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Neural hypoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164084/pretreatment-with-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-protects-the-neonatal-brain-against-the-effects-of-hypoxic-ischemic-injury
#1
Tammy Z Movsas, Rebecca L Weiner, M Banks Greenberg, David M Holtzman, Rafael Galindo
Introduction: Though the human fetus is exposed to placentally derived human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) throughout gestation, the role of hCG on the fetal brain is unknown. Review of the available literature appears to indicate that groups of women with higher mean levels of hCG during pregnancy tend to have offspring with lower cerebral palsy (CP) risk. Given that newborn cerebral injury often precedes the development of CP, we aimed to determine whether hCG may protect against the neurodegenerative effects of neonatal brain injury...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155421/characterization-of-neural-stem-cells-modified-with-hypoxia-neuron-specific-vegf-expression-system-for-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Y Yun, J Oh, Y Kim, G Kim, M Lee, Y Ha
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an incurable disease causing an ischemic environment and functional defect, thus a new therapeutic approach is needed for SCI treatment. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent therapeutic gene to treat SCI via angiogenesis and neuroprotection, and both tissue-specific gene expression and high gene delivery efficiency are important for successful gene therapy. Here we design the hypoxia/neuron dual-specific gene expression system (pEpo-NSE) and efficient gene delivery platform can be achieved by the combination ex vivo gene therapy with erythropoietin (Epo) enhancer, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter and neural stem cells (NSCs)...
November 20, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153271/subacute-corticobasal-syndrome-following-internal-carotid-endarterectomy
#3
A Marques, N Bourgois, T Vidal, A Ferrier, S Mathais, C Merlin, C Valla, E De Schlichting, B Jean, D Deffond, F Durif
The present report is of two patients who, immediately after internal carotid endarterectomy, presented with unexplained hemiplegia, despite normal findings on repeated MRI scans, which secondarily evolved into homolateral subacute corticobasal syndrome (CBS), with asymmetrical hemispheric hypometabolism and evidence of dopaminergic denervation. This prompted us to propose an hypothesis of transient cerebral hypoxia arising during the surgical clamping period that might have provoked a prolonged or permanent functional lesion of the left hemisphere and basal ganglia, with no visible infarction on MRI but only synaptic rearrangement of the neural networks, thereby revealing or exacerbating a potentially preexisting silent impairment...
November 15, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148180/dna-methylation-in-the-central-and-efferent-limbs-of-the-chemo-reflex-requires-carotid-body-neural-activity
#4
Jayasri Nanduri, Ying-Jie Peng, Ning Wang, Shakil A Khan, Gregg L Semenza, Nanduri R Prabhakar
Long-term exposure to intermittent hypoxia (LT-IH; 30 days), simulating blood O2 profiles during sleep apnea, has been shown to repress anti-oxidant enzyme (AOE) gene expression by DNA methylation in the carotid body (CB) reflex pathway, resulting in persistent elevation of plasma catecholamine levels and blood pressure. The present study examined the mechanisms by which LT-IH induces DNA methylation. Adult rats exposed to LT-IH showed elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the CB, nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) and rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and adrenal medulla (AM), which represent the central and efferent limbs of the CB reflex, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141232/foxp1-promotes-embryonic-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-by-repressing-jagged1-expression
#5
Luca Braccioli, Stephin J Vervoort, Youri Adolfs, Cobi J Heijnen, Onur Basak, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Cora H Nijboer, Paul J Coffer
Mutations in FOXP1 have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders including intellectual disability and autism; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate with RNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing that FOXP1 directly regulates genes controlling neurogenesis. We show that FOXP1 is expressed in embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs), and modulation of FOXP1 expression affects both neuron and astrocyte differentiation. Using a murine model of cortical development, FOXP1-knockdown in utero was found to reduce NSC differentiation and migration during corticogenesis...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138802/in-vitro-investigation-of-the-mechanism-underlying-the-effect-of-ginsenoside-on-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-subjected-to-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reperfusion
#6
Jian Gao, Huajing Bai, Qiang Li, Jian Li, Feng Wan, Mo Tian, Yuanyuan Li, Yilun Song, Jianping Zhang, Yinchu Si
The present study comprised a series of experiments to investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of ginsenoside on the self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) undergoing oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) in vitro. The NSCs, which were isolated from the hippocampus of embryonic day 17 embryo rats, were subjected to OGD/R to establish an in vitro model of brain ischemia-reperfusion, following which different doses of ginsenoside were administered to the model...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130945/maternally-expressed-gene-3-meg3-enhances-pc12-cell-hypoxia-injury-by-targeting-mir-147
#7
Lili Han, Zhiling Dong, Ningning Liu, Fei Xie, Ning Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cerebral ischemia often leads to breakdown of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and vasogenic edema. It remains to be established whether MEG3 is responsible for the hypoxic damage in neural cells. This study aimed to investigate the role of MEG3 in the hypoxia-induced injuries of PC12 cells. METHODS: The PC12 cells were seeded and cultured under hypoxia and normoxia culture conditions. The cell viability determined by trypan blue exclusion, apoptosis using propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescein isothiocynate (FITC)-conjugated Annexin V staining, cell-migration using a modified two-chamber migration assay with a pore size of 8 µM and invasion using 24-well Millicell Hanging Cell Culture inserts with 8 µM PET membranes...
