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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782809/the-effects-of-normal-aging-on-regional-accumulation-of-hyaluronan-and-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-in-the-mouse-brain
#1
May J Reed, Mamatha Damodarasamy, Jasmine L Pathan, Michelle A Erickson, William A Banks, Robert B Vernon
The brain changes in volume and composition with normal aging. Cellular components of the brain are supported by an extracellular matrix (ECM) comprised largely of hyaluronan (HA) and HA-associated members of the lectican family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). We examined regional differences in microvascular density, neuronal and glial markers, and accumulation of HA and CSPGs in mouse brains during normal aging. The cortex, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum of young (4 months), middle-aged (14 months), and aged (24-26 months) brains were analyzed...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780671/protection-of-cultured-brain-endothelial-cells-from-cytokine-induced-damage-by-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone
#2
András Harazin, Alexandra Bocsik, Lilla Barna, András Kincses, Judit Váradi, Ferenc Fenyvesi, Vilmos Tubak, Maria A Deli, Miklós Vecsernyés
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), an interface between the systemic circulation and the nervous system, can be a target of cytokines in inflammatory conditions. Pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induce damage in brain endothelial cells and BBB dysfunction which contribute to neuronal injury. The neuroprotective effects of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) were investigated in experimental models, but there are no data related to the BBB. Based on our recent study, in which α-MSH reduced barrier dysfunction in human intestinal epithelial cells induced by TNF-α and IL-1β, we hypothesized a protective effect of α-MSH on brain endothelial cells...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772246/preterm-birth-disrupts-cerebellar-development-by-affecting-granule-cell-proliferation-program-and-bergmann-glia
#3
Igor Y Iskusnykh, Randal K Buddington, Victor V Chizhikov
Preterm birth is a leading cause of long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Clinical studies suggest that some of these deficits result from disruption of cerebellar development, but the mechanisms that mediate cerebellar abnormalities in preterm infants are largely unknown. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment directly disrupt cerebellar development or indirectly by increasing the probability of cerebellar injury, including that resulting from clinical interventions and protocols associated with the care of preterm infants...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771733/haemodilution-and-head-down-tilting-induce-functional-injury-in-the-rat-optic-nerve-a-model-for-peri-operative-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#4
Steven Roth, John Dreixler, Nancy J Newman
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms of peri-operative ischaemic optic neuropathy remain poorly understood. Both specific pre-operative and intra-operative factors have been examined by retrospective studies, but no animal model currently exists. OBJECTIVES: To develop a rodent model of peri-operative ischaemic optic neuropathy. In rats, we performed head-down tilt and/or haemodilution, theorising that the combination damages the optic nerve. DESIGN: Animal study...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771434/ptprj-as1-mediates-inflammatory-injury-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-by-activating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#5
J Wen, C-Y Yang, J Lu, X-Y Wang
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at investigating the expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Ptprj-as1 and the role of lncRNAPtprj-as1 in inflammatory cells after intracerebral hemorrhage and its potential mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage was established. Expressions of Ptprj-as1 and inflammatory cytokines in inflammatory cells were detected by quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). After BV2 cells were transfected with lentivirus, cell proliferation, migrative ability and apoptosis were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, transwell chamber and flow cytometry, respectively...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766265/surgery-for-subependymal-giant-cell-astrocytomas-in-children-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#6
Martine Fohlen, Sarah Ferrand-Sorbets, Olivier Delalande, Georg Dorfmüller
OBJECTIVE: Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are low-grade intraventricular glial tumors that develop in 10-15% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex; they often cause hydrocephalus and are potentially accessible to a surgical treatment. Our aim is to evaluate morbidity and results after surgery in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. METHOD: We present a retrospective series of 18 pediatric patients operated on for SEGA between 2006 and 2016 at our institution...
