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Immunological pathways

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088065/methionine-enkephalin-menk-mounts-antitumor-effect-via-regulating-dendritic-cells-dcs
#1
Yiming Meng, Xinghua Gao, Wenna Chen, Nicolas P Plotnikoff, Noreen Griffin, Guirong Zhang, Fengping Shan
MENK, an endogenous opioid peptide has been reported to have many immunological and antitumor activities. So far the detailed mechanisms of antitumor through regulating DCs by MENK have not been elucidated yet. The aim of this work was to investigate the antitumor mechanisms of MENK via regulating DC. The monitoring methods, such as ELISA, MTS assay, CFSE, Real-time PCR and Western blot were included in our research. We found bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in 36 female C57BL/6 mice treated with MENK enhanced expression of key surface molecules, increased production of critical cytokines reduced endocytosis of FITC-dextran, upregulated TLR4 through MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway and mounted higher antitumor activity...
January 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087939/dendritic-cells-in-the-immune-system-history-lineages-tissues-tolerance-and-immunity
#2
Jonathan M Austyn
The aim of this review is to provide a coherent framework for understanding dendritic cells (DCs). It has seven sections. The introduction provides an overview of the immune system and essential concepts, particularly for the nonspecialist reader. Next, the "History" section outlines the early evolution of ideas about DCs and highlights some sources of confusion that still exist today. The "Lineages" section then focuses on five different populations of DCs: two subsets of "classical" DCs, plasmacytoid DCs, monocyte-derived DCs, and Langerhans cells...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087528/engineering-mycobacteria-for-the-production-of-self-assembling-biopolyesters-displaying-mycobacterial-antigens-for-use-as-tuberculosis-vaccine
#3
Jason W Lee, Natalie A Parlane, Bernd H A Rehm, Bryce M Buddle, Axel Heiser
: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis and still remains one of the world's biggest global health burdens. Recently, engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biobeads produced in both E. coli and Lactococcus lactis displaying mycobacterial antigens were found to induce significant cell mediated immune responses in mice. We observed that such PHA beads contained host cell proteins as impurities which we hypothesized to have the potential to induce immunity...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081529/zika-virus-induced-microcephaly-and-its-possible-molecular-mechanism
#4
Md Imam Faizan, Mohd Abdullah, Sher Ali, Irshad H Naqvi, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Zika virus is an arthropod-borne re-emerging pathogen associated with the global pandemic of 2015-2016. The devastating effect of Zika viral infection is reflected by its neurological manifestations such as microcephaly in newborns. This scenario evoked our interest to uncover the neurotropic localization, multiplication of the virus, and the mechanism of microcephaly. The present report provides an overview of a possible molecular mechanism of Zika virus-induced microcephaly based on recent publications. Transplacental transmission of Zika viral infection from mother to foetus during the first trimester of pregnancy results in propagation of the virus in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), where entry is facilitated by the receptor (AXL protein) leading to the alteration of signalling and immune pathways in host cells...
