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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144836/autophagy-and-inflammation
#1
Yu Matsuzawa-Ishimoto, Seungmin Hwang, Ken Cadwell
The cellular degradative pathway of autophagy has a fundamental role in immunity. Here, we review the function of autophagy and autophagy proteins in inflammation. We discuss how the autophagy machinery controls the burden of infectious agents while simultaneously limiting inflammatory pathologies, which often involves processes that are distinct from conventional autophagy. Among the newly emerging processes we describe are LC3-associated phagocytosis and targeting by autophagy proteins, both of which require many of the same proteins that mediate conventional autophagy...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144049/characterization-of-children-with-recurrent-eczema-herpeticum-and-response-to-treatment-with-interferon-gamma
#2
Kavita Darji, Stephanie Frisch, Eric Adjei Boakye, Elaine Siegfried
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) has been used treat severe atopic dermatitis, with equivocal results. Recurrent eczema herpeticum is an underappreciated, therapeutically challenging complication of severe atopic dermatitis. Defects in IFN-γ and other cytokine pathways have been identified in individuals with confirmed eczema herpeticum. This suggests possible benefit from IFN-γ treatment for confirmed eczema herpeticum. The objective of the current study was to evaluate immunologic and microbial parameters and response to IFN-γ treatment in children with confirmed eczema herpeticum...
November 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142307/genetic-polymorphism-related-to-monocyte-macrophage-function-is-associated-with-graft-versus-host-disease
#3
Kati Hyvärinen, Jarmo Ritari, Satu Koskela, Riitta Niittyvuopio, Anne Nihtinen, Liisa Volin, David Gallardo, Jukka Partanen
Despite detailed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching and modern immunosuppressive therapy, severe graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) remains a major hurdle for successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). As the genetic diversity in GvHD complicates the systematic discovery of associated variants across populations, we studied 122 GvHD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 492 HLA-matched sibling HSCT donor-recipient pairs from Finland and Spain. The association between these candidate SNPs and grade III-IV acute GvHD and extensive chronic GvHD was assessed...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141050/differential-immunomodulation-in-human-monocytes-versus-macrophages-by-filarial-cystatin
#4
Gopinath Venugopal, Marion Mueller, Susanne Hartmann, Svenja Steinfelder
Parasitic nematodes have evolved powerful immunomodulatory molecules to enable their survival in immunocompetent hosts by subverting immune responses and minimizing pathological processes. One filarial molecule known to counteract host immune responses by inducing IL-10 and regulatory macrophages in mice is filarial cystatin. During a patent filarial infection monocytes encounter microfilariae in the blood, an event that occurs in asymptomatically infected filariasis patients that are immunologically hyporeactive...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140828/biomimetic-nanoparticles-for-transplantation-tolerance
#5
Silvia Minardi, Sahil Shah, Xunrong Luo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review aims to provide a current landscape and future trends of biomimetic nanoparticles which have the potential to revolutionize the field of transplantation in the next decade. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, the inability to safely induce robust donor-specific immunological tolerance makes it difficult to achieve immunosuppression-free graft survival. Despite progresses in the development of nanotherapeutics for antigen-specific immunomodulation in autoimmune diseases and in cancer treatments, few have been proposed and tested in transplantation with success...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140108/cytomegalovirus-and-hiv-persistence-pouring-gas-on-the-fire
#6
Aaron Christensen-Quick, Christophe Vanpouille, Andrea Lisco, Sara Gianella
The inherent stability of a small population of T cells that are latently infected with HIV despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a stubborn obstacle to an HIV cure. By exploiting the memory compartment of our immune system, HIV maintains persistence in a small subset of quiescent cells with varying phenotypes, thus evading immune surveillance and clinical detection. Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms that maintain the latent reservoir will be critical to the success of HIV eradication strategies...
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139477/a-dietary-flavone-confers-communicable-protection-against-colitis-through-nlrp6-signaling-independently-of-inflammasome-activation
#7
K Radulovic, S Normand, A Rehman, A Delanoye-Crespin, J Chatagnon, M Delacre, N Waldschmitt, L F Poulin, J Iovanna, B Ryffel, P Rosenstiel, M Chamaillard
Flavones represent a class of polyphenols that are found in many plant-derived food sources. Herein, we provide evidence that the anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effect of the flavone apigenin relies on the regulation of the gut microbiota by the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 6 (Nlrp6). When challenged by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water, mice were protected against colitis upon cohousing with apigenin-treated animals. In contrast, the protective effect was lost in the absence of Nlrp6...
