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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076603/extracellular-adenosine-5-triphosphate-concentrations-changes-in-rat-spinal-cord-associated-with-the-activation-of-urinary-bladder-afferents-a-microdialysis-study
#1
Jeová Nina Rocha
Objective: To determine adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels in the interstice of spinal cord L6-S1 segment, under basal conditions or during mechanical and chemical activation of urinary bladder afferents. Methods: A microdialysis probe was transversally implanted in the dorsal half of spinal cord L6-S1 segment in female rats. Microdialysate was collected at 15 minutes intervals during 135 minutes, in anesthetized animals. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate concentrations were determined with a bioluminescent assay...
October 2016: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076568/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-retinoblastoma-cell-phenotype-using-neuronal-and-glial-cell-markers
#2
María Eugenia Orellana, Rubens Belfort, Emilia Antecka, Miguel Noel Burnier
Purpose: The cellular origin of retinoblastoma is uncertain as constituent tumor cells heterogeneously express markers of both immature and mature retinal cells. An immunohistochemical analysis of cellular origin may yield valuable insights into disease progression and treatment options. This study aimed to determine the cellular origin of retinoblastoma in a large case series and correlate these findings with histopathological prognostic factors. Methods: Thirty-nine retinoblastoma cases were histopathologically diagnosed and analyzed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the immature neural cell marker SRY-box containing gene 2 (SOX-2), the mature neuronal cell marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), and the mature glial cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074282/unique-findings-of-subependymal-giant-cell-astrocytoma-within-cortical-tubers-in-patients-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-a-histopathological-evaluation
#3
Joel S Katz, Hyman Frankel, Tracy Ma, David Zagzag, Benjamin Liechty, Bruria Ben Zeev, Michal Tzadok, Orrin Devinsky, Howard L Weiner, Jonathan Roth
INTRODUCTION: Tuberous sclerosis is associated with three central nervous system pathologies: cortical/subcortical tubers, subependymal nodules (SENs), and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs). Tubers are associated with epilepsy, which is often medication-resistant and often leads to resective surgery. Recently, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) have been shown to be effective reducing seizure burden in some patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-related refractory epilepsy...
January 10, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069688/up-regulation-of-cb2-receptors-in-reactive-astrocytes-in-canine-degenerative-myelopathy-a-disease-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#4
María Fernández-Trapero, Francisco Espejo-Porras, Carmen Rodríguez-Cueto, Joan R Coates, Carmen Pérez-Díaz, Eva de Lago, Javier Fernández-Ruiz
Targeting the CB2 receptor afforded neuroprotection in SOD1(G93A) mutant mice, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The neuroprotective effects of CB2 receptors were facilitated by their up-regulation in the spinal cord in SOD1(G93A) mutant mice. Herein, we have investigated whether a similar CB2 receptor up-regulation, as well as parallel changes in other endocannabinoid elements, are evident in the spinal cord of dogs with degenerative myelopathy (DM), caused from mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1)...
January 9, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067245/effect-of-hierarchically-aligned-fibrin-hydrogel-in-regeneration-of-spinal-cord-injury-demonstrated-by-tractography-a-pilot-study
#5
Zhenxia Zhang, Shenglian Yao, Sheng Xie, Xiumei Wang, Feiyan Chang, Jie Luo, Jingming Wang, Jun Fu
Some studies have reported that scaffold or cell-based transplantation may improve functional recovery following SCI, but no imaging information regarding regeneration has been provided to date. This study used tractography to show the regenerating process induced by a new biomaterial-aligned fibrin hydrogel (AFG). A total of eight canines subjected to SCI procedures were assigned to the control or the AFG group. AFG was implanted into the SCI lesion immediately after injury in 5 canines. A follow-up was performed at 12 weeks to evaluate the therapeutic effect including the hindlimb functional recovery, anisotropy and continuity of fibers on tractography...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063958/prevention-of-chronic-post-thoracotomy-pain-in-rats-by-intrathecal-resolvin-d1-and-d2-effectiveness-of-perioperative-and-delayed-drug-delivery
#6
Jeffery Chi-Fei Wang, Gary R Strichartz
: Thoracotomy results in a high frequency of chronic post-operative pain. Resolvins are endogenous molecules, synthesized and released by activated immune cells, effective against inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Different resolvins have differential actions on selective neuronal and glial receptors and enzymes. This paper examines the ability of intrathecal Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and Resolvin D2 (RvD2) to reduce chronic post-thoracotomy pain in rats. Thoracotomy, involving intercostal incision and rib retraction, resulted in a decrease in the mechanical force threshold to induce nocifensive behavior, an enlargement of the pain-sensitive area, and an increase in the fraction of rats showing nocifensive behavior, all for at least 5 weeks...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049045/in-vitro-models-reveal-differences-in-the-developmental-neurotoxicity-of-an-environmental-polycylic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-mixture-compared-to-benzo-a-pyrene-neuronotypic-pc12-cells-and-embryonic-neural-stem-cells
#7
Theodore A Slotkin, Samantha Skavicus, Jennifer Card, Richard T Di Giulio, Frederic J Seidler
