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Immunological pathways

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341486/rheumatoid-arthritis-and-periodontal-disease-what-are-the-similarities-and-differences
#1
REVIEW
Rongbin Li, Cheng Tian, Arnold Postlethwaite, Yan Jiao, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Debendra Pattanaik, Dongmei Wei, Weikuan Gu, Jianwei Li
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease (PD) are chronic inflammatory diseases that share similar osteoclasia, human leukocyte antigen-DR4 allelic genes and immunological profile, and characteristic cytokines. Smoking can contribute to more severe RA and PD; secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators destroys the soft synovial membrane and periodontium, respectively. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies and anti-α-enolase antibody are characteristic of these two diseases. Some studies suggest that PD may be associated with RA...
December 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341159/clinicopathological-genomic-and-immunological-factors-in-colorectal-cancer-prognosis
#2
REVIEW
K M Marks, N P West, E Morris, P Quirke
BACKGROUND: Numerous factors affect the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), many of which have long been identified, such as patient demographics and the multidisciplinary team. In more recent years, molecular and immunological biomarkers have been shown to have a significant influence on patient outcomes. Whilst some of these biomarkers still require ongoing validation, if proven to be worthwhile they may change our understanding and future management of CRC. The aim of this review was to identify the key prognosticators of CRC, including new molecular and immunological biomarkers, and outline how these might fit into the whole wider context for patients...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339440/repurposing-tin-mesoporphyrin-as-an-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-shows-therapeutic-efficacy-in-preclinical-models-of-cancer
#3
Tamara Muliaditan, James W Opzoomer, Jonathan Caron, Mary Okesola, Paris Kosti, Sharanpreet Lall, Mieke Van Hemelrijck, Francesco Dazzi, Andrew Tutt, Anita Grigoriadis, Cheryl Gillett, Stephen F Madden, Joy M Burchell, Shahram Kordasti, Sandra S Diebold, James Spicer, James N Arnold
PURPOSE: Unprecedented clinical outcomes have been achieved in a variety of cancers by targeting immune checkpoint molecules. This preclinical study investigates heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an immune suppressive enzyme that is expressed in a wide variety of cancers, as a potential immune checkpoint target in the context of a chemotherapy-elicited anti-tumor immune response. We evaluate repurposing tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), which has demonstrated safety and efficacy targeting hepatic HO in the clinic for the treatment of hyperbilirubinaemia, as an immune checkpoint blockade therapy for the treatment of cancer...
January 16, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337067/the-impact-of-growth-factors-on-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-differentiation-into-cardiomyocytes
#4
Marianne E Yassa, Iman A Mansour, Nadia I Sewelam, Hala Hamza, Taghrid Gaafar
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) act as a promising therapeutic alternative for cardiovascular diseases. They yield a large number of functional cardiomyocytes (CMs) from autologous cell sources without ethical or immunological problems. However, significant limitations still remain in terms of line-to-line variability in CM yield and reproducibility. AIM: To efficiently enhance NP0040 hiPSCs differentiation into CMs. MAIN METHODS: Following a standard cardiac differentiation protocol using small molecules targeting the canonical Wnt signaling, growth factors (BMP4 and FGF2) and ascorbic acid were added further in order to increase the cardiac differentiation efficiency...
January 11, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336928/tackling-the-recurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#5
REVIEW
N Petrosillo
The pathogenesis of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is still poorly understood. The risk of recurrence is approximately 20% after an initial CDI episode and dramatically increases with subsequent CDI recurrences. Several factors may play a role in recurrent CDI (rCDI), including conditions influencing germination, metabolic pathways that influence toxin production of C. difficile, and the microbiota composition offering protection against colonization and disease caused by C. difficile. Paradoxically, the currently recommended treatment for acute symptomatic CDI, i...
January 11, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331768/the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-an-innovative-treatment-strategy-for-respiratory-diseases-and-their-comorbidities
#6
REVIEW
Mitsuhiro Yamada, Masakazu Ichinose
Over the past few decades, it has been clarified that the nervous system and immune system have overlapping distributions and their interactions are critical in the regulation of immunological and inflammatory responses. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, including the parasympathetic nerve systems and humoral factors orchestrate the immune responses to protect the body during infection and tissue injury. Recent investigations have attempted to clarify how the parasympathetic nerve systems attenuate the systemic inflammatory responses and identified the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) as a crucial target for attenuating the release of inflammatory cytokines from inflammatory cells including macrophages and dendritic cells...
