keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Organic brain

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458203/precision-pharmacology-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Harald Hampel, Andrea Vergallo, Lisi Flores Aguilar, Norbert Benda, Karl Broich, A Claudio Cuello, Jeffrey Cummings, Bruno Dubois, Howard J Federoff, Massimo Fiandaca, Remy Genthon, Marion Haberkamp, Eric Karran, Mark Mapstone, George Perry, Lon S Schneider, Lindsay A Welikovitch, Janet Woodcock, Filippo Baldacci, Simone Lista
The complex multifactorial nature of polygenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) presents significant challenges for drug development. AD pathophysiology is progressing in a non-linear dynamic fashion across multiple systems levels - from molecules to organ systems - and through adaptation, to compensation, and decompensation to systems failure. Adaptation and compensation maintain homeostasis: a dynamic equilibrium resulting from the dynamic non-linear interaction between genome, epigenome, and environment. An individual vulnerability to stressors exists on the basis of individual triggers, drivers, and thresholds accounting for the initiation and failure of adaptive and compensatory responses...
February 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456604/death-from-kratom-toxicity-and-the-possible-role-of-intralipid
#2
Geeta Aggarwal, Edward Robertson, James McKinlay, Edward Walter
We present the case of a 26-year-old man who was brought into our emergency department in cardiorespiratory arrest, having taken Kratom 24 h previously. Despite multi-organ support, he deteriorated and died from cardiorespiratory failure and hypoxic brain damage 12 h later. Lipid emulsion was given, with significant temporary improvement in the cardiorespiratory failure. Kratom is derived from Mitragyna speciosa, a tropical deciduous and evergreen tree in the coffee family, and is native to Southeast Asia, and its leaves are used as a legal high in some parts of the world...
February 2018: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456223/knowledge-and-attitude-toward-organ-donation-among-people-in-lanja-a-rural-town-in-india
#3
Vaishaly K Bharambe, Vasanti U Arole, Vatsalaswamy Puranam, Preeti P Kulkarni, Prashant B Kulkarni
Organ shortage is the greatest challenge facing the field of organ transplantation today. We aimed to study the attitude and knowledge toward body and organ donation among people in rural India. The present study was conducted in a rural town called Lanja, in the Konkan region of Maharashtra in India. A questionnaire covering demographic data, knowledge, and attitude of the participants was distributed to 400 students, middle-aged and senior citizens; 91.5% of the respondents were aware about organ donation...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455002/the-possible-neuroprotective-effect-of-ellagic-acid-on-sodium-arsenate-induced-neurotoxicity-in-rats
#4
Mehdi Goudarzi, Shivasadat Amiri, Ali Nesari, Azam Hosseinzadeh, Esrafil Mansouri, Saeed Mehrzadi
OBJECTIVE: Arsenic is a well-known environmental contaminant, causing toxicity in different organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of ellagic acid (EA) on arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in rats. DESIGN: Animals were divided into five groups. The first group received normal saline (2 ml/kg) for 21 days as control group. Group 2 was orally treated with sodium arsenite (SA, 10 mg/kg) for 21 days. Groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with SA (10 mg/kg) for 7 days prior to EA (10 and 30 mg/kg respectively) treatment and continued up to 21 days simultaneously with SA administration...
February 15, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454657/monitoring-brain-neuronal-activity-with-manipulation-of-cardiac-events-in-a-freely-moving-rat
#5
Yu Shikano, Yuji Ikegaya, Takuya Sasaki
Behavioral and cognitive studies have demonstrated that brain functions are affected by the activity states of the peripheral organs, such as the cardiac and respiratory systems. However, detailed neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the body-brain interactions remain unknown. In this study, we developed a method for manipulating activity levels of the heart using direct cardiac stimulation and vagus nerve stimulation that can be combined with recording cerebral local field potentials using a microdrive system, electrocardiograms, electromyograms, in a freely moving rat...