May 15, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765306/microglial-activation-is-modulated-by-captopril-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#7
Keren Asraf, Nofar Torika, Ron N Apte, Sigal Fleisher-Berkovich
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important peripheral system involved in homeostasis modulation, with angiotensin II (Ang II) serving as the main effector hormone. The main enzyme involved in Ang II formation is angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) such as captopril (Cap) are predominantly used for the management of hypertension. All of the components of the RAS have also been identified in brain. Centrally located hormones such as Ang II can induce glial inflammation. Moreover, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models, where glial inflammation occurs and is thought to contribute to the propagation of the disease, increased levels of Ang II and ACE have been detected...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761559/conditional-depletion-of-gsk3b-protects-oligodendrocytes-from-apoptosis-and-lessens-demyelination-in-the-acute-cuprizone-model
#8
Bin Xing, Lauren E Brink, Kelly Maers, Mara L Sullivan, Richard J Bodnar, Donna B Stolz, Franca Cambi
Apoptosis is recognized as the main mechanism of oligodendrocyte loss in Multiple Sclerosis caused either by immune mediated injury (Barnett & Prineas, ) or a direct degenerative process (oligodendrogliapathy; Lucchinetti et al., ). Cuprizone induced demyelination is the result of non-immune mediated apoptosis of oligodendrocytes (OL) and represents a model of oligodendrogliapathy (Simmons, Pierson, Lee, & Goverman, ). Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK) 3b has been shown to be pro-apoptotic for cells other than OL...
May 15, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756516/transplantation-of-a-peripheral-nerve-with-neural-stem-cells-plus-lithium-chloride-injection-promote-the-recovery-of-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Li-Qun Zhang, Wen-Ming Zhang, Lingxiao Deng, Zi-Xing Xu, Wen-Bin Lan, Jian-Hua Lin
Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) holds great potential for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, transplanted NSCs poorly survive in the SCI environment. We injected NSCs into tibial nerve and transplanted tibial nerve into a hemisected spinal cord and investigated the effects of lithium chloride (LiCl) on the survival of spinal neurons, axonal regeneration, and functional recovery. Our results show that most of the transplanted NSCs expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein, while there was no obvious expression of nestin, neuronal nuclei, or acetyltransferase found in NSCs...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754206/convective-influx-glymphatic-system-tracers-injected-into-the-csf-enter-and-leave-the-brain-along-separate-periarterial-basement-membrane-pathways
#10
Nazira J Albargothy, David A Johnston, Matthew MacGregor-Sharp, Roy O Weller, Ajay Verma, Cheryl A Hawkes, Roxana O Carare
Tracers injected into CSF pass into the brain alongside arteries and out again. This has been recently termed the "glymphatic system" that proposes tracers enter the brain along periarterial "spaces" and leave the brain along the walls of veins. The object of the present study is to test the hypothesis that: (1) tracers from the CSF enter the cerebral cortex along pial-glial basement membranes as there are no perivascular "spaces" around cortical arteries, (2) tracers leave the brain along smooth muscle cell basement membranes that form the Intramural Peri-Arterial Drainage (IPAD) pathways for the elimination of interstitial fluid and solutes from the brain...
May 12, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751018/differential-behavioral-and-glial-responses-induced-by-dopaminergic-mechanisms-in-the-inos-knockout-mice
#11
Ana Carolina Issy, Glauce Crivelaro Nascimento, Gabriel Henrique Dias de Abreu, Fabrine S Tristão, Elaine Del-Bel, Terence Duarte, Mariza Bortolanza
The interaction between distinctive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and the dopamine system provides new avenues to the development of pharmacological tools for the pathophysiological conditions of the dopaminergic system. Our aim was to investigate the influences of dopamine-induced effects in inducible NOS knockout (iNOS KO) mice. In order to characterize iNOS KO mice phenotype, the animals were submitted to the basal analyses of motor, sensorimotor and sensorial abilities. Pharmacological challenging of the dopaminergic system included the investigation of amphetamine-induced prepulse inhibition (PPI) disruption, haloperidol-induced catalepsy, reserpine-induced oral involuntary movements and hyperlocomotion induced by amphetamine in reserpine treated mice...
