villagrán Alberto, Fernando Peña-Ortega
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is a messenger involved in both damaging neuroinflammatory responses and physiological cell communication. The ventrolateral medulla, which regulates several vital functions including breathing and blood pressure, is highly influenced by hydrogen peroxide, whose extracellular levels could be determined by hypoxia and microglial activity, both of which modulate ventrolateral medulla function. Therefore, in this study we aimed to test whether different patterns of hypoxia and/or putative microglial modulators change extracellular hydrogen peroxide in the ventrolateral medulla by using an enzymatic reactor online sensing procedure specifically designed for this purpose...
April 28, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696372/roles-of-autophagy-in-controlling-stem-cell-identity-a-perspective-of-self-renewal-and-differentiation
#11
REVIEW
Areechun Sotthibundhu, Wilasinee Promjuntuek, Min Liu, Sanbing Shen, Parinya Noisa
Autophagy is crucial for the removal of dysfunctional organelles and protein aggregates and for maintaining stem cell homeostasis, which includes self-renewal, cell differentiation and somatic reprogramming. Loss of self-renewal capacity and pluripotency is a major obstacle to stem cell-based therapies. It has been reported that autophagy regulates stem cells under biological stimuli, starvation, hypoxia, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular senescence. On the one hand, autophagy is shown to play roles in self-renewal by co-function with the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to promote pluripotency-associated proteins (NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2) in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)...
April 25, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688171/acute-intermittent-hypoxia-enhances-corticospinal-synaptic-plasticity-in-humans
#12
Lasse Christiansen, M A Urbin, Gordon S Mitchell, Monica A Perez
Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) enhances voluntary motor output in humans with central nervous system damage. The neural mechanisms contributing to these beneficial effects are unknown. We examined corticospinal function by evaluating motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by cortical and subcortical stimulation of corticospinal axons and the activity in intracortical circuits in a finger muscle before and after 30 min of AIH or sham AIH. We found that the amplitude of cortically and subcortically elicited MEPs increased for 75 min after AIH but not sham AIH while intracortical activity remained unchanged...
April 24, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657306/hypoxia-induced-microrna-210-targets-neurodegenerative-pathways
#13
Michelle E Watts, Sarah M Williams, Jess Nithianantharajah, Charles Claudianos
Hypoxia-regulated microRNA-210 (miR-210) is a highly conserved microRNA, known to regulate various processes under hypoxic conditions. Previously we found that miR-210 is also involved in honeybee learning and memory, raising the questions of how neural activity may induce hypoxia-regulated genes and how miR-210 may regulate plasticity in more complex mammalian systems. Using a pull-down approach, we identified 620 unique target genes of miR-210 in humans, among which there was a significant enrichment of age-related neurodegenerative pathways, including Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases...
March 27, 2018: Non-Coding RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645283/sympathoexcitation-following-intermittent-hypoxia-in-rat-is-mediated-by-circulating-angiotensin-ii-acting-at-the-carotid-body-and-subfornical-organ
#14
Seung Jae Kim, Angelina Y Fong, Paul M Pilowsky, Stephen B G Abbott
Circulating angiotensin II (AngII) is vital for arterial pressure elevation following intermittent hypoxia in rats, but its importance in the induction of sympathetic changes is unclear. We tested the contribution of the RAS to the effects of acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) in anaesthetized ventilated adult rats. AIH caused a 33.7 ± 2.9% increase in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), and a one-fold increase in sympathetic peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity and central sympathetic-respiratory coupling. The sympathetic effects of AIH were prevented by blocking angiotensin type 1 receptors with systemic losartan and intermittent systemic injections of AngII (Int...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623927/progesterone-modulates-mtor-in-the-hippocampus-of-mice-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Richard Justin Garling, Lora Talley Watts, Shane Sprague, Murat Digicaylioglu
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an intracellular protein kinase that functions as an energy and nutrient sensor in the cellular microenvironment of neurons. Modulation of mTOR is vital when nutrient and energy sources become limited. Hypoxia, traumatic brain injury, cellular energy states, and growth factors all regulate the phosphorylation and total levels of mTOR in cells. Alterations in the microenvironment induce transduction of signals to downstream proteins by mTOR allowing for cells to make the necessary adjustments to counteract stressors and survive...