February 15, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454295/synthetic-and-genetically-encoded-fluorescent-neural-activity-indicators
#6
REVIEW
Claire Deo, Luke D Lavis
The ultimate goal of neuroscience is to relate the complex activity of cells and cell-networks to behavior and cognition. This requires tools and techniques to visualize neuronal activity. Fluorescence microscopy is an ideal tool to measure activity of cells in the brain due to the high sensitivity of the technique and the growing portfolio of optical hardware and fluorescent sensors. Here, we give a chemist's perspective on the recent progress of fluorescent activity indicators that enable the measurement of cellular events in the living brain...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454148/-68-ga-galmydar-biodistribution-and-radiation-dosimetry-studies-in-rodents
#7
Jothilingam Sivapackiam, Richard Laforest, Vijay Sharma
INTRODUCTION: 68 Ga-Galmydar is an avid transport substrate of ABCB1 (P-Glycoprotein; 170kDa plasma membrane protein), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2; 72kDa), penetrates human epidermal carcinoma (KB3-1), breast cancer (MCF7), embryonic kidney (HEK 293) tumor cells and rat cardiomyoblasts, and localizes within the mitochondria of tumor and myocardium cells. 68 Ga-Galmydar excretes from blood pool quickly, and shows stable retention within rat myocardium in vivo for extended periods, therefore, the agent shows potential to enable myocardial perfusion imaging...
December 1, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454065/impact-of-food-additives-on-the-gut-brain-axis
#8
Mary K Holder, Benoit Chassaing
The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a complex community of micro-organisms, present at a very high density, and containing an estimated amount of 10 14 bacteria. The microbiota generally benefits the host, as it plays a central role in maturing the immune system, protecting against infection by entero-pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, and favoring nutrient digestion/energy extraction in our intestine. An altered microbiota, however, can become detrimental and lead to inflammation, metabolic disorders, and even altered behavior/neuroinflammation...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453681/-18-f-fpybf-2-a-new-f-18-labelled-amyloid-imaging-pet-tracer-biodistribution-and-radiation-dosimetry-assessment-of-first-in-man-18-f-fpybf-2-pet-imaging
#9
Ryuichi Nishii, Tatsuya Higashi, Shinya Kagawa, Chio Okuyama, Yoshihiko Kishibe, Masaaki Takahashi, Tomoko Okina, Norio Suzuki, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Yasuhiro Nagahama, Koichi Ishizu, Naoya Oishi, Hiroyuki Kimura, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Masahiro Ono, Hideo Saji, Hiroshi Yamauchi
OBJECTIVE: Recently, a benzofuran derivative for the imaging of β-amyloid plaques, 5-(5-(2-(2-(2- 18 F-fluoroethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)benzofuran-2-yl)- N-methylpyridin-2-amine ( 18 F-FPYBF-2) has been validated as a tracer for amyloid imaging and it was found that 18 F-FPYBF-2 PET/CT is a useful and reliable diagnostic tool for the evaluation of AD (Higashi et al. Ann Nucl Med, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12149-018-1236-1 , 2018). The aim of this study was to assess the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of diagnostic dosages of 18 F-FPYBF-2 in normal healthy volunteers as a first-in-man study...