In addition to their carcinogenic activity, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be developmental neurotoxicants. We evaluated the effects of PAHs with two in vitro models that assess distinct "decision nodes" in neurodifferentiation: neuronotypic PC12 cells, which characterize the transition from cell replication to neurodifferentiation, neurite outgrowth and neurotransmitter specification; and embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs), which evaluate the origination of neurons and glia from precursors...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035930/investigations-into-retinal-pathology-in-the-early-stages-of-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Glyn Chidlow, John P M Wood, Jim Manavis, John Finnie, Robert J Casson
There is increasing recognition that visual performance is impaired in early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, no consensus exists as to the mechanisms underlying this visual dysfunction, in particular regarding the timing, nature, and extent of retinal versus cortical pathology. If retinal pathology presents sufficiently early, it offers great potential as a source of novel biomarkers for disease diagnosis. The current project utilized an array of immunochemical and molecular tools to perform a characterization of retinal pathology in the early stages of disease progression using a well-validated mouse model of AD (APPSWE/PS1ΔE9)...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031697/clinical-and-histological-evaluation-of-large-macular-hole-surgery-using-the-inverted-internal-limiting-membrane-flap-technique
#9
Satoru Kase, Wataru Saito, Shohei Mori, Michiyuki Saito, Ryo Ando, Zhenyu Dong, Tomohiro Suzuki, Kousuke Noda, Susumu Ishida
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to analyze optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of large macular holes (MHs) treated with inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique and to perform a histological examination of an ILM-like membrane tissue obtained during vitrectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective observational case study. Nine patients, comprising of five males and four females, showing large and myopic MHs, underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with inverted ILM flap technique assisted by brilliant blue G (BBG) staining...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018190/disruption-of-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-involving-astrocytes-in-an-animal-model-of-depression-for-males-and-females
#10
Virginie Rappeneau, Amanda Blaker, Jeff R Petro, Bryan K Yamamoto, Akiko Shimamoto
Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. This study identifies sex-based impairments in the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes using an animal model of depression. Methods: Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) for 21 days, using a modified resident-intruder paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011166/hyperglycemia-and-high-nitric-oxide-level-induced-oxidative-stress-in-the-brain-and-molecular-alteration-in-the-neurons-and-glial-cells-of-laboratory-mouse-mus-musculus
#11
Rashmi Richa, Arun Kumar Yadawa, Chandra Mohini Chaturvedi
Chronic hyperglycemia (glucotoxicity) is reported to have detrimental effects on various brain functions leading to neurodegenerative changes. However, the effect of hyperglycemia in combination with high nitric oxide (NO) level (reported to be increased during glucotoxicity), on brain functions is not clear yet. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of hyperglycemic drug Streptozotocin (STZ) and NO donor Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the brain of laboratory mouse, Mus musculus. Effects of these conditions were studied on the markers of oxidative stress, NF-κB signalling and the markers of neuronal and glial cell activation/inflammation...
December 20, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003971/optic-neuropathy-and-increased-retinal-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-due-to-microbead-induced-ocular-hypertension-in-the-rabbit
#12
Jun Zhao, Tian-Hui Zhu, Wen-Chieh Chen, Shi-Ming Peng, Xiao-Sheng Huang, Kin-Sang Cho, Dong Feng Chen, Guei-Sheung Liu
AIM: To characterize whether a glaucoma model with chronic elevation of the intraocular pressure (IOP) was able to be induced by anterior chamber injection of microbeads in rabbits. METHODS: In order to screen the optimal dose of microbead injection, IOP was measured every 3d for 4wk using handheld applanation tonometer after a single intracameral injection of 10 µL, 25 µL, 50 µL or 100 µL microbeads (5×10(6) beads/mL; n=6/group) in New Zealand White rabbits...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002872/lutein-facilitates-physiological-revascularization-in-a-mouse-model-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#13
Zhongjie Fu, Steven S Meng, Samuel B Burnim, Lois Eh Smith, Amy Cy Lo
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity is one of the leading causes of childhood blindness worldwide, with vessel growth cessation and vessel loss in phase I followed by neovascularization in phase II. Ischemia contributes to its pathogenesis and lutein protects against ischemia-induced retinal damages. We aimed to investigate the effects of lutein on a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. METHODS: Mouse pups were exposed to 75% oxygen for five days and returned to room air for another five days...
December 21, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994179/association-between-smoking-behaviour-and-genetic-variants-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#14
Eszter Kotyuk, Nora Nemeth, Zsolt Ronai, Zsolt Demetrovics, Maria Sasvari-Szekely, Anna Szekely
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes development and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons, thus it has an important role in dopamine-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Since the role of dopamine system in smoking is well established, we hypothesized that GDNF gene variants may affect smoking behaviour. Self-reported data on smoking behaviour (never smoked, quit, occasional, or regular smokers) and level of nicotine addiction (Hooked on Nicotine Checklist and Fagerstrom Nicotine Addiction Scale), anxiety, as well as buccal samples were obtained from 930 Hungarian young adults (18-35 years)...
