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Second messagers in neurons

Alex Fogli Iseppe, Angela Pignatelli, Ottorino Belluzzi
Within the olfactory bulb (OB), periglomerular (PG) cells consist of various types of interneurons, generally classified by their chemical properties such as neurotransmitter and calcium binding proteins. Calretinin (CR) characterizes morphologically and functionally the more numerous and one of the less known subpopulation of PG cells in the OB. Using of transgenic mice expressing eGFP under the CR promoter, we have tried to obtain the first functional characterization of these cells. Electrophysiological recordings were made in these cells using the patch-clamp technique in thin slices...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Aasef G Shaikh, Aaron L Wong, Lance M Optican, David S Zee
An attractive hypothesis about how the brain learns to keep its motor commands accurate is centered on the idea that the cerebellar cortex associates error signals carried by climbing fibers with simultaneous activity in parallel fibers. Motor learning can be impaired if the error signals are not transmitted, are incorrect, or are misinterpreted by the cerebellar cortex. Learning might also be impaired if the brain is overwhelmed with a sustained barrage of meaningless information unrelated to simultaneously appearing error signals about incorrect performance...
February 2017: Cerebellum
Antje A Seeber, A Jeannette Pols, Albert Hijdra, Hepke F Grupstra, Dick L Willems, Marianne de Visser
BACKGROUND: Breaking bad news should be fine-tuned to the individual patient, contain intelligible information, include emotional support and offer a tailor-made treatment plan. To achieve this goal in motor neuron disease (MND), neurologists of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) centre Amsterdam deliver the message on 2 separate visits within 14 days. AIM: To evaluate how patients with MND react to and view disclosure of the diagnosis, in this 2-tiered approach...
February 2, 2016: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Ryota Kanai, Yutaka Komura, Stewart Shipp, Karl Friston
This paper considers neuronal architectures from a computational perspective and asks what aspects of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology can be disclosed by the nature of neuronal computations? In particular, we extend current formulations of the brain as an organ of inference--based upon hierarchical predictive coding--and consider how these inferences are orchestrated. In other words, what would the brain require to dynamically coordinate and contextualize its message passing to optimize its computational goals? The answer that emerges rests on the delicate (modulatory) gain control of neuronal populations that select and coordinate (prediction error) signals that ascend cortical hierarchies...
May 19, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Joachim Roth, Clark M Blatteis
Fever is a cardinal symptom of infectious or inflammatory insults, but it can also arise from noninfectious causes. The fever-inducing agent that has been used most frequently in experimental studies designed to characterize the physiological, immunological and neuroendocrine processes and to identify the neuronal circuits that underlie the manifestation of the febrile response is lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our knowledge of the mechanisms of fever production and lysis is largely based on this model. Fever is usually initiated in the periphery of the challenged host by the immediate activation of the innate immune system by LPS, specifically of the complement (C) cascade and Toll-like receptors...
October 2014: Comprehensive Physiology
Gabriel Maisonnave Arisi
Signaling through secretion of small molecules is a hallmark of both nervous and immune systems. The scope and influence of the intense message exchange between these two complex systems are only now becoming objects of scientific inquiry. Both neurotransmitters and cytokines affect their target cells through surface receptors and also by other molecular mechanisms. Cytokine receptors are present in neurons and glial cell populations in discrete brain regions. This review firstly focuses on the role of cytokines in hippocampal physiological processes, such as memory and learning, and secondly on the pathological involvement of cytokines in diseases like depression and epilepsy...
September 2014: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Wei Ren, Lin Yuan, Jun Li, Xian-Ju Huang, Su Chen, Da-Jiang Zou, Xiangming Liu, Xin-Zhou Yang
Aconiti Brachypodi Radix, belonging to the genus of Aconitum (Family Ranunculaceae), are used clinically as anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive in traditional medicine of China. However, its mechanism and influence on nociceptive threshold are unknown and need further investigation. The analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Aconiti Brachypodi Radix (EABR) were thus studied in vivo and in vitro. Three pain models in mice were used to assess the effect of EABR on nociceptive threshold. In vitro study was conducted to clarify the modulation of the extract on the tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium currents in rat's dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using whole-cell patch clamp technique...
2012: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
Céline M Bourdin, Bénédicte Moignot, Lingxin Wang, Laurence Murillo, Marjorie Juchaux, Sophie Quinchard, Bruno Lapied, Nathalie C Guérineau, Ke Dong, Christian Legros
Insect voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are formed by a well-known pore-forming α-subunit encoded by para-like gene and ancillary subunits related to TipE from the mutation "temperature-induced-paralysis locus E." The role of these ancillary subunits in the modulation of biophysical and pharmacological properties of Na(+) currents are not enough documented. The unique neuronal ancillary subunit TipE-homologous protein 1 of Drosophila melanogaster (DmTEH1) strongly enhances the expression of insect Nav channels when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes...
2013: PloS One
Kristina S Mead
This article describes a neuroscience outreach program developed by college undergraduates and aimed at second graders. Over a period of four weeks, twenty-five Denison students enrolled in a non-majors course on gender and the brain visited twenty-four second grade classrooms to engage a total of 464 students. We had a mission to both promote college awareness and to specifically bring some brain science into the classroom. The desire to engage students with the brain was in part a wish to celebrate brain awareness week and in part a wish to follow a feminist tenet of bridging theory and practice via activism...
