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Organic brain

J D Rasinger, T S Carroll, F Maranghi, R Tassinari, G Moracci, I Altieri, A Mantovani, A-K Lundebye, C Hogstrand
Developmental health risks of chronical exposure to low doses of foodborne persistent organic pollutants (POP) are recognized but still largely uncharacterized. Juvenile female BALB/c mice exposed to either HBCD, CB-153 or TCDD at doses relevant to human dietary exposures (49.5 μg, 1.35 μg and 0.90 pg kg-1 bw-1 day-1 , respectively) for 28 days displayed histopathological changes in liver (HBCD, CB-153, TCDD), thymus (HBCD, CB-153) and uterus (HBCD), reduced serum oestradiol 17β (E2) levels (HBCD), increased serum testosterone (T) levels (CB-153) and an increased T/E2 ratio (HBCD)...
June 20, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Beata Dąbrowska-Bouta, Grzegorz Sulkowski, Małgorzata Frontczak-Baniewicz, Joanna Skalska, Mikołaj Sałek, Jolanta Orzelska-Górka, Lidia Strużyńska
The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in medicine and in multiple commercial products has motivated researchers to investigate their potentially hazardous effects in organisms. Since AgNPs may easily enter the brain through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), characterization of their interactions with cellular components of the neurovascular unit (NVU) is of particular importance. Therefore, in an animal model of prolonged low-dose exposure, we investigate the extent and mechanisms of influence of AgNPs on cerebral microvessels...
June 20, 2018: Toxicology
Michelle C LaPlaca, M Christian Lessing, Gustavo R Prado, Runzhou Zhou, Ciara C Tate, Donna Geddes-Klein, David F Meaney, Liying Zhang
BACKGROUND: An increases in plasma membrane permeability is part of the acute pathology of traumatic brain injury and may be a function of excessive membrane force. This membrane damage, or mechanoporation, allows non-specific flux of ions and other molecules across the plasma membrane, and may ultimately lead to cell death. The relationships among tissue stress and strain, membrane permeability, and subsequent cell degeneration, however, are not fully understood. METHODS: Fluorescent molecules of different sizes were introduced to the cerebrospinal fluid space prior to injury and animals were sacrificed at either 10 min or 24 h after injury...
June 7, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Prashanth Rajarajan, Yan Jiang, Bibi S Kassim, Schahram Akbarian
Chromosomal conformations, including promoter-enhancer loops, provide a critical regulatory layer for the transcriptional machinery. Therefore, schizophrenia, a common psychiatric disorder associated with broad changes in neuronal gene expression in prefrontal cortex and other brain regions implicated in psychosis, could be associated with alterations in higher-order chromatin. Here, we review early studies on spatial genome organization in the schizophrenia postmortem brain and discuss how integrative approaches using cell culture and animal model systems could gain deeper insight into the potential roles of higher-order chromatin for the neurobiology of and novel treatment avenues for common psychiatric disease...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Ludmila Pawlikowska, Jeffrey Nelson, Diana E Guo, Charles E McCulloch, Michael T Lawton, Helen Kim, Marie E Faughnan
BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is caused by mutations in TGFβ/BMP9 pathway genes and characterized by vascular malformations (VM) including arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in lung, liver, and brain, which lead to severe complications including intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) from brain VM. The clinical heterogeneity of HHT suggests a role for genetic modifier effects. Common variants in loci that modify phenotype severity in Tgfb knockout mice were previously reported as associated with lung AVM in HHT...
May 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
M Glushkova, V Bojinova, M Koleva, P Dimova, M Bojidarova, I Litvinenko, T Todorov, E Iluca, C Calusaru, E Neagu, D Craiu, V Mitev, A Todorova
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of hamartomas localized in various tissues which can occur in the skin, brain, kidney and other organs. TSC is caused by mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Here we report the results from the first molecular testing of 16 Bulgarian patients and one Romanian patient in whom we found six novel mutations: four in the TSC2 2 gene, of which one is nonsense, two frame shift and one large deletion of 16 exons; and two in the TSC1 gene, one nonsense and other frame shift...