October 31, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117499/preclinical-chorioamnionitis-dysregulates-cxcl1-cxcr2-signaling-throughout-the-placental-fetal-brain-axis
#8
REVIEW
Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Shahani Noor, Jessie R Maxwell, Christopher V Anstine, Akosua Y Oppong, Shenandoah Robinson, Erin D Milligan, Lauren L Jantzie
In the United States, perinatal brain injury (PBI) is a major cause of infant mortality and childhood disability. For a large proportion of infants with PBI, central nervous system (CNS) injury begins in utero with inflammation (chorioamnionitis/CHORIO) and/or hypoxia-ischemia. While studies show CHORIO contributes to preterm CNS injury and is also a common independent risk factor for brain injury in term infants, the molecular mechanisms mediating inflammation in the placental-fetal-brain axis that result in PBI remain a gap in knowledge...
November 5, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107683/hypoxia-regulates-the-level-of-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-enzymes-and-interrupts-inhibitory-synapse-stability-in-primary-cultured-neurons
#9
Seojin Hwang, Sangwoo Ham, Seong-Eun Lee, Yunjong Lee, Gum Hwa Lee
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main neurotransmitter of inhibitory synaptic transmission, which is critical for oscillatory activity and synchronization of neurons in neural networks. GABA is synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) enzymes in the inhibitory neuron and, thus, the deregulation of GAD enzymes and subsequent change of GABAergic activity are involved in various neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. Under hypoxic conditions, neurons undergo neuropathological alterations which can be subtle or severe...
October 28, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106947/glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gdnf-counteracts-hypoxic-damage-to-hippocampal-neural-network-function-in-vitro
#10
Tatiana V Shishkina, Tatiana A Mishchenko, Elena V Mitroshina, Olesya M Shirokova, Alexei S Pimashkin, Innokentiy A Kastalskiy, Irina V Mukhina, Victor B Kazantsev, Maria V Vedunova
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is regarded as a potent neuroprotector and a corrector of neural network activity in stress conditions. This work aimed to investigate the effect of GDNF on primary hippocampal cultures during acute normobaric hypoxia. Hypoxia induction was performed using day 14 in vitro cultures derived from mouse embryos (E18) with the preventive addition of GDNF (1 ng/ml) to the culture medium 10 minutes before oxygen deprivation. An analysis of spontaneous bioelectrical activity that included defining the internal neural network structure, morphological studies, and viability tests was performed during the post-hypoxic period...
October 26, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104807/neural-vascular-mechanism-for-the-cerebral-blood-flow-autoregulation-after-hemorrhagic-stroke
#11
REVIEW
Ming Xiao, Qiang Li, Hua Feng, Le Zhang, Yujie Chen
During the initial stages of hemorrhagic stroke, including intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, the reflex mechanisms are activated to protect cerebral perfusion, but secondary dysfunction of cerebral flow autoregulation will eventually reduce global cerebral blood flow and the delivery of metabolic substrates, leading to generalized cerebral ischemia, hypoxia, and ultimately, neuronal cell death. Cerebral blood flow is controlled by various regulatory mechanisms, including prevailing arterial pressure, intracranial pressure, arterial blood gases, neural activity, and metabolic demand...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103805/a-genetically-defined-circuit-for-arousal-from-sleep-during-hypercapnia
#12
Satvinder Kaur, Joshua L Wang, Loris Ferrari, Stephen Thankachan, Daniel Kroeger, Anne Venner, Michael Lazarus, Andrew Wellman, Elda Arrigoni, Patrick M Fuller, Clifford B Saper
The precise neural circuitry that mediates arousal during sleep apnea is not known. We previously found that glutamatergic neurons in the external lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBel) play a critical role in arousal to elevated CO2 or hypoxia. Because many of the PBel neurons that respond to CO2 express calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), we hypothesized that CGRP may provide a molecular identifier of the CO2 arousal circuit. Here, we report that selective chemogenetic and optogenetic activation of PBel(CGRP) neurons caused wakefulness, whereas optogenetic inhibition of PBel(CGRP) neurons prevented arousal to CO2, but not to an acoustic tone or shaking...
October 24, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102934/regional-immunoreactivity-of-pax6-in-the-neurogenic-zone-after-chronic-prenatal-hypoxia
#13
Keumyoung So, Yoonyoung Chung, Sun-Kyoung Yu, Yonghyun Jun
BACKGROUND/AIM: Neurogenesis is a complex process to generate new neurons from neural progenitor cells. Neural progenitor cells are observed in two principal neurogenic regions of the forebrain, the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The cerebral cortex also plays a role as the neurogenic zone under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia has many effects on neurogenesis, but the effect of chronic prenatal hypoxia on paired box 6 (Pax6), a protein that plays an important role in neurogenesis, has not been studied in vivo...