February 16, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453678/differential-expression-of-the-tweak-receptor-fn14-in-idh1-wild-type-and-mutant-gliomas
#10
David S Hersh, Sen Peng, Jimena G Dancy, Rebeca Galisteo, Jennifer M Eschbacher, Rudy J Castellani, Jonathan E Heath, Teklu Legesse, Anthony J Kim, Graeme F Woodworth, Nhan L Tran, Jeffrey A Winkles
The TNF receptor superfamily member Fn14 is overexpressed by many solid tumor types, including glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and lethal form of adult brain cancer. GBM is notable for a highly infiltrative growth pattern and several groups have reported that high Fn14 expression levels can increase tumor cell invasiveness. We reported previously that the mesenchymal and proneural GBM transcriptomic subtypes expressed the highest and lowest levels of Fn14 mRNA, respectively. Given the recent histopathological re-classification of human gliomas by the World Health Organization based on isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene mutation status, we extended this work by comparing Fn14 gene expression in IDH1 wild-type (WT) and mutant (R132H) gliomas and in cell lines engineered to overexpress the IDH1 R132H enzyme...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453169/randomized-eeg-functional-brain-networks-in-major-depressive-disorders-with-greater-resilience-and-lower-rich-club-coefficient
#11
Minghui Zhang, Haiyan Zhou, Liqing Liu, Lei Feng, Jie Yang, Gang Wang, Ning Zhong
OBJECTIVE: Some studies have shown that the functional electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) networks in those with major depressive disorders (MDDs) have an abnormal random topology. In this study we aimed to further investigate the characteristics of the randomized functional brain networks in MDDs by examining resting-state scalp-EEG data. METHODS: Based on the methods of independent component analysis (ICA) and graph theoretic analysis, the abnormalities in the power spectral density (PSD) functional brain networks were compared between 13 MDDs and 13 matched healthy controls (HCs)...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452371/a-bidirectional-association-between-cognitive-ability-in-young-adulthood-and-epilepsy-a-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Merete Osler, Erik L Mortensen, Kaare Christensen, Gunhild T Christensen
Aim: To investigate the bidirectional association between cognitive ability in young adulthood and epilepsy. Methods: This cohort study included 1 159 076 men enrolled in the mandatory conscription board examination from the Danish Conscription Database (DCD; 658 465 men examined 1957-84), the Danish Defence Personnel Organization Database (DPOD; 216 509 men examined 1987-2005) and the Danish Conscription Registry (DCR; 284 102 men examined 2006-15). A supplementary analysis included 14 814 female volunteers...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452340/congenital-abnormalities-of-the-male-reproductive-system-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
Ran S Rotem, Gabriel Chodick, Michael Davidovitch, Russ Hauser, Brent A Coull, Marc G Weisskopf
Androgens have an extensive influence on brain development in regions of the brain that are relevant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet their etiological involvement remains unclear. Hypospadias (abnormal positioning of the urethral opening) and cryptorchidism (undescended testes) are 2 relatively common male birth defects that are strongly associated with prenatal androgen deficiencies. Having either disorder is a proxy indicator of atypical gestational androgen exposure, yet the association between these disorders and autism has not been extensively studied...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452266/healthy-brain-aging-interplay-between-reactive-species-inflammation-and-energy-supply
#14
REVIEW
O Garaschuk, H M Semchyshyn, V I Lushchak
Brains' high energy expenditure with preferable utilization of glucose and ketone bodies, defines the specific features of its energy homeostasis. The extensive oxidative metabolism is accompanied by a concomitant generation of high amounts of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonyl species, which will be here collectively referred to as RONCS. Such metabolism in combination with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids creates specific problems in maintaining brains' redox homeostasis. While the levels of products of interaction between RONCS and cellular components increase slowly during the first two trimesters of individuals' life, their increase is substantially accelerated towards the end of life...
