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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645025/decreased-functional-connectivity-and-disrupted-neural-network-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-affective-disorders-a-resting-state-fnirs-study
#1
Huilin Zhu, Jie Xu, Jiangxue Li, Hongjun Peng, Tingting Cai, Xinge Li, Shijing Wu, Wei Cao, Sailing He
BACKGROUND: Affective disorders (AD) have been conceptualized as neural network-level diseases. In this study, we utilized functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the spontaneous hemodynamic activities in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the AD patients with or without medications. METHODS: 42 optical channels were applied to cover the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which constitute one of the most important affective networks of the brain...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644906/cholinesterases-in-normal-and-alzheimer-s-disease-primary-olfactory-gyrus
#2
Hayam Hamodat, Meghan K Cash, John D Fisk, Sultan Darvesh
AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cholinergic dysfunction and deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. Olfactory abnormalities often precede cognitive symptoms in AD, indicating early involvement of pathology in olfactory structures. The cholinergic system is important not only in cognition but also in modulation of the olfactory system. The primary olfactory gyrus (POG) is comprised of the olfactory tract, anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) and olfactory area (OA)...
June 23, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644779/cellular-light-scattering-for-the-identification-of-bacteria-and-its-application-to-the-identification-of-staphylococcus
#3
David L Haavig, Kaylagh R Hollen, Abbey E Debruin, Shelbi R Lisecki, Nicole C Shoup, Mickey J H Stimac, Anthony M Treloar, Zachary N Jodoin, Margaret S Bohm, Josh S Sharp
Rapid identification of bacteria is critical in clinical and food safety applications. This paper describes anovel instrument and data analysis method for identifying bacteria based on the measurement of laser light scattering as the beam interacts with bacterial cells suspended in water. A description of the technology is followed by an identification performance study for a set of strains from the genus Staphylococcus (the inclusive target organisms) and a set of non-Staphylococcus strains (the exclusive organisms)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643936/phenotypic-analysis-of-organoids-by-proteomics
#4
REVIEW
Alexis Gonneaud, Claude Asselin, François Boudreau, François-Michel Boisvert
The development of 3D cell cultures into self-organizing organ-like structures named organoids provides a model that better reflects in vivo organ physiology and their functional properties. Organoids have been established from several organs, such as the intestine, prostate, brain, liver, kidney and pancreas. With recent advances in high-throughput and -omics profiling technologies, it is now possible to study the mechanisms of cellular organisation at the systems level. It is therefore not surprising that these methods are now used to characterize organoids at the transcriptomic, proteomic, chromatin state and transcription factor DNA-binding levels...
June 23, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643577/an-assessment-of-advance-relatives-approach-for-brain-death-organ-donation
#5
Carine Michaut, Antoine Baumann, Hélène Gregoire, Corinne Laviale, Gérard Audibert, Xavier Ducrocq
BACKGROUND: Advance announcement of forthcoming brain death has developed to enable intensivists and organ procurement organisation coordinators to more appropriately, and separately from each other, explain to relatives brain death and the subsequent post-mortem organ donation opportunity. Research aim: The aim was to assess how potentially involved healthcare professionals perceived ethical issues surrounding the strategy of advance approach. RESEARCH DESIGN: A multi-centre opinion survey using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in the six-member hospitals of the publicly funded East of France regional organ and tissue procurement network called 'Prélor'...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643537/a-diffusion-weighted-imaging-study-of-basal-ganglia-in-schizophrenia
#6
Giuseppe Delvecchio, Alessandro Pigoni, Cinzia Perlini, Marco Barillari, Amelia Versace, Mirella Ruggeri, A Carlo Altamura, Marcella Bellani, Paolo Brambilla
OBJECTIVES: Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies provided evidence of selective brain abnormalities in schizophrenia, both in cortical and subcortical structures. Basal ganglia are of particular interest, given not only the high concentration of dopaminergic neurons and receptors, but also for their crucial role in cognitive functions, commonly impaired in schizophrenia. To date, very few studies explored basal ganglia using diffusion imaging, which is sensitive to microstructural organization in brain tissues...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643354/diffusion-mri-microstructure-models-with-in-vivo-human-brain-connectome-data-results-from-a-multi-group-comparison
#7
Uran Ferizi, Benoit Scherrer, Torben Schneider, Mohammad Alipoor, Odin Eufracio, Rutger H J Fick, Rachid Deriche, Markus Nilsson, Ana K Loya-Olivas, Mariano Rivera, Dirk H J Poot, Alonso Ramirez-Manzanares, Jose L Marroquin, Ariel Rokem, Christian Pötter, Robert F Dougherty, Ken Sakaie, Claudia Wheeler-Kingshott, Simon K Warfield, Thomas Witzel, Lawrence L Wald, José G Raya, Daniel C Alexander
A large number of mathematical models have been proposed to describe the measured signal in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, model comparison to date focuses only on specific subclasses, e.g. compartment models or signal models, and little or no information is available in the literature on how performance varies among the different types of models. To address this deficiency, we organized the 'White Matter Modeling Challenge' during the International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) 2015 conference...
