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Cytochrome 450

A Sporková, Z Husková, P Škaroupková, N R Reddy, J R Falck, J Sadowski, L Červenka
Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of renal dysfunction and progression of congestive heart failure (CHF) remain poorly understood. Recent studies have revealed striking differences in the role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), active products of cytochrome P-450-dependent epoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid, in the progression of aorto-caval fistula (ACF)-induced CHF between hypertensive Ren-2 renin transgenic rats (TGR) and transgene-negative normotensive Hannover Sprague-Dawley (HanSD) controls...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
Ilhem Guesmi-Mzoughi, Antonio Archidona-Yuste, Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Hajer Regaieg, Najet Horrigue-Raouani, Juan E Palomares-Rius, Pablo Castillo
Spiral nematode species of the genus Rotylenchus have been reported on olive (Olea europaea L.) in several Mediterranean countries (Castillo et al., 2010; Ali et al., 2014). Nematological surveys for plant-parasitic nematodes on olive trees were carried out in Tunisia between 2013 and 2014, and two nematode species of Rotylenchus were collected from the rhizosphere of olive cv. Chemlali in several localities of Tunisia (Tables 1,2 [Table: see text] [Table: see text] ). Twenty-two soil samples of 3 to 4 kg were collected with a shovel from the upper 50 cm of soil from arbitrarily chosen olive trees...
September 2016: Journal of Nematology
Meghan MacKenzie, Richard Hall
PURPOSE: Knowledge of how alterations in pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics may affect drug therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) has received little study. We review the clinically relevant application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics to drugs and conditions encountered in the ICU. SOURCE: We selected relevant literature to illustrate the important concepts contained within. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two main approaches have been used to identify genetic abnormalities - the candidate gene approach and the genome-wide approach...
October 17, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Cameron L Jordan, Terry L Noah, Marianna M Henry
This review seeks to re-introduce cystic fibrosis (CF) clinicians to the pharmacology of drug-drug interactions among medications commonly used in CF and provide a framework for understanding these interactions among medications outside the scope of this discussion. We here focus on drugs impacted by the cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzyme system and on interactions involving antimicrobials, psychotropic medications, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators. Particular attention is needed when prescribing rifampin, azole antifungals and the CFTR modulators, ivacaftor, and lumacaftor/ivacaftor, in combination with other medications...
October 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Masahito Suiko, Katsuhisa Kurogi, Takuyu Hashiguchi, Yoichi Sakakibara, Ming-Cheh Liu
The cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) are Phase II detoxifying enzymes that mediate the sulfate conjugation of numerous xenobiotic molecules. While the research on the SULTs has lagged behind the research on Phase I cytochrome P-450 enzymes and other Phase II conjugating enzymes, it has gained more momentum in recent years. This review aims to summarize information obtained in several fronts of the research on the SULTs, including the range of the SULTs in different life forms, concerted actions of the SULTs and other Phase II enzymes, insights into the structure-function relationships of the SULTs, regulation of SULT expression and activity, developmental expression of SULTs, as well as the use of a zebrafish model for studying the developmental pharmacology/toxicology...
September 21, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Naomi Hauser, Tanmay Sahai, Rocco Richards, Todd Roberts
Tacrolimus, a potent immunosuppressant medication, acts by inhibiting calcineurin, which eventually leads to inhibition of T-cell activation. The drug is commonly used to prevent graft rejection in solid organ transplant and graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic index with variable oral bioavailability and metabolism via cytochrome P-450 3A enzyme. Toxicity can occur from overdosing or from drug-drug interactions with the simultaneous administration of cytochrome P-450 3A inhibitors and possibly P-glycoprotein inhibitors...
2016: Case Reports in Transplantation
Ole Kristian Thu, Odd Georg Nilsen, Bent Hellum
CONTEXT: Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) products are popular natural remedies with a worldwide distribution. Recent studies have revealed potent CYP inhibition by R. rosea extracts both in vitro and in vivo, but information on in vitro CYP inhibition by commercial products are lacking. Variations in commercial R. rosea product quality have also been published. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the variation of in vitro CYP inhibition potential and product quality of six commercially available R...