November 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136276/targeted-therapies-immunologic-effects-and-potential-applications-outside-of-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Anna E Kersh, Spencer Ng, Yun Min Chang, Maiko Sasaki, Susan N Thomas, Haydn T Kissick, Gregory B Lesinski, Ragini R Kudchadkar, Edmund K Waller, Brian P Pollack
Two pharmacologic approaches that are currently at the forefront of treating advanced cancer are those that center on disrupting critical growth/survival signaling pathways within tumor cells (commonly referred to as "targeted therapies") and those that center on enhancing the capacity of a patient's immune system to mount an antitumor response (immunotherapy). Maximizing responses to both of these approaches requires an understanding of the oncogenic events present in a given patient's tumor and the nature of the tumor-immune microenvironment...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133060/recent-advances-in-the-discovery-of-potent-and-selective-hdac6-inhibitors
#9
REVIEW
Xiu-Xiu Wang, Ren-Zhong Wan, Zhao-Peng Liu
Histone deacetylase HDAC6, a member of the class IIb HDAC family, is unique among HDAC enzymes in having two active catalytic domains, and has unique physiological function. In addition to the modification of histone, HDAC6 targets specific substrates including α-tubulin and HSP90, and are involved in protein trafficking and degradation, cell shape and migration. Selective HDAC6 inhibitors are an emerging class of pharmaceuticals due to the involvement of HDAC6 in different pathways related to neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and immunology...
October 16, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132233/prospects-for-modulating-the-cd40-cd40l-pathway-in-the-therapy-of-the-hyper-igm-syndrome
#10
Xiangxue Meng, Bin Yang, Wen-Chen Suen
The critical role of the CD40/CD40L pathway in B-cell proliferation, immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype switching and germinal center formation has been studied and described extensively in previous literature. Interruption of the CD40/CD40L signal causes hyper-IgM (HIGM) syndrome, which has been classified and recognized as a group of rare inherited immune deficiency disorders. Defects in CD40 and CD40L interactions or in downstream signaling molecules, including activation-induced cytidine deaminase, uracyl-DNA-glycosylase, NF-κB and DNA repair enzymes, result in an increased level of serum IgM and a significantly decreased or absent level of IgA, IgG and IgE that is accompanied by severe recurrent infections and autoimmune diseases...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131037/paradoxical-reactions-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-agents-ustekinumab-secukinumab-ixekizumab-and-others
#11
Lluís Puig
Paradoxical reactions during treatment with a biologic agent can be defined as the appearance or exacerbation of a pathological condition that usually responds to this class of drug while treating a patient for another condition, which usually remains under control (even though there may be a change in morphology or phenotype). Paradoxical reactions were initially described as isolated case reports or case series in patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α agents, first in inflammatory rheumatic diseases, later in psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease...
2018: Current Problems in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130360/autophagy-and-innate-immunity-insights-from-invertebrate-model-organisms
#12
Cheng-Ju Kuo, Malene Hansen, Emily Troemel
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a fundamental intracellular degradation process with multiple roles in immunity, including direct elimination of intracellular microorganisms via 'xenophagy.' In this review, we summarize studies from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that highlight the roles of autophagy in innate immune responses to viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens. Research from these genetically tractable invertebrates has uncovered several conserved immunological paradigms, such as direct targeting of intracellular pathogens by xenophagy and regulation of autophagy by pattern recognition receptors in D...
November 13, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126979/ropivacaine-and-bupivacaine-prevent-increased-pain-sensitivity-without-altering-neuroimmune-activation-following-repeated-social-defeat-stress
#13
Caroline M Sawicki, January K Kim, Michael D Weber, Brant L Jarrett, Jonathan P Godbout, John F Sheridan, Michelle Humeidan
Mounting evidence indicates that stress influences the experience of pain. Exposure to psychosocial stress disrupts bi-directional communication pathways between the central nervous system and peripheral immune system, and can exacerbate the frequency and severity of pain experienced by stressed subjects. Repeated social defeat (RSD) is a murine model of psychosocial stress that recapitulates the immune and behavioral responses to stress observed in humans, including activation of stress-reactive neurocircuitry and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production...