June 23, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643118/comparison-of-photon-organ-and-effective-dose-coefficients-for-pimal-stylized-phantom-in-bent-positions-in-standard-irradiation-geometries
#8
Shaheen Dewji, K Lisa Reed, Mauritius Hiller
Computational phantoms with articulated arms and legs have been constructed to enable the estimation of radiation dose in different postures. Through a graphical user interface, the Phantom wIth Moving Arms and Legs (PIMAL) version 4.1.0 software can be employed to articulate the posture of a phantom and generate a corresponding input deck for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code. In this work, photon fluence-to-dose coefficients were computed using PIMAL to compare organ and effective doses for a stylized phantom in the standard upright position with those for phantoms in realistic work postures...
June 22, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642799/extraoral-taste-receptor-discovery-new-light-on-ayurvedic-pharmacology
#9
REVIEW
Marilena Gilca, Dorin Dragos
More and more research studies are revealing unexpectedly important roles of taste for health and pathogenesis of various diseases. Only recently it has been shown that taste receptors have many extraoral locations (e.g., stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, respiratory system, heart, brain, kidney, urinary bladder, pancreas, adipose tissue, testis, and ovary), being part of a large diffuse chemosensory system. The functional implications of these taste receptors widely dispersed in various organs or tissues shed a new light on several concepts used in ayurvedic pharmacology (dravyaguna vijnana), such as taste (rasa), postdigestive effect (vipaka), qualities (guna), and energetic nature (virya)...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642690/autonomy-in-depressive-patients-undergoing-dbs-treatment-informed-consent-freedom-of-will-and-dbs-potential-to-restore-it
#10
Timo Beeker, Thomas E Schlaepfer, Volker A Coenen
According to the World Health Organization, depression is one of the most common and most disabling psychiatric disorders, affecting at any given time approximately 325 million people worldwide. As there is strong evidence that depressive disorders are associated with a dynamic dysregulation of neural circuits involved in emotional processing, recently several attempts have been made to intervene directly in these circuits via deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642080/impact-of-juvenile-chronic-stress-on-adult-cortico-accumbal-function-implications-for-cognition-and-addiction
#11
REVIEW
Michael J Watt, Matthew A Weber, Shaydel R Davies, Gina L Forster
Repeated exposure to stress during childhood is associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, substance use disorders and other behavioral problems in adulthood. However, it is not clear how chronic childhood stress can lead to emergence of such a wide range of symptoms and disorders in later life. One possible explanation lies in stress-induced disruption to the development of specific brain regions associated with executive function and reward processing, deficits in which are common to the disorders promoted by childhood stress...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641965/animal-models-of-psychoactive-drug-use-and-addiction-present-problems-and-future-needs-for-translational-approaches
#12
REVIEW
Christian P Müller
Drug addiction is a psychiatric disorder based on a dysfunction of the brain. It frequently develops from a controlled drug consumption and drug instrumentalization (DI). Thereby, DI is the use of a drug to improve specific non-drug related behaviors, beyond the drug's direct positive or negative reinforcing effects. Currently available pharmacotherapies for drug addiction show low effect size and rather limited long-term efficacy, which suggests that current theories on addiction are still insufficient in how they capture the phenomenon and how they allow predictions for highly efficient treatments...
June 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641884/oxidative-stress-profiles-in-brain-point-out-a-higher-susceptibility-of-fish-to-waterborne-divalent-mercury-compared-to-dietary-organic-mercury
#13
Olívia Cardoso, Sónia Puga, Fátima Brandão, João Canário, Nelson J O'Driscoll, Maria Ana Santos, Mário Pacheco, Patrícia Pereira
This study examines, for the first time, the neurotoxicity of Hg(II) and MeHg in fish (Diplodus sargus) in a time-course comparative perspective and considering realistic exposure levels and routes. Both forms followed an identical time-variation pattern of accumulation in the brain, but dietary MeHg was more efficiently transported to the brain. MeHg was substantially eliminated from the brain in 28days of depuration, which did not occur for Hg(II). Moreover, Hg(II) displayed a high neurotoxicity potential, as unveiled by the poor activation of brain antioxidant defenses and recurrent oxidative damage (as protein oxidation), while the opposite was recorded upon MeHg exposure...