January 13, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078867/plasma-endocannabinoid-behaviour-in-total-knee-and-hip-arthroplasty
#5
R Ottria, L Cappelletti, A Ravelli, M Mariotti, F Gigli, S Romagnoli, P Ciuffreda, G Banfi, L Drago
Endocannabinoids are a class of lipid mediators involved in a wide range of physiological pathways including pain perception, and immunological defences. In particular, the involvement of endocannabinoids in bone metabolism and bone resorption has recently been studied. Moreover, one study on total knee arthroplasty describes the probable role of endocannabinoids in pain perception after surgery. The aim of the present study was to evaluate variations of endocannabinoid concentrations in patients undergoing total hip or total knee arthroplasty before and after surgery...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078840/mast-cell-and-cancer-with-special-emphasis-on-il-37-an-anti-inflammatory-and-inhibitor-of-innate-immunity-new-frontiers
#6
F Carinci, G Lessiani, E Spinas, S K Kritas, G Ronconi, Al Caraffa, P Conti
Mast cells (MCs) are mediators of allergy and inflammation and participate in the growth of cancer cells. MCs can promote both neoangiogenesis and tumor growth. They increase in the stroma of certain tumors where they can be recruited by tumor-derived chemoattractants, such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES and stem cell factor (SCF) to selectively secrete inflammatory molecules including chemical mediators and cytokines (TNF, IL-6 and IL-1). However, MC differentiation pathways and heterogeneity in cancer are still poorly understood...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074060/s100a8-a9-and-s100a9-reduce-acute-lung-injury
#7
Yuka Hiroshima, Kenneth Hsu, Nicodemus Tedla, Sze Wing Wong, Sharron Chow, Naomi Kawaguchi, Carolyn L Geczy
S100A8 and S100A9 are myeloid cell-derived proteins that are elevated in several types of inflammatory lung disorders. Pro- and anti-inflammatory properties are reported and these proteins are proposed to activate TLR4. S100A8 and S100A9 can function separately, likely through distinct receptors but a systematic comparison of their effects in vivo are limited. Here we assess inflammation in murine lung following S100A9 and S100A8/A9 inhalation. Unlike S100A8, S100A9 promoted mild neutrophil and lymphocyte influx, possibly mediated in part, by increased mast cell degranulation and selective upregulation of some chemokine genes, particularly CXCL-10...
January 11, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073356/gut-microbiota-disturbance-during-helminth-infection-can-it-affect-cognition-and-behaviour-of-children
#8
Vanina Guernier, Bradley Brennan, Laith Yakob, Gabriel Milinovich, Archie C A Clements, Ricardo J Soares Magalhaes
BACKGROUND: Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract is regulated at neural, hormonal, and immunological levels. Recent studies have shown that helminth infections can alter the normal gut microbiota. Studies have also shown that the gut microbiota is instrumental in the normal development, maturation and function of the brain. The pathophysiological pathways by which helminth infections contribute to altered cognitive function remain poorly understood...
January 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073043/periplocoside-a-ameliorated-type-ii-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-mice-via-regulation-of-the-balance-of-th17-treg-cells
#9
Yang Yang, Xudong Hu, Lei Cheng, Wei Tang, Weimin Zhao, Yifu Yang, Jianping Zuo
Periplocoside A (PSA) has been extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Periplocasepium Bge to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) via immune regulation. We previously found that PSA exhibits immunosuppressive activity both in vitro and in vivo. Balanced regulation of helper T 17 (Th17)/regulatory T (Treg) cells is the current therapeutic direction for the treatment of RA. The present study investigated the mechanism of PSA in treating collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The therapeutic effects and potential pharmacological mechanisms of PSA were specifically clarified by examining its effects on CIA in DBA/1 mice...
January 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072517/arthropod-innate-immune-systems-and-vector-borne-diseases
#10
Richard H G Baxter, Alicia Contet, Kathryn Krueger
Arthropods, especially ticks and mosquitoes, are the vectors for a number of parasitic and viral human diseases including malaria, sleeping sickness, Dengue and Zika. Yet arthropods show tremendous individual variation in their capacity to transmit disease. A key factor in this capacity is genetically encoded immune factors that counteract infection by the pathogen. Arthropod-specific pattern recognition receptors and protease cascades detect and respond to infection. Proteins such as antimicrobial peptides, thioester-containing proteins, and transglutaminases effect responses such as lysis, phagocytosis, melanization and agglutination...