November 7, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124070/exclusive-enteral-nutrition-induces-remission-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease-via-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota
#14
REVIEW
Dawei Gong, Xinjuan Yu, Lili Wang, Lingling Kong, Xiaojie Gong, Quanjiang Dong
Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) has been proven to be effective and safe in treating pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). EEN induces pediatric CD remission possibly through three pathways: (1) direct anti-inflammatory effects, (2) improved epithelial barrier function, and (3) modulation of the gut microbiota. Recent studies have demonstrated that modulation of the gut microbiota plays a major role in EEN-induced remission. Variations of microbial components, which directly influence the diversity and metabolic functions of the gut microbiota, are closely associated with the immunological conditions of the gut and the susceptibility to diseases...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120926/recent-insights-into-biological-functions-of-mammalian-bombesin-like-peptides-and-their-receptors
#15
Xiangping Qu, Hui Wang, Rujiao Liu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights recent advances in physiological and pharmacological researches in biology of mammalian bombesin-like peptides (BLPs). RECENT FINDINGS: BLPs and their receptors were found to have regulatory roles in many biological processes in central nervous system. Two BLPs, neuromedin B and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and their receptors are required for regulation of basal and induced sighing activity in rodents. This is the first study demonstrating central pathways involved in regulation of sighing activity...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119328/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-allergic-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Jae Seok Jeong, So Ri Kim, Seong Ho Cho, Yong Chul Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we will integrate recent knowledge on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and allergy, thereby highlighting the therapeutic potential of ER stress in the context of precision medicine for allergic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging evidence suggests that allergic diseases are very heterogeneous having numerous endotypes. This leads to the new era of modern medicine, which assumes that a particular endotype-driven therapy, called precision medicine, would be more efficacious in a specific group of patients rather than in all patients...
November 8, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118930/biomarkers-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-insight-into-diagnosis-prognosis-and-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Mohsen Norouzinia, Vahid Chaleshi, Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh, Mohammad Reza Zali
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease of unknown etiology which mostly involves the intestine and requires a personalized approach for treatment. IBD represents a heterogeneous group of patients with inherently variable disease courses. Hence, the heterogeneity of patient populations may delay the diagnosis, clinical practice and initiation of appropriate treatment. Use of biomarkers for diagnosis and management of IBD is still necessary. Descriptions of the immunological pathway abnormalities in IBD improve assessment to identify the patient's disease status, and relative risk of progression to complicated disease behaviors, and this information may ultimately influence therapeutic decisions...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118899/alterations-in-tendon-microenvironment-in-response-to-mechanical-load-potential-molecular-targets-for-treatment-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Mohamed B Fouda, Finosh G Thankam, Matthew F Dilisio, Devendra K Agrawal
Rotator cuff (RC) tendons could beinflicted in many ways with an eventual outcome of pain, weakness and disability, which represent a large burden on health care cost. However, optimal healing, either conservatively or with surgical intervention, remains an issue that needs further investigation. Disorders of the RC tendons may result from external factors like trauma, or internal factors through physiologic and metabolic derangement. Most RC tendon disorders may be asymptomatic and may result from an over-activity of the inflicted shoulder and its tendons...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118468/the-intricate-link-among-gut-immunological-niche-microbiota-and-xenobiotics-in-intestinal-pathology
#19
REVIEW
Danilo Pagliari, Giovanni Gambassi, Ciriaco A Piccirillo, Rossella Cianci
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are diseases characterized by various degrees of inflammation involving the gastrointestinal tract. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are characterized by a dysregulated immune response leading to structural gut alterations in genetically predisposed individuals. Diverticular disease is characterized by abnormal immune response to normal gut microbiota. IBDs are linked to a lack of physiological tolerance of the mucosal immune system to resident gut microbiota and pathogens...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115974/stat3-blocked-whole-cell-hepatoma-vaccine-induces-cellular-and-humoral-immune-response-against-hcc
#20
Qiuju Han, Yaqun Wang, Min Pang, Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Whole-cell tumor vaccines have shown much promise; however, only limited success has been achieved for the goal of eliciting robust tumor-specific T-cell responses. METHODS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, H22 and Hepa1-6, were modified by blocking the STAT3 signaling pathway with a STAT3 decoy oligodeoxynucleotide, and the immunogenicity and possibility of using these cell lysates as a vaccine were evaluated. RESULTS: STAT3-blocked whole HCC cell lysates inhibited tumor growth and tumorigenesis, and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
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