2010: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Paul J Hagerman
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurodegenerative disorder with defining clinical features that include kinetic tremor, gait ataxia, and parkinsonism, with associated features spanning medical, cognitive, and psychiatric clinical domains. The emerging model for the pathogenesis of FXTAS is that of RNA toxicity as a consequence of the sequestration of RNA binding proteins by the expanded CGG-repeat element within the FMR1 message, thus compromising the normal functions of those proteins...
2012: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Ariane Bazan
First, three case studies are presented of psychotic patients having in common an inability to hold something down or out. In line with other theories on psychosis, we propose that a key change is at the efference copy system. Going back to Freud's mental apparatus, we propose that the messages of discharge of the motor neurons, mobilized to direct perception, also called "indications of reality," are equivalent to the modern efference copies. With this key, the reading of the cases is coherent with the psychodynamic understanding of psychosis, being a downplay of secondary processes, and consequently, a dominance of primary processes...
2012: Frontiers in Psychology
Paul J Hagerman
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurodegenerative disorder with defining clinical features that include kinetic tremor, gait ataxia, and parkinsonism, with associated features spanning medical, cognitive, and psychiatric clinical domains. The emerging model for the pathogenesis of FXTAS is that of RNA toxicity as a consequence of the sequestration of RNA binding proteins by the expanded CGG-repeat element within the FMR1 message, thus compromising the normal functions of those proteins...
May 18, 2012: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
B Kate Dredge, Kirk B Jensen
Anti-NeuN (Neuronal Nuclei) is a monoclonal antibody used extensively to specifically detect post-mitotic neurons. Anti-NeuN reactivity is predominantly nuclear; by western it detects multiple bands ranging in molecular weight from 45 kDa to >75 kDa. Expression screening putatively identified R3hdm2 as NeuN; however immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry of the two major NeuN species at 45-50 kDa identified both as the RNA binding protein Rbfox3 (a member of the Fox family of alternative splicing factors), confirming and extending the identification of the 45 kDa band as Rbfox3 by Kim et al...
2011: PloS One
Olga Asimaki, Dimitra Mangoura
Cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1Rs) play important roles in the regulation of dendritic branching, synapse density, and synaptic transmission through multiple G-protein-coupled signaling systems, including the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2. The proximal signaling interactions leading to ERK1/2 activation by CB1R in CNS remain, however, unclear. Here, we present evidence that the CB1R agonist methanandamide induced a biphasic and sustained activation of ERK1/2 in primary neurons derived from E7 telencephalon...
February 2011: Neurochemistry International
N Katherine Hayles, James J Pulizzi
Although there has long been a division in studies of consciousness between a focus on neuronal processes or conversely an emphasis on the ruminations of a conscious self, the long-standing split between mechanism and meaning within the brain was mirrored by a split without, between information as a technical term and the meanings that messages are commonly thought to convey. How to heal this breach has posed formidable problems to researchers. Working through the history of cybernetics, one of the historical sites where Claude Shannon's information theory quickly became received doctrine, we argue that the cybernetic program as it developed through second-order cybernetics and autopoietic theory remains incomplete...
2010: History of the Human Sciences
Morris H Baslow
N-acetylaspartate (NAA), an acetylated derivative of L-aspartate (Asp), and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), a derivative of NAA and L-glutamate (Glu), are synthesized by neurons in brain. However, neurons cannot catabolize either of these substances, and so their metabolism requires the participation of two other cell types. Neurons release both NAA and NAAG to extra-cellular fluid (ECF) upon stimulation, where astrocytes, the target cells for NAAG, hydrolyze it releasing NAA back into ECF, and oligodendrocytes, the target cells for NAA, hydrolyze it releasing Asp to ECF for recycling to neurons...
November 2010: Amino Acids
Min Wang, Robert M Bradley
Chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal (IXth) nerves relay taste information from anterior and posterior tongue to brainstem where they synapse with second order neurons in the rostral nucleus of solitary tract (rNST). rNST neurons monosynaptically connected to afferent gustatory input were identified both by anatomical labeling and synaptic latency measures. Anterograde tracing was used to label the CT and IXth terminal fields, and neurons surrounded by fluorescent neural profiles visualized with differential interference contrast (DIC) optics in horizontal brainstem slices...
April 30, 2010: Brain Research
Takahiro Furuta, Nadia Urbain, Takeshi Kaneko, Martin Deschênes
Trigeminal sensory nuclei that give rise to ascending pathways of vibrissal information are heavily linked by intersubnuclear connections. This is the case, for instance, of the principal trigeminal nucleus, which receives strong inhibitory input from the caudal sector of the interpolaris subnucleus. Because this inhibitory input can gate the relay of sensory messages through the lemniscal pathway, a central issue in vibrissal physiology is how brain regions that project to the interpolaris control the activity of inhibitory cells...
February 3, 2010: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Dick R Nässel
Neuropeptide signaling is functionally very diverse and one and the same neuropeptide may act as a circulating neurohormone, as a locally released neuromodulator or even as a cotransmitter of classical fast-acting neurotransmitters. Thus, neuropeptides are produced by a huge variety of neuron types in different parts of the nervous system. Within the central nervous system (CNS) there are numerous types of peptidergic interneurons, some with strictly localized and patterned branching morphologies, others with widespread and diffuse arborizations...
November 2009: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Wolf Singer
The cerebral cortex presents itself as a distributed dynamical system with the characteristics of a small world network. The neuronal correlates of cognitive and executive processes often appear to consist of the coordinated activity of large assemblies of widely distributed neurons. These features require mechanisms for the selective routing of signals across densely interconnected networks, the flexible and context dependent binding of neuronal groups into functionally coherent assemblies and the task and attention dependent integration of subsystems...
September 2009: Cognitive Neurodynamics
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