February 13, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451817/the-impact-of-pulse-pressure-on-cerebrovascular-events-leading-to-age-related-cognitive-decline
#15
Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Olivia de Montgolfier, Anthony Pinçon, Adeline Raignault, Laurie Caland, Pauline Labbé, Eric Thorin
Aging is a modern concept: human life expectancy has more than doubled in less than 150 years in Western countries. Longer lifespan, however, reveals age-related diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases. The vascular system is a prime target of aging: the "wear and tear" of large elastic arteries exposed to a life-long pulsatile pressure causes arterial stiffening by fragmentation of elastin fibers and replacement by stiffer collagen. This arterial stiffening increases in return the amplitude of the pulse pressure (PP), its wave penetrating deeper into the microcirculation of low resistance, high flow organs such as the brain...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451451/critical-assessment-of-pediatric-neurosurgery-patient-parent-educational-information-obtained-via-the-internet
#16
Michael Garcia, Christopher Daugherty, Bertha Ben Khallouq, Todd Maugans
OBJECTIVE The Internet is used frequently by patients and family members to acquire information about pediatric neurosurgical conditions. The sources, nature, accuracy, and usefulness of this information have not been examined recently. The authors analyzed the results from searches of 10 common pediatric neurosurgical terms using a novel scoring test to assess the value of the educational information obtained. METHODS Google and Bing searches were performed for 10 common pediatric neurosurgical topics (concussion, craniosynostosis, hydrocephalus, pediatric brain tumor, pediatric Chiari malformation, pediatric epilepsy surgery, pediatric neurosurgery, plagiocephaly, spina bifida, and tethered spinal cord)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451130/intrinsic-optical-signal-imaging-of-the-blood-volume-changes-is-sufficient-for-mapping-the-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-rodent-cortex
#17
Sreekanth Kura, Hongyu Xie, Buyin Fu, Cenk Ayata, David A Boas, Sava Sakadzic
OBJECTIVE: Resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) allows the study of functional organization in normal and diseased brain by measuring the spontaneous brain activity generated under resting conditions. Intrinsic optical signal imaging (IOSI) based on multiple illumination wavelengths has been used successfully to compute RSFC maps in animal studies. The IOSI setup complexity would be greatly reduced if only a single wavelength can be used to obtain comparable RSFC maps. APPROACH: We used anesthetized mice and performed various comparisons between the RSFC maps based on single wavelength as well as oxy-, deoxy- and total hemoglobin concentration changes...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451034/cytochrome-p450-in-the-central-nervous-system-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
Cynthia Navarro-Mabarak, Rafael Camacho-Carranza, Jesús Javier Espinosa-Aguirre
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) constitute a family of enzymes that can be found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria or the cell surface of the cells. CYPs are characterized by carrying out the oxidation of organic compounds and they are mainly recognized as mediators of the biotransformation of xenobiotics to polar hydrophilic metabolites that can be eliminated from the organism. However, these enzymes play a key role in many other physiological processes, being involved in diverse indispensable metabolic pathways since they metabolize many endogenous substrates...
February 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450812/renin-angiotensin-system-and-its-role-in-biomarkers-and-treatment-in-gliomas
#19
REVIEW
Alexander Perdomo-Pantoja, Sonia Iliana Mejía-Pérez, Liliana Gómez-Flores-Ramos, Montserrat Lara-Velazquez, Cordelia Orillac, Juan Luis Gómez-Amador, Talia Wegman-Ostrosky
Gliomas are the most common primary intrinsic tumor in the brain and are classified as low- or high-grade according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Patients with high-grade gliomas (HGG) who undergo surgical resection with adjuvant therapy have a mean overall survival of 15 months and 100% recurrence. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), the primary regulator of cardiovascular circulation, exhibits local action and works as a paracrine system. In the context of this local regulation, the expression of RAS peptides and receptors has been detected in different kinds of tumors, including gliomas...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450565/tissue-distribution-of-gold-and-silver-after-subacute-intravenous-injection-of-co-administered-gold-and-silver-nanoparticles-of-similar-sizes
#20
Ji Hyun Lee, Jae Hyuck Sung, Hyun Ryol Ryu, Kyung Seuk Song, Nam Woong Song, Hyun Min Park, Beom Soo Shin, Kangho Ahn, Mary Gulumian, Elaine M Faustman, Il Je Yu
Gold (AuNPs, 12.8 nm) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, 10 nm), mixed or separate, were injected into the caudal vein of male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 weeks. The rats were allowed to recover for further 4 weeks to examine the differences in AuNP/AgNP tissue distribution and clearance. The size distribution of injected AuNPs and AgNPs were not statistically different. The dose groups (five males per group for the administration and three males for the recovery) consisted of seven divisions, i.e., control, AgNPs (with a low dose of 10 µg/kg/day, and, a high dose of 100 µg/kg/day), AuNPs (with a low dose of 10 µg/kg/day, and, a high dose of 100 µg/kg/day), as well as mixed AgNPs/AuNPs (with a low dose of 10/10 µg/kg/day, and a high dose of 100/100 µg/kg/day)...
February 15, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
keyword
keyword
32236
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"