January 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071726/the-ppe2-protein-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-translocates-to-host-nucleus-and-inhibits-nitric-oxide-production
#11
Khalid Hussain Bhat, Shruti Srivastava, Sandeep Kumar Kotturu, Sudip Ghosh, Sangita Mukhopadhyay
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, is one of the most successful pathogens of humans. It has evolved several adaptive skills and evasion mechanisms to hijack the immunologically educated host to suit its intracellular lifestyle. Here, we show that one of the unique PPE family member proteins of M. tuberculosis, PPE2, can limit nitric oxide (NO) production by inhibiting inos gene transcription. PPE2 protein has a leucine zipper DNA-binding motif and a functional nuclear localization signal...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071525/additive-toxic-effect-of-deltamethrin-and-cadmium-on-hepatic-hematological-and-immunological-parameters-in-mice
#12
Hasibur Rehman, Al Thbiani Aziz, Shalini Saggu, Adam L VanWert, Nahla Zidan, Sundeep Saggu
Exposure to natural and man-made environmental toxins concurrently can pose a greater threat to multiple organs. In the present work, we investigated interactions between deltamethrin (DM) and cadmium (Cd), whose mechanisms of action in humans are poorly understood. Albino mice were randomly divided into four groups, each containing six mice: saline as control, DM-treated, cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-treated, and CdCl2 plus DM treated. After 2 weeks of treatment biochemical and hematological effects, total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, humoral-mediated immune responses, and histopathological studies were conducted...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064023/identification-and-characterization-of-a-gamma-interferon-inducible-lysosomal-thiol-reductase-homolog-from-guinea-pig-cavia-porcellus-that-exhibits-thiol-reductase-activity-in-vitro
#13
Lei Ma, Fang Cao, Runze Tang, Jiaxin Zhang, Shuangquan Zhang
Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is a key enzyme in the antigen processing and presentation pathway whereby it reduces disulfide bonds at an acidic pH. In this study, a homolog of GILT from guinea pigs (designated gpGILT) was identified and characterized using bioinformatic methods and bioactivity assays. The open reading frame of gpGILT is 705bp in length and encodes 234 amino acids, with a putative molecular weight of about 25.85kDa. The structure of gpGILT is similar to those of humans and zebrafish, containing six introns and seven exons...
December 28, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063952/transcriptome-profiling-of-spleen-provides-insights-into-the-antiviral-mechanism-in-schizothorax-prenanti-after-poly-i-c-challenge
#14
Xiaogang Du, Yunkun Li, Dong Li, Fangliang Lian, Shiyong Yang, Jiayun Wu, Hanmei Liu, Guixian Bu, Fengyan Meng, Xiaohan Cao, Xianyin Zeng, Huaiyu Zhang, Zhiyu Chen
Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti) is an important economical cold-water fish species in southwestern China, but it is susceptible to various pathogens infection. In order to clearly elucidate the antiviral mechanism, in this study, we have analyzed the transcriptome of S. prenanti spleen after challenge with the virus mimic, poly (I:C) (pIC), using next generation sequencing technology (RNA-seq). A total of 313 differential expressed genes (DEGs) in spleen at 24 h were obtained after pIC treatment, including 268 significantly up-regulated unigenes (fold change > 2) and 45 significantly down-regulated unigenes (fold change > 2)...
