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Second messangers

Michelle L Halls, Dermot M F Cooper
Signalling pathways involving the vital second messanger, cAMP, impact on most significant physiological processes. Unsurprisingly therefore, the activation and regulation of cAMP signalling is tightly controlled within the cell by processes including phosphorylation, the scaffolding of protein signalling complexes and sub-cellular compartmentalisation. This inherent complexity, along with the highly conserved structure of the catalytic sites among the nine membrane-bound adenylyl cyclases, presents significant challenges for efficient inhibition of cAMP signalling...
April 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Margarida Castro-Caldas
Glucocorticoids have important immunosupressive properties, being used as anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents in a wide range of inflammatory and auto-immune pathologies. One of the best studied mechanisms by which glucocorticoids exert most of their anti-inflammatory actions involves the induction of the synthesis and the secretion of the mediator and effector protein annexin 1 (ANXA1). Here we review the molecular and cellular pathways involved on the glucocorticoid-induced synthesis and secretion of ANXA1 in a variety of cell types...
October 2006: Acta Reumatol├│gica Portuguesa
J Vignau, L Karila, O Costisella, V Canva
UNLABELLED: Imputability of thymic disorders caused by IFNalpha during the chronic Hepatitis C treatment -- hepatitis C and depression -- the infection by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health concern since it affects 1.2% in the French population. Eighty percent of those contaminated by HCV keep bearing the virus chronically although they remain asymptomatic during many years. HCV infection is associated with psychiatric symptoms like depression. Together with other factors (eg the severity of hepatic condition), depression may induce significant impairment in quality of life...
May 2005: L'Enc├ęphale
R H Ritchie, R J Schiebinger, M C LaPointe, J D Marsh
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that bradykinin-stimulated release of nitric oxide (NO) and/or prostacyclin from endothelium blocks myocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Angiotensin II increased [3H]phenylalanine incorporation by 21 +/- 2% in myocytes cocultured with endothelial cells; this was abolished by bradykinin in the presence of endothelial cells. Bradykinin increased cytosolic concentrations of cGMP by 29 +/- 4% in myocytes cocultured with endothelial cells. This was abolished by inhibition of NO synthase and by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor...
October 1998: American Journal of Physiology
L Quartara, C A Maggi
The tachykinin NK1 receptor is widely expressed in the mammalian central and peripheral nervous system. Powerful pharmacological tools (agonists and antagonists) are now available to elucidate the physiological role of NK1 receptors at these levels, as well as to understand their role in diseases and establish the possible therapeutic usefulness of NK1 receptor antagonists for treatment of human diseases. The structure-activity studies that have led to the development of potent peptide and non-peptide ligands for the tachykinin NK1 receptor are here reviewed...
December 1997: Neuropeptides
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