January 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331709/what-do-the-genetic-association-data-say-about-the-high-risk-of-suicide-in-people-with-depression-a-novel-network-based-approach-to-find-common-molecular-basis-for-depression-and-suicidal-behavior-and-related-therapeutic-targets
#7
Ali Bozorgmehr, Fatemeh Alizadeh, Sattar Norouzi Ofogh, Mohammad Reza Abdollahzadeh Hamzekalayi, Sara Herati, Atefeh Moradkhani, Ali Shahbazi, Mohammad Ghadirivasfi
BACKGROUND: Available sources indicate that the risk of suicide in people with major depression is higher than other psychiatric disorders. Although it seems that these two conditions may have a shared cause in some cases, no studies have been conducted to identify a common basis for them. METHODS: In this study, following an extensive review of literature, we found almost all the genes that are involved in major depression and suicidal behavior, and we isolated genes shared between the two conditions...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331587/il-23-il-17-immune-axis-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-exploring-newer-vistas-for-understanding-pathobiology-and-therapeutic-implications
#8
REVIEW
Monojit Debnath, Madhu Nagappa, Geetanjali Murari, Arun B Taly
Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS) is a severe disorder of the peripheral nervous system with an inadequately known etiopathology. It is a post infectious immune mediated disorder, characterized by autoantibody production, complement activation as well as T reactivity against gangliosides. However, the precise etiopathogenesis remains poorly understood in a majority of the patients. Th17 cells, a recently identified lineage of Th cells have emerged as a predominant inducer of autoimmunity and inflammation in various immunological disorders...
January 10, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331367/molecular-characterization-and-differential-expression-analysis-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-from-ovis-aries
#9
Yi-Ming Shui, Shi-Ying Lu, Xing Guo, Xi-Lin Liu, Bao-Quan Fu, Pan Hu, Lin-Lin Qu, Nan-Nan Liu, Yan-Song Li, Lu-Lu Wang, Fei-Fei Zhai, Dan-Di Ju, Zeng-Shan Liu, Yu Zhou, Hong-Lin Ren
The interleukin-1 family is an important component of the innate immune system and plays an important role in regulating immune responses on the invasion of intracellular parasites in the acquired immune system. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is one of the members of the IL-1 family that predominantly activates downstream signaling pathways to play immunological functions of stimulating T and B lymphocyte activation and promoting the various syntheses of inflammatory substances in conjunction with other cytokines...
January 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330560/altered-bone-remodeling-in-psoriatic-disease-new-insights-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Ananta Paine, Christopher Ritchlin
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory rheumatic disorder that occurs in patients with psoriasis and predominantly affects musculoskeletal structures, skin, and nails. The etiology of PsA is not well understood but evidence supports an interplay of genetic, immunologic, and environmental factors which promote pathological bone remodeling and joint damage in PsA. Localized and systemic bone loss due to increased activity of osteoclasts is well established in PsA based on animal models and translational studies...
January 12, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329080/intrauterine-inflammatory-activation-functional-progesterone-withdrawal-and-the-timing-of-term-and-preterm-birth
#11
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Keelan
The central role of inflammatory processes in labour and delivery is now well-recognised. However, the biomolecular, immunological and endocrine mechanisms involved in the labour process, and the clinical manifestations of inflammation in pregnancy, are complex, variable and modulated by factors such as aetiology, ethnicity and gestational age. In this review, evidence is presented of the pivotal relationship between progesterone and inflammation in pregnancy in terms of determining the timing of labour and delivery...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328909/single-cell-genomics-a-stepping-stone-for-future-immunology-discoveries
#12
REVIEW
Amir Giladi, Ido Amit
The immunology field has invested great efforts and ingenuity to characterize the various immune cell types and elucidate their functions. However, accumulating evidence indicates that current technologies and classification schemes are limited in their ability to account for the functional heterogeneity of immune processes. Single-cell genomics hold the potential to revolutionize the way we characterize complex immune cell assemblies and study their spatial organization, dynamics, clonal distribution, pathways, function, and crosstalks...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328908/metabolic-induction-of-trained-immunity-through-the-mevalonate-pathway
#13
Siroon Bekkering, Rob J W Arts, Boris Novakovic, Ioannis Kourtzelis, Charlotte D C C van der Heijden, Yang Li, Calin D Popa, Rob Ter Horst, Julia van Tuijl, Romana T Netea-Maier, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Leo A B Joosten, Jos W M van der Meer, Henk Stunnenberg, Niels P Riksen, Mihai G Netea
Innate immune cells can develop long-term memory after stimulation by microbial products during infections or vaccinations. Here, we report that metabolic signals can induce trained immunity. Pharmacological and genetic experiments reveal that activation of the cholesterol synthesis pathway, but not the synthesis of cholesterol itself, is essential for training of myeloid cells. Rather, the metabolite mevalonate is the mediator of training via activation of IGF1-R and mTOR and subsequent histone modifications in inflammatory pathways...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328786/connections-between-metabolism-and-epigenetics-in-programming-cellular-differentiation