August 29, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Q Wang, X F Lan, L N Zhou, J P Zhou, N Li, C J Gu, Q Y Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlation between intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and release of cytochrome C (cytC) from mitochondria. METHODS: HUVECs in IH groups were exposed to repetitive cycles (1% O2 5 min alternating with 21% O2 5 min, 37 ℃, 5% CO2) for different exposure time (8, 16 and 24 h, respectively), while the control group were placed in an ordinary incubator (21% O2, 37 ℃, 5% CO2) for 24 h...
August 9, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Lu-Lu Zhang, Yan Zhang, Jing-Nan Ren, Yan-Long Liu, Jia-Jia Li, Ya-Nan Tai, Shu-Zhen Yang, Si-Yi Pan, Gang Fan
This study focused on the differences in protein expression at various periods during limonene biotransformation by Penicillium digitatum DSM 62840. A total of 3644 protein-species were quantified by iTRAQ during limonene biotransformation (0 and 12 h). A total of 643 proteins were differentially expressed, 316 proteins were significantly up-regulated and 327 proteins were markedly down-regulated. GO, COG, and pathway enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed proteins possessed catalytic and binding functions and were involved in a variety of cellular and metabolic process...
October 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Ana Carolina Rios Silvino, Gabriel Luiz Costa, Flávia Carolina Faustino de Araújo, David Benjamin Ascher, Douglas Eduardo Valente Pires, Cor Jesus Fernandes Fontes, Luzia Helena Carvalho, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito, Tais Nobrega Sousa
Although Plasmodium vivax relapses are classically associated with hypnozoite activation, it has been proposed that a proportion of these cases are due to primaquine (PQ) treatment failure caused by polymorphisms in cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Here, we present evidence that CYP2D6 polymorphisms are implicated in PQ failure, which was reinforced by findings in genetically similar parasites, and may explain a number of vivax relapses. Using a computational approach, these polymorphisms were predicted to affect the activity of CYP2D6 through changes in the structural stability that could lead to disruption of the PQ-enzyme interactions...
2016: PloS One
Marklie Munroe, Jill Kolesar
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, clinical efficacy, safety, dosage and administration, and role in therapy of olaparib, a first-in-class treatment for advanced treatment-refractory ovarian cancer, are reviewed. SUMMARY: Olaparib (Lynparza, AstraZeneca) is an oral inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins that play a key role in DNA repair and genomic stability. Olaparib is indicated for use in treating certain patients with advanced, recurrent ovarian cancer who have mutations of the breast cancer 1 gene (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2 gene (BRCA2)...
July 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Michael M Yeboah, Md Abdul Hye Khan, Marla A Chesnik, Amit Sharma, Mahesh P Paudyal, John R Falck, John D Imig
The introduction of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) into clinical practice in the late 1970s transformed organ transplantation and led to significant improvement in acute rejection episodes. However, despite their significant clinical utility, the use of these agents is hampered by the development of hypertension and nephrotoxicity, which ultimately lead to end-stage kidney disease and overt cardiovascular outcomes. There are currently no effective agents to treat or prevent these complications. Importantly, CNI-free immunosuppressive regimens lack the overall efficacy of CNI-based treatments and put patients at risk of allograft rejection...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Lisa M Brown, Thusitha S Gunasekera, Richard C Striebich, Oscar N Ruiz
Gordonia sihwensis strain 9 is a Gram-positive bacterium capable of efficient aerobic degradation of branched and normal alkanes. The draft genome of G. sihwensis S9 is 4.16 Mb in size, with 3,686 coding sequences and 68.1% G+C content. Alkane monooxygenase and P-450 cytochrome genes required for alkane degradation are predicted in G. sihwensis S9.