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567543/astragalus-polysaccharide-protects-hypoxia-induced-injury-by-up-regulation-of-mir-138-in-rat-neural-stem-cells
#16
Zebao Zheng, Bing Zhao
Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is the main active ingredient of astragalus and exhibits various pharmacological effects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of APS on hypoxia-induced injury in neural stem cells (NSCs). The NSCs derived from the hippocampus of rat were subjected to hypoxia incubator to establish a hypoxia model. NSCs were pretreated with APS before hypoxia injury to investigate the effect of APS. The expression of miR-138 was inhibited by transfection with miR-138 inhibitor and the miR-138 level was measured by qRT-PCR...
March 19, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557357/glia-and-hemichannels-key-mediators-of-perinatal-encephalopathy
#17
REVIEW
Robert Galinsky, Joanne O Davidson, Justin M Dean, Colin R Green, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
Perinatal encephalopathy remains a major cause of disability, such as cerebral palsy. Therapeutic hypothermia is now well established to partially reduce risk of disability in late preterm/term infants. However, new and complementary therapeutic targets are needed to further improve outcomes. There is increasing evidence that glia play a key role in neural damage after hypoxia-ischemia and infection/inflammation. In this review, we discuss the role of astrocytic gap junction (connexin) hemichannels in the spread of neural injury after hypoxia-ischemia and/or infection/inflammation...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515560/investigation-of-endogenous-retrovirus-sequences-in-the-neighborhood-of-genes-up-regulated-in-a-neuroblastoma-model-after-treatment-with-hypoxia-mimetic-cobalt-chloride
#18
Christine Brütting, Harini Narasimhan, Frank Hoffmann, Malte E Kornhuber, Martin S Staege, Alexander Emmer
Human endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have been found to be associated with different diseases, e.g., multiple sclerosis (MS). Most human ERVs integrated in our genome are not competent to replicate and these sequences are presumably silent. However, transcription of human ERVs can be reactivated, e.g., by hypoxia. Interestingly, MS has been linked to hypoxia since decades. As some patterns of demyelination are similar to white matter ischemia, hypoxic damage is discussed. Therefore, we are interested in the association between hypoxia and ERVs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509258/the-role-of-ampk-mtor-signal-pathway-in-brain-injury-following-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-in-growing-rats
#19
Z-W Wen, D-S Liang, X-H Cai, J Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of AMPK-mTOR signal pathway in brain injury induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in young rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (3-4 weeks old, weighing 80-100 g) were randomly assigned to four groups: 2-week-CIH group (2IH), 4-week-CIH group (4IH), 2-week-simulated air control group (2AC) and 4-week-simulated air control group (4AC). TUNEL staining was used to detect the cell apoptosis in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortexes, respectively...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477834/enriched-housing-promotes-post-stroke-neurogenesis-through-calpain-1-stat3-hif-1%C3%AE-vegf-signaling
#20
Xiaoying Wu, Shengqun Liu, Zhenhua Hu, Guosong Zhu, Gaifang Zheng, Guangzhi Wang
Enriched environment (EE) has been shown to promote neurogenesis and functional recovery after ischemic stroke. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, C57BL/6 mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (60 min) followed by reperfusion, after which mice were housed in either standard environment (SE) or EE and allowed to survive for 3, 4, 6 or 10 weeks. Ipsilateral subventricular zone (SVZ) or striatum cells were dissociated from ischemic hemispheric brains of enriched mice at 14 days post-ischemia (dpi) and cultured in vitro...
February 26, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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