June 2018: Journal of Genetics
Daniel Hoops, Ester Desfilis, Jeremy F P Ullmann, Andrew L Janke, Timothy Stait-Gardner, Gabriel A Devenyi, William S Price, Loreta Medina, Martin J Whiting, J Scott Keogh
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established technique for neuroanatomical analysis, being particularly useful in the medical sciences. However, the application of MRI to evolutionary neuroscience is still in its infancy. Few magnetic resonance brain atlases exist outside the standard model organisms in neuroscience and no magnetic resonance atlas has been produced for any reptile brain. A detailed understanding of reptilian brain anatomy is necessary to elucidate the evolutionary origin of enigmatic brain structures such as the cerebral cortex...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Dakui Luo, Qi Liu, Wencheng Yu, Yanlei Ma, Ji Zhu, Peng Lian, Sanjun Cai, Qingguo Li, Xinxiang Li
PURPOSE: We investigated the prognostic value of distant metastasis sites among patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) and the significance of metastasectomy and resection of the primary CRC. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2014, patients diagnosed with metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma were selected using the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database. The prognosis of these patients was compared according to the site of metastasis (liver, lung, bone, and brain)...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Ilmari Rakkolainen, Moustafa Elmasry, Ingrid Steinvall, Jyrki Vuola
B-type natriuretic peptide has shown promising results as a biomarker for acute kidney injury in general intensive care patients. It may also indirectly reflect fluid balance of the circulation. Among burn patients, it has been observed to indicate excessive fluid resuscitation and organ dysfunction, although its clinical use to indicate acute kidney injury or guide fluid resuscitation has not been validated. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide values are related to the amount of fluids given after severe burn injury and whether it can act as a novel biomarker for acute kidney injury in these patients...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Rachida Yakoubi, Astrid Rollenhagen, Marec von Lehe, Yachao Shao, Kurt Sätzler, Joachim H R Lübke
Studies of synapses are available for different brain regions of several animal species including non-human primates, but comparatively little is known about their quantitative morphology in humans. Here, synaptic boutons in Layer 5 (L5) of the human temporal lobe (TL) neocortex were investigated in biopsy tissue, using fine-scale electron microscopy, and quantitative three-dimensional reconstructions. The size and organization of the presynaptic active zones (PreAZs), postsynaptic densities (PSDs), and that of the 3 distinct pools of synaptic vesicles (SVs) were particularly analyzed...
June 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Yongjie Xu, Xiaodan Lai, Zhipeng Li, Xiquan Zhang, Qingbin Luo
The differences in physiological and immunological parameters and pathological damage to organ tissues exposed to chronic heat stress provide the basis for evaluating heat resistance of different chicken breeds (white recessive rock [WRR] and The Lingshan [LS]). Ninety broilers of each breed were divided equally into a chronic heat stress group and a no heat stress group. The effects of chronic heat stress on the physiological and immunological parameters of broilers were analyzed using flow cytometry, ELISA, RT-qPCR, etc...
June 20, 2018: Poultry Science
Alu Konno, Shigetoshi Okazaki
Background: Investigation of the internal tissues and organs of a macroscopic organism usually requires destructive processes, such as dissection or sectioning. These processes are inevitably associated with the loss of some spatial information. Recently, aqueous-based tissue clearing techniques, which allow whole-organ or even whole-body clearing of small rodents, have been developed and opened a new method of three-dimensional histology. It is expected that these techniques will be useful tools in the field of zoology, in which organisms with highly diverse morphology are investigated and compared...
