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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044951/a-chemoenzymatic-histology-method-for-o-glcnac-detection
#1
Aime Lopez Aguilar, Xiaomeng Hou, Liuqing Wen, Peng George Wang, Peng Wu
Modification of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins by the addition or removal of O-GlcNAc dynamically impacts multiple biological processes. Here we present the development of a chemoenzymatic histology method for the detection of O-GlcNAc in tissue samples. We applied this method to screen murine organs, uncovering specific O-GlcNAc distribution patterns in different tissue structures. We then utilized our histology method for O-GlcNAc detection in human brain samples from healthy donors and donors with Alzheimer's disease and found higher levels of O-GlcNAc in samples from healthy donors...
October 17, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044892/mouse-parthenogenetic-embryonic-stem-cells-with-biparental-like-expression-of-imprinted-genes-generate-cortical-like-neurons-that-integrate-into-the-injured-adult-cerebral-cortex
#2
Annie Varrault, Sigrid Eckardt, Benoît Girard, Anne Le Digarcher, Isabelle Sassetti, Céline Meusnier, Chantal Ripoll, Armen Badalyan, Federica Bertaso, K John McLaughlin, Laurent Journot, Tristan Bouschet
One strategy for stem cell-based therapy of the cerebral cortex involves the generation and transplantation of functional, histocompatible cortical-like neurons from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Diploid parthenogenetic Pg-ESCs have recently emerged as a promising source of histocompatible ESC derivatives for organ regeneration but their utility for cerebral cortex therapy is unknown. A major concern with Pg-ESCs is genomic imprinting. In contrast with biparental Bp-ESCs derived from fertilized oocytes, Pg-ESCs harbor two maternal genomes but no sperm-derived genome...
October 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044673/modeling-the-effects-of-thiamethoxam-on-midwestern-farm-ponds-and-emergent-wetlands
#3
Steven M Bartell, Shyam K Nair, Shanique Grant, Richard A Brain
Potential toxic effects of thiamethoxam (TMX) on non-target organisms and community structure of a generic Midwestern farm pond and emergent wetland were assessed using two versions of the Comprehensive Aquatic System Model, the CASMGFP - a generic farm pond model, and the CASMGWL - a generic wetland model. The CASMGFP and CASMGWL are integrated bioenergetics-based and habitat quality models that describe the daily biomass values of selected producer and consumer populations representative of generalized Midwestern farm ponds and emergent wetlands...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044653/morphological-changes-of-the-optic-lobe-from-late-embryonic-to-adult-stages-in-oval-squids-sepioteuthis-lessoniana
#4
Yung-Chieh Liu, Wen-Sung Chung, Chun-Chieh Yu, Su-Ting Hsu, Fung-Lan Chan, Tsung-Han Liu, Chia-Hao Su, Yeukuang Hwu, N Justin Marshall, Chuan-Chin Chiao
The optic lobe is the largest brain area within the central nervous system of cephalopods and it plays important roles in the processing of visual information, the regulation of body patterning, and locomotive behavior. The oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana has relatively large optic lobes that are responsible for visual communication via dynamic body patterning. It has been observed that the visual behaviors of oval squids change as the animals mature, yet little is known about how the structure of the optic lobes changes during development...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044549/effects-of-clioquinol-on-the-scuticociliatosis-causing-protozoan-miamiensis-avidus-in-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#5
J-H Lee, J-J Park, J-H Choi, S-Y Kang, Y-J Kang, K H Park
Scuticociliatosis is a devastating and intractable protozoal disease in olive flounder, leading to a significant loss throughout the year. This study aimed to investigate a systemically effective antiscuticociliatosis agent for olive flounder for better absorption into the infected internal organs. The in vitro and in vivo antiscuticociliatosis effects of clioquinol (CQ) were examined after screening 30 biocidal agents against the highly pathogenic scuticociliate Miamiensis avidus. CQ was the most potent in vitro drug of those tested against cultured M...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043400/static-and-dynamic-18-f-fet-pet-for-the-characterization-of-gliomas-defined-by-idh-and-1p-19q-status
#6
Antoine Verger, Gabriele Stoffels, Elena K Bauer, Philipp Lohmann, Tobias Blau, Gereon R Fink, Bernd Neumaier, Nadim J Shah, Karl-Josef Langen, Norbert Galldiks
PURPOSE: The molecular features isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion have gained major importance for both glioma typing and prognosis and have, therefore, been integrated in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification in 2016. The aim of this study was to characterize static and dynamic O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET parameters in gliomas with or without IDH mutation or 1p/19q co-deletion. METHODS: Ninety patients with newly diagnosed and untreated gliomas with a static and dynamic (18)F-FET PET scan prior to evaluation of tumor tissue according to the 2016 WHO classification were identified retrospectively...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043230/advances-in-the-treatment-of-newly-diagnosed-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphomas
#7
REVIEW
Liren Qian, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Ioan-Alexandru Florian, Jianliang Shen, Ioan-Stefan Florian, Mihnea Zdrenghea, Delia Dima
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a type of highly invasive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. With a growing number of organ transplantation and immunosuppressant therapy, the incidence of PCNSL has been growing rapidly in recent years, which is attributed to the increased incidence of HIV/AIDS, a prominent risk factor for developing PCNSL. The rising rate of PCNSL incidence is the highest among the intracranial tumors. In the past 20 years, dozens of clinical trials related to PCNSL have been registered, but adequate therapeutics are still challenging...