May 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748975/lysosomes-autophagosomes-and-alzheimer-pathology-in-dementia-with-lewy-body-disease
#12
Rowan Gurney, Yvonne S Davidson, Andrew C Robinson, Anna Richardson, Matthew Jones, Julie S Snowden, David M A Mann
A failure of protein degradation may underpin Lewy body disease (LBD) where α-synuclein is assimilated into the pathognomic Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. We investigated histological alterations in lysosomes and autophagosomes in the substantia nigra (SN) and cingulate gyrus (CG) in 34 patients with LBD employing antibodies against phosphorylated α-synuclein and lysosomal (lysosomal associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2), cathepsin D (CTSD)) and autophagosomal (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3α (LC3A)) proteins...
May 10, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743672/cellular-milieu-imparts-distinct-pathological-%C3%AE-synuclein-strains-in-%C3%AE-synucleinopathies
#13
Chao Peng, Ronald J Gathagan, Dustin J Covell, Coraima Medellin, Anna Stieber, John L Robinson, Bin Zhang, Rose M Pitkin, Modupe F Olufemi, Kelvin C Luk, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee
In Lewy body diseases-including Parkinson's disease, without or with dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Alzheimer's disease with Lewy body co-pathology 1 -α-synuclein (α-Syn) aggregates in neurons as Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites 2 . By contrast, in multiple system atrophy α-Syn accumulates mainly in oligodendrocytes as glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) 3 . Here we report that pathological α-Syn in GCIs and Lewy bodies (GCI-α-Syn and LB-α-Syn, respectively) is conformationally and biologically distinct...
May 9, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743351/survival-of-syngeneic-and-allogeneic-ipsc-derived-neural-precursors-after-spinal-grafting-in-minipigs
#14
Jan Strnadel, Cassiano Carromeu, Cedric Bardy, Michael Navarro, Oleksandr Platoshyn, Andreas N Glud, Silvia Marsala, Jozef Kafka, Atsushi Miyanohara, Tomohisa Kato, Takahiro Tadokoro, Michael P Hefferan, Kota Kamizato, Tetsuya Yoshizumi, Stefan Juhas, Jana Juhasova, Chak-Sum Ho, Taba Kheradmand, PeiXi Chen, Dasa Bohaciakova, Marian Hruska-Plochan, Andrew J Todd, Shawn P Driscoll, Thomas D Glenn, Samuel L Pfaff, Jiri Klima, Joseph Ciacci, Eric Curtis, Fred H Gage, Jack Bui, Kazuhiko Yamada, Alysson R Muotri, Martin Marsala
The use of autologous (or syngeneic) cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) holds great promise for future clinical use in a wide range of diseases and injuries. It is expected that cell replacement therapies using autologous cells would forego the need for immunosuppression, otherwise required in allogeneic transplantations. However, recent studies have shown the unexpected immune rejection of undifferentiated autologous mouse iPSCs after transplantation. Whether similar immunogenic properties are maintained in iPSC-derived lineage-committed cells (such as neural precursors) is relatively unknown...
May 9, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740943/vanishing-white-matter-a-leukodystrophy-due-to-astrocytic-dysfunction
#15
Marianna Bugiani, Caroline Vuong, Marjolein Breur, Marjo S van der Knaap
VWM is one of the most prevalent leukodystrophies with unique clinical, pathological and molecular features. It mostly affects children, but may develop at all ages, from birth to senescence. It is dominated by cerebellar ataxia and susceptible to stresses that act as factors provoking disease onset or episodes of rapid neurological deterioration possibly leading to death. VWM is caused by mutations in any of the genes encoding the five subunits of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). Although eIF2B is ubiquitously expressed, VWM primarily manifests as a leukodystrophy with increasing white matter rarefaction and cystic degeneration, meager astrogliosis with no glial scarring and dysmorphic immature astrocytes and increased numbers of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells that are restrained from maturing into myelin-forming cells...