2016: Genome Announcements
G M Shayakhmetova, L B Bondarenko, A K Voronina, A V Matvienko, V Kitam, V M Kovalenko
Ethambutol (EMB) is conventionally used to treat tuberculosis and atypical Mycobacterium infections in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs. Eventually, EMB testicular toxicity has not been explored extensively yet. The aim of the study is to evaluate testicular toxicity of EMB. We explored the impact of EMB on male rats' fertility, testosterone level and germ cells state, testicular pro- and anti-oxidant status and DNA damage, as well as identified EMB effects on cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) both with computer simulation and in vivo...
June 22, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Jian Wang, Chen Chen, Zhihui Jiang, Meng Wang, Hai Jiang, Xiaoying Zhang
UNLABELLED: This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) against reproductive damage induced by bisphenol A (BPA). Rats were administrated 200 mg/kg BPA for 4 weeks and treated with C. militaris (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight/day). By the end of the fourth week, the level of oxidative damage, sperm parameters, hormone levels, and histopathological changes were examined. In the group that only received BPA, there was a significant decrease in body weight compared with the normal control (NC) group...
August 2016: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Hafiz Muhammad Tahir, Farva Khizar, Sajida Naseem, Rabia Yaqoob, Khizar Samiullah
Elevated levels of insecticides detoxifying enzymes, such as esterases, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases, act in the resistance mechanisms in insects. In the present study, levels of these enzymes in the insecticide-resistant ground spider Pardosa sumatrana (Thorell, 1890) were compared with a susceptible population (control) of the same species. Standard protocols were used for biochemical estimation of enzymes. The results showed significantly higher levels of nonspecific esterases and monooxygenases in resistant spiders compared to controls...
September 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Jeong-Geun Kim, Chun-Seob Ahn, Seon-Hee Kim, Young-An Bae, Na-Young Kwon, Insug Kang, Hyun-Jong Yang, Woon-Mok Sohn, Yoon Kong
BACKGROUND: Clonorchis sinensis causes a major food-borne helminthic infection. This species locates in mammalian hepatobiliary ducts, where oxidative stressors and hydrophobic substances are profuse. To adapt to the hostile micromilieu and to ensure its long-term survival, the parasite continuously produces a diverse repertoire of antioxidant enzymes including several species of glutathione transferases (GSTs). Helminth GSTs play pertinent roles during sequestration of harmful xenobiotics since most helminths lack the cytochrome P-450 detoxifying enzyme...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
O L Bokeriya, Z F Kudzoeva, V A Shvarts, A K Koasari, S A Donakanyan
AIM: To estimate whether optimal antiplatelet therapy can be selected in terms of CYP2C19 polymorphism. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The prospective randomized trial included 124 patients (93 men and 31 women) who were to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention. They initially received dual antiplatelet therapy: clopidogrel 75 mg + acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) 300 mg. Genetic testing was performed in all the patients to reveal the carriage of allelic variants of the genes of cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes and the efficiency of antiplatelet therapy was evaluated...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Tajamul Hussain, Omar S Al-Attas, Salman A Alrokayan, Mukhtar Ahmed, Nasser M Al-Daghri, Salman Al-Ameri, Shamsh Pervez, Shippi Dewangan, Arif Mohammed, Dikshit Gambhir, Terrance S Sumague
CONTEXT: Previous studies, including ours, have shown adverse effects of incense smoke on human health. However, the effect of incense smoke on kidney function and structure remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate possible adverse effects of incense smoke on kidney function and architecture in albino rats after chronic exposure to Arabian incense. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Emission characteristics including particle size distribution, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gravimetric and GCMS analyses...
July 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Mehmet Erman Erdemli, Eyup Altinoz, Zeynep Aksungur, Yusuf Turkoz, Zumrut Dogan, Harika Gozukara Bag
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the toxic effects occurring in the liver tissues of the pregnant rats and the fetuses, which are administered acrylamide and vitamin E as a protector during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research was conducted with the permission of laboratory animals ethical board of Inonu University Faculty of Medicine. 40 rats, of which their pregnancy is validated via vaginal smear, were distributed into five different groups. On the 20(th) day of pregnancy pregnant rats and fetuses are decapitated...
May 10, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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