November 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080029/neural-network-reconfigurations-changes-of-the-respiratory-network-by-hypoxia-as-an-example
#14
Fernando Peña-Ortega
Neural networks, including the respiratory network, can undergo a reconfiguration process by just changing the number, the connectivity or the activity of their elements. Those elements can be either brain regions or neurons, which constitute the building blocks of macrocircuits and microcircuits, respectively. The reconfiguration processes can also involve changes in the number of connections and/or the strength between the elements of the network. These changes allow neural networks to acquire different topologies to perform a variety of functions or change their responses as a consequence of physiological or pathological conditions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066955/reducing-extracellular-ca-2-induces-adenosine-release-via-equilibrative-nucleoside-transporters-to-provide-negative-feedback-control-of-activity-in-the-hippocampus
#15
Rebecca Diez, Magnus J E Richardson, Mark J Wall
Neural circuit activity increases the release of the purine neuromodulator adenosine into the extracellular space leading to A1 receptor activation and negative feedback via membrane hyperpolarization and inhibition of transmitter release. Adenosine can be released by a number of different mechanisms that include Ca(2+) dependent processes such as the exocytosis of ATP. During sustained pathological network activity, ischemia and hypoxia the extracellular concentration of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) markedly falls, inhibiting exocytosis and potentially reducing adenosine release...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046642/cooperative-oxygen-sensing-by-the-kidney-and-carotid-body-in-blood-pressure-control
#16
Daniela Patinha, Wioletta Pijacka, Julian F R Paton, Maarten P Koeners
Oxygen sensing mechanisms are vital for homeostasis and survival. When oxygen levels are too low (hypoxia), blood flow has to be increased, metabolism reduced, or a combination of both, to counteract tissue damage. These adjustments are regulated by local, humoral, or neural reflex mechanisms. The kidney and the carotid body are both directly sensitive to falls in the partial pressure of oxygen and trigger reflex adjustments and thus act as oxygen sensors. We hypothesize a cooperative oxygen sensing function by both the kidney and carotid body to ensure maintenance of whole body blood flow and tissue oxygen homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046314/respiratory-dysfunction-following-neonatal-sustained-hypoxia-exposure-during-a-critical-window-of-brainstem-extracellular-matrix-formation
#17
Christopher Stryker, Dominic W Camperchioli, Catherine A Mayer, Warren J Alilain, Richard John Martin, Peter M MacFarlane
The extracellular matrix (ECM) modulates brain maturation and plays a major role in regulating neuronal plasticity during critical periods of development. We examined: 1) whether there is a critical postnatal period of ECM expression in brainstem cardio-respiratory control regions; and 2) if the attenuated hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) following neonatal sustained (5 days) hypoxia exposure (SH, 11% O2, 24hrs/day) is associated with altered ECM formation. The nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS), dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV), the hypoglossal motor nucleus (XII), the cuneate nucleus (CN) and area postrema (AP) were immunofluorescently processed for aggrecan and Wisteria floribunda (WFA) agglutinin, a key proteoglycan of the ECM and the perineuronal net...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039446/protective-effect-of-autophagy-in-neural-ischemia-and-hypoxia-negative-regulation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#18
Zhen-Yu Shi, Jie-Xin Deng, Su Fu, Lai Wang, Qiang Wang, Bin Liu, Yong-Qiang Li, Jin-Bo Deng
Autophagy is a highly conserved process of self-digestion to promote cell survival in response to nutrient starvation and other metabolic stresses. However, whether ischemic-hypoxic (IH) injury-induced autophagy acts as a neuroprotective mechanism or leads to neuroinjury is a subject of debate. It is known that autophagy is regulated by signaling pathways, including the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. However, in neural IH injury, whether other signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of autophagy remains to be fully elucidated...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032465/hypoxia-and-hypoxia-inducible-factors-in-neuroblastoma
#19
REVIEW
Sven Påhlman, Sofie Mohlin
Hypoxia (i.e., low oxygen levels) is a known feature of aggressive tumors. Cells, including tumor cells, respond to conditions of insufficient oxygen by activating a transcriptional program mainly driven by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)-1 and HIF-2. Both HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression levels have been shown to correlate to patient outcome in various tumor forms and in neuroblastoma, a solid childhood tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, in particular, HIF-2α marks a subpopulation of immature neural crest-like perivascularly located cells and associates with aggressive disease and distant metastasis...
October 14, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028220/pediatric-brain-repair-from-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-of-the-subventricular-zone
#20
REVIEW
Yusuke Niimi, Steven W Levison
There is great interest in the regenerative potential of the neural stem cells and progenitors that populate the germinal zones of the immature brain. Studies using animal models of pediatric brain injuries have provided a clearer understanding of the responses of these progenitors to injury. In this review, we have compared and contrasted the responses of the endogenous neural stem cells and progenitors of the subventricular zone in animal models of neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, neonatal stroke, congenital cardiac disease, and pediatric traumatic brain injury...
November 8, 2017: Pediatric Research
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