January 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059456/comprehensive-computational-analysis-of-gwas-loci-identifies-ccr2-as-a-candidate-gene-for-celiac-disease-pathogenesis
#15
Babajan Banaganapalli, Omran Rashidi, Omar Saadah, Jun Wang, Imran Ali Khan Muhammed, Jumana Y Al-Aama, Noor Ahmad Shaik, Ramu Elango
Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten intolerance disorder with known genetic contribution. The recent fine mapping andgenome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified up to 57 non-HLA CD susceptibility SNPs, majority of which are non-coding variants lacking any functional annotation. Therefore, we adopted multidimensional computational approach for uncovering the plausible mechanisms through which these GWAS SNPs are connected to CD pathogenesis. At initial phase, we identified that 25 (43.85%) out of 57 CD-SNPs lies in evolutionarily constrained genetic element regions...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058672/neuroprotective-effects-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-are-mediated-through-inhibition-of-complement-activation-and-apoptosis-in-a-rat-model-of-sepsis
#16
Figen Esen, Gunseli Orhun, Perihan Ergin Ozcan, Evren Senturk, Melike Kucukerden, Murat Giris, Ugur Akcan, Canan Ugur Yilmaz, Nurcan Orhan, Nadir Arican, Mehmet Kaya, Sema Bilgic Gazioglu, Erdem Tuzun
BACKGROUND: Intravenous (IV) immunoglobulin (Ig) treatment is known to alleviate behavioral deficits and increase survival in the experimentally induced model of sepsis. To delineate the mechanisms by which IVIg treatment prevents neuronal dysfunction, an array of immunological and apoptosis markers was investigated. METHODS: Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation perforation (CLP) in rats. The animals were divided into five groups: sham, control, CLP + saline, CLP + immunoglobulin G (IgG) (250 mg/kg, iv), and CLP + immunoglobulins enriched with immunoglobulin M (IgGAM) (250 mg/kg, iv)...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057508/the-humoral-immune-system-of-anadromous-fish
#17
REVIEW
Patty Zwollo
The immune system of anadromous fish is extremely complex, a direct consequence of their diadromous nature. Hormone levels fluctuate widely throughout their life cycle, as fish move between fresh and salt water. This poses major challenges to the physiology of anadromous fish, including adaptation to very different saline environments, distinct pathogen fingerprints, and different environmental stressors. Elevated cortisol and sex hormone levels inhibit B lymphopoiesis and IgM(+) antibody responses, while catecholamines, growth hormones and thyroid hormones are generally stimulatory and enhance the humoral immune response...
January 2, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056922/herbal-formula-xian-fang-huo-ming-yin-regulates-differentiation-of-lymphocytes-and-production-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-collagen-induced-arthritis-mice
#18
Jinyu Li, Yi Wei, Xue Li, Dashuai Zhu, Bo Nie, Jingwei Zhou, Lixia Lou, Bin Dong, Aiming Wu, Yongzhe Che, Meng Chen, Lingqun Zhu, Mingwei Mu, Limin Chai
BACKGROUND: Xian-Fang-Huo-Ming-Yin (XFHM), a traditional herbal formula, has been used to treat sores and carbuncles for hundreds of years in Asia. Nowadays, its clinical effects in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been validated. In this study, we want to study its possible molecular mechanisms of regulating the differentiation of lymphocytes and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice for RA treatment. METHODS: A high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI/MS(n)) system was used to analyze the constituents of XFHM granules...
January 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054334/comprehensive-candidate-gene-analysis-for-symptomatic-or-asymptomatic-outcomes-of-leishmania-infantum-infection-in-brazil
#19
Jason L Weirather, Priya Duggal, Eliana L Nascimento, Gloria R Monteiro, Daniella R Martins, Henio G Lacerda, Michaela Fakiola, Jenefer M Blackwell, Selma M B Jeronimo, Mary E Wilson
Genetic risk factors contribute to asymptomatic versus symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) outcomes following infection with Leishmania infantum. We therefore carried out a family-based (n = 918 post-quality control fully genotyped and phenotyped individuals) candidate gene study for symptomatic VL or asymptomatic delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test phenotypes in highly endemic neighborhoods of northeast Brazil. A total of 248 SNPs were genotyped in 42 genes selected as candidates on the basis of prior genetic, immunological, and transcriptional profiling studies...
January 4, 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049765/2016-signaling-breakthroughs-of-the-year
#20
EDITORIAL
Elizabeth M Adler
Signaling breakthroughs of 2016 clustered mainly in the areas of neuroscience, immunology, and metabolism, with excursions into plant hormone signaling and bacterial manipulation of host signaling pathways. Perhaps reflecting the growing maturity of the discipline of cell signaling, many of this year's breakthroughs have implications for the pathogenesis or treatment of human disease.
January 3, 2017: Science Signaling
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