September 2017: Blood Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042444/development-of-novel-biosensors-to-study-receptor-mediated-activation-of-gs-and-golf
#8
Hideaki Yano, Davide Provasi, Ning Sheng Cai, Marta Filizola, Sergi Ferre, Jonathan A Javitch
Gαs (Gs) and Gαolf (Golf) are highly homologous G protein α; subunits that activate adenylate cyclase, thereby serving as crucial mediators of intracellular signaling. Owing to their dramatically different brain expression patterns, we studied similarities and differences between their activation processes with the aim of comparing their receptor coupling mechanisms. We engineered novel luciferase- and Venus-fused Gα constructs that can be used in bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042334/primary-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-a-patient-with-rubinstein-taybi-syndrome-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#9
Christopher Sy, James Henry, Bhavani Kura, Andrew Brenner, Ramesh Grandhi
BACKGROUND: Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare, congenital syndrome that is known to be associated with neoplasms of various organ systems. Evaluation and treatment of such patients is challenging given the cognitive delay and heterogeneity of pathological presentations that define this syndrome. CASE DESCRIPTION: Presented here is a case of a patient with RSTS, diagnosed at birth, who presented with subtle symptoms of lethargy and a change in behavior. He was found to have a large (7...
October 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042133/determination-of-mitochondrial-metabolic-phenotype-through-investigation-of-the-intrinsic-inhibition-of-succinate-dehydrogenase
#10
Alexander Panov, Zulfiya Orynbayeva
Many diseases are accompanied by systemic or organ metabolic abnormalities. Therefore, investigation of the roles of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of major diseases requires a methodology that reflects the characteristics of mitochondrial metabolism particular for the organ of origin. We provide evidence that for brain and heart mitochondria the intrinsic inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a key mechanism for attenuation of mitochondrial respiration and energy production in response to the organ's energy needs...
October 14, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040813/developmental-neurotoxic-effects-of-a-low-dose-of-tce-on-3d-neurosphere-system
#11
Mohamed Elsaid Abdraboh, Sherif H Abdeen, Mohamed Salama, Mahmoud Elhussiny, Yasser M El-Sherbini, Nada M Eldeen
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the industrial toxic products that ever-present in air, soil and water. Several studies illustrated the toxicity of high doses of TCE on several organs. This study aims to determine the toxic effect of a low dose of TCE on development of rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Rat pups brains were collected, minced and harvested cells were cultured in the presence of neural growth factors B27/N8 to develop neurospheres. Afterwards, cells were subjected to a dose of 1µM TCE for 1 and 2 weeks...
October 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040410/ror%C3%AE-coordinates-thalamic-and-cortical-maturation-to-instruct-barrel-cortex-development
#12
Tania Vitalis, Luce Dauphinot, Pierre Gressens, Marie-Claude Potier, Jean Mariani, Patricia Gaspar
The retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) is well-known for its role in cerebellar development and maturation as revealed in staggerer mice. However, its potential involvement in the development of other brain regions has hardly been assessed. Here, we describe a new role of RORα in the development of primary somatosensory maps. Staggerer mice showed a complete disruption of barrels in the somatosensory cortex and of barreloids in the thalamus. This phenotype results from a severe reduction of thalamocortical axon (TCA) branching and a defective maturation of layer IV cortical neurons during postnatal development...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040015/distinct-representations-of-magnitude-and-spatial-position-within-parietal-cortex-during-number-space-mapping
#13
Frank J Kanayet, Andrew Mattarella-Micke, Peter J Kohler, Anthony M Norcia, Bruce D McCandliss, James L McClelland
Mapping numbers onto space is foundational to mathematical cognition. These cognitive operations are often conceptualized in the context of a "mental number line" and involve multiple brain regions in or near the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) that have been implicated both in numeral and spatial cognition. Here we examine possible differentiation of function within these brain areas in relating numbers to spatial positions. By isolating the planning phase of a number line task and introducing spatiotopic mapping tools from fMRI into the mental number line task research, we are able to focus our analysis on the neural activity of areas in anterior IPS (aIPS) previously associated with number processing and on spatiotopically organized areas in and around posterior IPS (pIPS), while participants prepare to place a number on a number line...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040013/connectome-based-models-predict-separable-components-of-attention-in-novel-individuals
#14
Monica D Rosenberg, Wei-Ting Hsu, Dustin Scheinost, R T Constable, Marvin M Chun
Although we typically talk about attention as a single process, it comprises multiple independent components. But what are these components, and how are they represented in the functional organization of the brain? To investigate whether long-studied components of attention are reflected in the brain's intrinsic functional organization, here we apply connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) to predict the components of Posner and Petersen's [Posner, M. I., & Petersen, S. E. The attention system of the human brain...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039851/quantifying-person-level-brain-network-functioning-to-facilitate-clinical-translation
#15
T M Ball, A N Goldstein-Piekarski, J M Gatt, L M Williams
Although advances in neuroimaging have yielded insights into the intrinsic organization of human brain networks and their relevance to psychiatric and neurological disorders, there has been no translation of these insights into clinical practice. One necessary step toward clinical translation is identifying a summary metric of network function that is reproducible, reliable, and has known normative data, analogous to normed neuropsychological tests. Our aim was therefore to establish the proof of principle for such a metric, focusing on the default mode network (DMN)...