2018: Zoological Letters
Tianyi Yan, Wenhui Wang, Liu Yang, Kewei Chen, Rong Chen, Ying Han
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has a preclinical phase that can last for decades prior to clinical dementia onset. Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is regarded as the last preclinical AD stage prior to the development of amnestic mild cognitive decline (aMCI) and AD dementia (d-AD). The analysis of brain structural networks based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has identified the so-called 'rich club', a set of cortical regions highly connected to each other, with other regions referred to as peripheral. It has been reported that rich club architecture is affected by regional atrophy and connectivity, which are reduced in patients with aMCI and d-AD...
2018: Theranostics
Gionata Salvietti
This review reports the principal solutions proposed in the literature to reduce the complexity of the control and of the design of robotic hands taking inspiration from the organization of the human brain. Several studies in neuroscience concerning the sensorimotor organization of the human hand proved that, despite the complexity of the hand, a few parameters can describe most of the variance in the patterns of configurations and movements. In other words, humans exploit a reduced set of parameters, known in the literature as synergies, to control their hands...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Armin Raznahan, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Youth (including both childhood and adolescence) is a period when the brain undergoes dramatic remodeling and is also a time when neuropsychiatric conditions often emerge. Many of these illnesses have substantial sex differences in prevalence, suggesting that sex differences in brain development may underlie differential risk for psychiatric symptoms between males and females. Substantial evidence documents sex differences in brain structure and function in adults, and accumulating data suggests that these sex differences may be present or emerge during development...
June 6, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Suha Aljudaibi, Brett Duane
Data sourcesA comprehensive literature search in all languages was carried out. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (till 6 October 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 till October 6th, 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 till October 6th, 2016) and EThOS (till October 6th, 2016). and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform...
June 2018: Evidence-based Dentistry
Bojan Zalar, Alexander Haslberger, Borut Peterlin
The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional homeostatic route of communication between both of the organs direct via receptors of the CNS or via epigenetic mechanisms of divers metabolites e.g. SCFA, GABA, β-hydroxybutyrate. Thus, a modulation of gut microbiota via nutrition, lifestyle etc. might be effective for emotional status and depressive disorders. The dietary composition has an influence on gut microbiota composition, microbial metabolite profile and the according consequences on emotional status and depression within a system biologic approach...
June 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Yukika Arai, Kazutaka Sumita, Kaoru Tamura, Daisuke Kobayashi, Jun Karakama, Kei Ito, Masae Kuroha, Motoki Inaji, Yoji Tanaka, Tadashi Nariai, Taketoshi Maehara
We describe an adult case of radiation-induced meningioma(RIM)that was identified within a short interval from the initial treatment for brain tumor. A 45-year-old woman, who had tumor resection followed by radiation therapy for right frontal oligodendroglioma, showed a small enhanced lesion on the right frontal region 3 years and 6 months after the initial radiation therapy. The pathological diagnosis was meningioma(World Health Organization(WHO)grade I)and the Ki-67 labeling index was 3.2%. Most RIMs occur after a long period of time(18...
June 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Jianping Wang, Di Zhang, Xiaojie Fu, Lie Yu, Zhengfang Lu, Yufeng Gao, Xianliang Liu, Jiang Man, Sijia Li, Nan Li, Xuemei Chen, Michael Hong, Qingwu Yang, Jian Wang
BACKGROUND: At low levels, carbon monoxide (CO) has been shown to have beneficial effects on multiple organs and tissues through its potential anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-proliferative properties. However, the effect of CO-releasing molecule (CORM)-3, a water-soluble CORM, on ischemic stroke and its mechanism of action are still unclear. METHODS: We investigated the role of CORM-3 in the mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Lucía Vaquero, Neus Ramos-Escobar, Clément François, Virginia Penhune, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Music learning has received increasing attention in the last decades due to the variety of functions and brain plasticity effects involved during its practice. Most previous reports interpreted the differences between music experts and laymen as the result of training. However, recent investigations suggest that these differences are due to a combination of genetic predispositions with the effect of music training. Here, we tested the relationship of the dorsal auditory-motor pathway with individual behavioural differences in short-term music learning...
June 18, 2018: NeuroImage
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