December 2016: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973427/expression-of-3-mercaptopyruvate-sulfurtransferase-in-the-mouse
#15
Masahiro Tomita, Noriyuki Nagahara, Takaaki Ito
3-Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST) is one of the principal enzymes for the production of hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides in mammalians, and emerging evidence supports the physiological significance of MST. As a fundamental study of the physiology and pathobiology of MST, it is necessary to establish the tissue distribution of MST in mice. In the present study, the expression of MST in various organs of adult and fetal mice was analyzed by Western blotting and enzyme-immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the histology of MST gene-deficient mice was examined...
December 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956799/transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-immunoreactive-signals-in-murine-enteric-glial-cells
#16
Masahiro Yamamoto, Mitsue Nishiyama, Seiichi Iizuka, Shigeaki Suzuki, Norihiro Suzuki, Sadakazu Aiso, Jin Nakahara
AIM: To investigate the possible involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in maturation of enteric glial cells (EGCs). METHODS: Immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical techniques were used to analyze EGC markers in myenteric plexus (MP) as well as cultured MP cells and EGCs using TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice. RESULTS: We detected TRPV1-immunoreactive signals in EGC in the MP of wild-type (WT) but not KO mice. Expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactive signals was lower at postnatal day (PD) 6 in KO mice, though the difference was not clear at PD 13 and PD 21...
November 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941025/a-novel-rac1-gspt1-signaling-pathway-controls-astrogliosis-following-central-nervous-system-injury
#17
Taiji Ishii, Takehiko Ueyama, Michiko Shigyo, Masaaki Kohta, Takeshi Kondoh, Tomoharu Kuboyama, Tatsuya Uebi, Takeshi Hamada, David H Gutmann, Atsu Aiba, Eiji Kohmura, Chihiro Tohda, Naoaki Saito
Astrogliosis (i.e., glial scar), which is comprised primarily of proliferated astrocytes at the lesion site and migrated astrocytes from neighboring regions, is one of the key reactions in determining outcomes after CNS injury. In an effort to identify potential molecules/pathways that regulate astrogliosis, we sought to determine whether Rac/Rac-mediated signaling in astrocytes represents a novel candidate for therapeutic intervention following CNS injury. For these studies, we generated Rac1-knockout (KO) mice under the control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter (GFAP-Cre;Rac1(flox/flox))...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932309/binge-alcohol-alters-exercise-driven-neuroplasticity
#18
Emily A Barton, Yanbin Lu, Murad Megjhani, Mark E Maynard, Prathamesh M Kulkarni, Badrinath Roysam, J Leigh Leasure
Exercise is increasingly being used as a treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUD), but the interactive effects of alcohol and exercise on the brain remain largely unexplored. Alcohol damages the brain, in part by altering glial functioning. In contrast, exercise promotes glial health and plasticity. In the present study, we investigated whether binge alcohol would attenuate the effects of subsequent exercise on glia. We focused on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an alcohol-vulnerable region that also undergoes neuroplastic changes in response to exercise...
December 5, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932287/serum-levels-of-neurotrophic-factors-in-active-toxoplasmic-retinochoroiditis
#19
Cynthia Azeredo Cordeiro, Erica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Natália Pessoa Rocha, Vinicius Monteiro Castro, Juliana Lambert Oréfice, Tatiana Barichello, Rogerio Alves Costa, Fernando Oréfice, Lucy Young, Antonio Lucio Teixeira
: Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (TR) is the most common identifiable cause of posterior uveitis in Brazil. Response to treatment and clinical presentation may vary significantly. We assessed serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin (NT)-3, and NT-4/5 in patients with active TR, before and after TR treatment. METHODS: Twenty patients with active lesion and 15 healthy controls were enrolled in the study...
December 5, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927847/preserved-seminiferous-tubule-integrity-with-spermatogonial-survival-and-induction-of-sertoli-and-leydig-cell-maturation-after-long-term-organotypic-culture-of-prepubertal-human-testicular-tissue
#20
F de Michele, J Poels, L Weerens, C Petit, Z Evrard, J Ambroise, D Gruson, C Wyns
STUDY QUESTION: Is an organotypic culture system able to provide the appropriate testicular microenvironment for in-vitro maturation of human immature testicular tissue (ITT)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our organotypic culture system provided a microenvironment capable of preserving seminiferous tubule (ST) integrity and Leydig cell (LC) functionality and inducing Sertoli cell (SC) maturation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cryopreservation of human ITT is a well-established strategy to preserve fertility in prepubertal boys affected by cancer, with a view for obtaining sperm...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
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