October 17, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039164/-screening-for-newborn-organic-aciduria-in-zhejiang-province-prevalence-outcome-and-follow-up
#16
Fang Hong, Xinwen Huang, Yu Zhang, Jianbin Yang, Fan Tong, Huaqing Mao, Xiaolei Huang, Xuelian Zhou, Rulai Yang, Zhengyan Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results and follow up data of screening for newborn organic aciduria in Zhejiang province. METHODS: The results and follow-up data of 1 861 262 newborns from Zhejiang province undergoing screening for organic aciduria during January 2009 and December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The acylcarnitine spectrum in urine samples was detected by tandem mass spectrum (MS/MS) and the positive patients were confirmed by urine gas chromatography mass spectrometry and/or gene analysis...
May 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038675/secondary-central-nerve-system-lymphoma-with-intratumoral-hemorrhage-suggested-as-intravascular-lymphoma-by-autopsy-a-case-report
#17
Yutaro Suzuki, Hiroaki Tanaka, Kennichiro Suyama, Hidetoshi Mochida, Yoshio Suzuki
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVL) is a rare type of extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which often infiltrates the central nervous system (CNS) during the clinical course. Cerebral hemorrhage in patients with CNS lymphoma at presentation is rare. Herein, we describe a case of secondary CNS lymphoma with intratumoral hemorrhage, which was suggested as IVL from autopsy findings. A 76-year-old Japanese man with a history of treatment for B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was transferred to our hospital in an ambulance for generalized convulsions...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038652/hierarchical-recursive-organization-and-the-free-energy-principle-from-biological-self-organization-to-the-psychoanalytic-mind
#18
Patrick Connolly, Vasi van Deventer
The present paper argues that a systems theory epistemology (and particularly the notion of hierarchical recursive organization) provides the critical theoretical context within which the significance of Friston's (2010a) Free Energy Principle (FEP) for both evolution and psychoanalysis is best understood. Within this perspective, the FEP occupies a particular level of the hierarchical organization of the organism, which is the level of biological self-organization. This form of biological self-organization is in turn understood as foundational and pervasive to the higher levels of organization of the human organism that are of interest to both neuroscience as well as psychoanalysis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038516/eeg-topographies-provide-subject-specific-correlates-of-motor-control
#19
Elvira Pirondini, Martina Coscia, Jesus Minguillon, José Del R Millán, Dimitri Van De Ville, Silvestro Micera
Electroencephalography (EEG) of brain activity can be represented in terms of dynamically changing topographies (microstates). Notably, spontaneous brain activity recorded at rest can be characterized by four distinctive topographies. Despite their well-established role during resting state, their implication in the generation of motor behavior is debated. Evidence of such a functional role of spontaneous brain activity would provide support for the design of novel and sensitive biomarkers in neurological disorders...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038037/brain-inflammatory-cytokines-and-microglia-morphology-changes-throughout-hibernation-phases-in-syrian-hamster
#20
V Cogut, J J Bruintjes, B J L Eggen, E A van der Zee, R H Henning
Hibernators tolerate low metabolism, reduced cerebral blood flow and hypothermia during torpor without noticeable neuronal or synaptic dysfunction upon arousal. Previous studies found extensive changes in brain during torpor, including synaptic rearrangements, documented both morphologically and molecularly. As such adaptations may represent organ damage, we anticipated an inflammatory response in brain during specific hibernation phases. In this study, signs of inflammation in the brain were investigated in the Syrian hamster hippocampus (Mesocricetus Auratus) both during hibernation (torpor and arousal phases) and in summer and winter euthermic animals...
October 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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