May 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739136/early-postnatal-valproic-acid-exposure-increase-the-protein-level-of-astrocyte-markers-in-frontal-cortex-of-rat
#16
Tamanna Jahan Mony, Jae Won Lee, Sung Soo Kim, Wanjoo Chun, Hee Jae Lee
Objective: In our previous study, it has been reported that valproic acid (VPA) effects gliogenesis and increases the number of glial precursor cells during the early postnatal period. However there is no specific report that whether this process is going on up to the age of mature brain development and the consequence effect of this ongoing gliogenesis process. Methods: As an ongoing study, using Immunoblotting analysis, we checked the level of glial protein and glial-derived factor markers in the frontal cortex of a rat brain at postnatal day (PND) 21...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736745/activation-of-the-cannabinoid-type-2-receptor-by-a-novel-indazole-derivative-normalizes-the-survival-pattern-of-lymphoblasts-from-patients-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Patricia Del Cerro, Carolina Alquézar, Fernando Bartolomé, Pedro González-Naranjo, Concepción Pérez, Eva Carro, Juan A Páez, Nuria E Campillo, Ángeles Martín-Requero
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is a multifactorial disorder for which there is no disease-modifying treatment yet. CB2 receptors have emerged as a promising therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease because they are expressed in neuronal and glial cells and their activation has no psychoactive effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether activation of the CB2 receptor would restore the aberrant enhanced proliferative activity characteristic of immortalized lymphocytes from patients with late-onset Alzheimer's disease...
May 7, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734230/ketamine-alters-hippocampal-cell-proliferation-and-improves-learning-in-mice-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Austin J Peters, Laura E Villasana, Eric Schnell
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury induces cellular proliferation in the hippocampus, which generates new neurons and glial cells during recovery. This process is regulated by N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors, which are inhibited by ketamine. The authors hypothesized that ketamine treatment after traumatic brain injury would reduce hippocampal cell proliferation, leading to worse behavioral outcomes in mice. METHODS: Traumatic brain injury was induced in mice using a controlled cortical impact injury, after which mice (N = 118) received either ketamine or vehicle systemically for 1 week...
April 30, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728828/assemblages-a-and-b-of-giardia-duodenalis-reduce-enteric-glial-cells-in-the-small-intestine-in-mice
#19
Mariana Felgueira Pavanelli, Cristiane Maria Colli, Renata Coltro Bezagio, Marcelo Biondaro Góis, Gessilda de Alcântara Nogueira de Melo, Eduardo José de Almeida Araújo, Débora de Mello Gonçales Sant'Ana
Infection of Giardia duodenalis is one of the most common human parasitic disease worldwide. This infection may be related to important changes in the enteric nervous system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the myenteric and submucosal plexuses, the intestinal muscle layer, and gastrointestinal transit in mice infected with assemblages A and B of G. duodenalis. Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) were infected with assemblages A and B of G. duodenalis for 15 days. Gastrointestinal transit time was evaluated before euthanasia...
May 5, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727049/multifactorial-analysis-of-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome-etiology-tumor-vs-no-tumor-in-a-cohort-of-356-us-children
#20
Michael R Pranzatelli, Elizabeth D Tate, Nathan R McGee
BACKGROUND: Pediatric opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) presents a paradox of etiopathogenesis: A neuroblastic tumor (NB) is found in only one half of the cases, the others are ascribed to infections or designated as idiopathic. METHOD: From an IRB-approved observational study of 356 US children with OMS, secondary analysis of "etiology" and related factors was performed on a well-characterized cohort. The "Tumor" (n = 173) and "No Tumor" groups (n = 183), as defined radiologically, were compared according to multiple factors considered potentially differentiating...
May 4, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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