#14
Danielle A Chisolm, Amy S Weinmann
Researchers are intensifying efforts to understand the mechanisms by which changes in metabolic states influence differentiation programs. An emerging objective is to define how fluctuations in metabolites influence the epigenetic states that contribute to differentiation programs. This is because metabolites such as S-adenosylmethionine, acetyl-CoA, α-ketoglutarate, 2-hydroxyglutarate, and butyrate are donors, substrates, cofactors, and antagonists for the activities of epigenetic-modifying complexes and for epigenetic modifications...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327186/environmental-pollutants-pathogens-and-immune-system-in-earthworms
#15
Shyamasree Ghosh
Earthworms also known as farmer's friends are natural tillers of soil. They belong to Phylum Annelida and class Oligochaeta. Acid soils with organic matter and surface humus maintain the largest fauna of worms and earthworms. Due to their habitat in soil, they are constantly exposed to microbes and pollution generated by anthropogenic sources. Studies have revealed that damage of the immune system of earthworms can lead to alterations of both morphological and cellular characteristics of worms, activation of signalling pathways and can strongly influence their survival...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320737/genomic-circuitry-underlying-immunological-response-to-pediatric-acute-respiratory-infection
#16
Sarah E Henrickson, Sasikanth Manne, Douglas V Dolfi, Kathleen D Mansfield, Kaela Parkhouse, Rakesh D Mistry, Elizabeth R Alpern, Scott E Hensley, Kathleen E Sullivan, Susan E Coffin, E John Wherry
Acute respiratory tract viral infections (ARTIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. CD8 T cells are fundamental to host responses, but transcriptional alterations underlying anti-viral mechanisms and links to clinical characteristics remain unclear. CD8 T cell transcriptional circuitry in acutely ill pediatric patients with influenza-like illness was distinct for different viral pathogens. Although changes included expected upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), transcriptional downregulation was prominent upon exposure to innate immune signals in early IFV infection...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317357/novel-identified-aluminum-hydroxide-induced-pathways-proof-monocyte-activation-and-pro-inflammatory-preparedness
#17
Sietske Kooijman, Jolanda Brummelman, Cécile A C M van Els, Fabio Marino, Albert J R Heck, Geert P M Mommen, Bernard Metz, Gideon F A Kersten, Jeroen L A Pennings, Hugo D Meiring
Aluminum-based adjuvants are the most widely used adjuvants in human vaccines. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of action of aluminum adjuvants at the molecular level, however, is still elusive. Here, we unravel the effects of aluminum hydroxide Al(OH)3 by a systems-wide analysis of the Al(OH)3-induced monocyte response. Cell response analysis by cytokine release was combined with (targeted) transcriptome and full proteome analysis. Results from this comprehensive study revealed two novel pathways to become activated upon monocyte stimulation with Al(OH)3: the first pathway was IFNβ signaling possibly induced by DAMP sensing pathways like TLR or NOD1 activation, and second the HLA class I antigen processing and presentation pathway...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316420/immunology-the-neuronal-pathway-to-mucosal-immunity
#18
Stephan Löser, Rick M Maizels
Type 2 immunity at mucosal surfaces is thought to be initiated by type 2 innate lymphoid cells. New studies report that these cells are themselves activated by the neuropeptide neuromedin U, produced by cholinergic neurons in the gut and in airways.
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316044/global-transcriptome-profiling-of-mild-relapsing-remitting-versus-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Marcus W Koch, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Andrey Golubov, Luanne M Metz, V Wee Yong, Olga Kovalchuk
BACKGROUND: Genetic research in MS mostly compares MS patients with healthy controls, but does not differentiate between MS disease courses. We compared peripheral blood gene expression patterns between extremes of MS phenotypes: patients with mild relapsing-remitting MS (mRRMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). METHODS: We analyzed global gene expression profiles of peripheral blood samples of age and gender matched patients with mRRMS and PPMS. Detailed bioinformatic and gene set enrichment analysis, pathway and principle component analyses were used to identify differentially expressed genes and pathways...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312858/de-novo-glomerular-diseases-after-renal-transplantation-how-is-it-different-from-recurrent-glomerular-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Fedaey Abbas, Mohsen El Kossi, Jon Kim Jin, Ajay Sharma, Ahmed Halawa
The glomerular diseases after renal transplantation can occur de novo, i.e., with no relation to the native kidney disease, or more frequently occur as a recurrence of the original disease in the native kidney. There may not be any difference in clinical features and histological pattern between de novo glomerular disease and recurrence of original glomerular disease. However, structural alterations in transplanted kidney add to dilemma in diagnosis. These changes in architecture of histopathology can happen due to: (1) exposure to the immunosuppression specifically the calcineurin inhibitors (CNI); (2) in vascular and tubulointerstitial alterations as a result of antibody mediated or cell-mediated immunological onslaught; (3) post-transplant viral infections; (4) ischemia-reperfusion injury; and (5) hyperfiltration injury...
December 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
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