June 19, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641541/-stress-is-80-years-old-from-hans-selye-original-paper-in-1936-to-recent-advances-in-gi-ulceration
#14
Sandor Szabo, Masashi Yoshida, Janos Filakovszky, Gyorgy Juhasz
The first scientific publication on 'general adaption syndrome', or as we know today 'biologic stress' has been published in Nature in 1936 by the 29-year old Hans Selye. His results in that short publication that contained no references or illustrations, were based on experiments in rats that were exposed to severe insults/stressors, but his idea about a 'nonspecific bodily response' originated from his observations of sick patients whom he had seen as a medical students and young clinician. Autopsy of stressed rats revealed three major, grossly visible changes: hyperemia and enlargement of the adrenals, atrophy of the thymus and lymph nodes as well as hemorrhagic gastric erosions/ulcers (the "stress triad")...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641247/modeling-task-fmri-data-via-deep-convolutional-autoencoder
#15
Heng Huang, Xintao Hu, Yu Zhao, Milad Makkie, Qinglin Dong, Shijie Zhao, Lei Guo, Tianming Liu
Task-based fMRI (tfMRI) has been widely used to study functional brain networks under task performance. Modeling tfMRI data is challenging due to at least two problems: the lack of the ground truth of underlying neural activity and the highly complex intrinsic structure of tfMRI data. To better understand brain networks based on fMRI data, data-driven approaches have been proposed, for instance, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Sparse Dictionary Learning (SDL). However, both ICA and SDL only build shallow models, and they are under the strong assumption that original fMRI signal could be linearly decomposed into time series components with their corresponding spatial maps...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641198/combined-computational-experimental-approach-to-predict-blood-brain-barrier-bbb-permeation-based-on-green-salting-out-thin-layer-chromatography-supported-by-simple-molecular-descriptors
#16
Krzesimir Ciura, Mariusz Belka, Piotr Kawczak, Tomasz Bączek, Michał J Markuszewski, Joanna Nowakowska
The objective of this paper is to build QSRR/QSAR model for predicting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. The obtained models are based on salting-out thin layer chromatography (SOTLC) constants and calculated molecular descriptors. Among chromatographic methods SOTLC was chosen, since the mobile phases are free of organic solvent. As consequences, there are less toxic, and have lower environmental impact compared to classical reserved phases liquid chromatography (RPLC). During the study three stationary phase silica gel, cellulose plates and neutral aluminum oxide were examined...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640692/comparison-of-gadolinium-concentrations-within-multiple-rat-organs-after-intravenous-administration-of-linear-versus-macrocyclic-gadolinium-chelates
#17
Robert J McDonald, Jennifer S McDonald, Daying Dai, Dana Schroeder, Mark E Jentoft, David L Murray, Ramanathan Kadirvel, Laurence J Eckel, David F Kallmes
Purpose To compare gadolinium tissue concentrations of multiple linear and macrocyclic chelates in a rat model to better understand the scope and extent of tissue deposition following multiple intravenous doses of gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA). Materials and Methods In this Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee-approved study, healthy rats received 20 intravenous injections of 2.5 mmol gadolinium per kilogram (gadolinium-exposed group) or saline (control group) over a 26-day period. Unenhanced T1 signal intensities of the dentate nucleus were measured from magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained prior to GBCA injection and 3 days after final injection...
June 19, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640024/molecular-adsorbent-recirculating-system-can-reduce-short-term-mortality-among-patients-with-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-a-retrospective-analysis
#18
Hans U Gerth, Michele Pohlen, Gerold Thölking, Hermann Pavenstädt, Marcus Brand, Anna Hüsing-Kabar, Christian Wilms, Miriam Maschmeier, Iyad Kabar, Josep Torner, Marco Pavesi, Vicente Arroyo, Rafael Banares, Hartmut H J Schmidt
OBJECTIVES: Acute-on-chronic liver failure is associated with numerous consecutive organ failures and a high short-term mortality rate. Molecular adsorbent recirculating system therapy has demonstrated beneficial effects on the distinct symptoms, but the associated mortality data remain controversial. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of acute-on-chronic liver failure patients receiving either standard medical treatment or standard medical treatment and molecular adsorbent recirculating system...
June 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640022/brain-dead-donors-on-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#19
Régis Bronchard, Louise Durand, Camille Legeai, Johana Cohen, Patrice Guerrini, Olivier Bastien
OBJECTIVES: To describe donors after brain death with ongoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and to analyze the outcome of organs transplanted from these donors. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of the national information system run by the French Biomedicine Agency (CRISTAL database). SETTING: National registry data of all donors after brain death in France and their organ recipients between 2007 and 2013. PATIENTS: Donors after brain death and their organ recipients...
June 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638995/transport-of-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-preterm-infant-plasma-is-dominated-by-phosphatidylcholine
#20
Wolfgang Bernhard, Christoph Maas, Anna Shunova, Michaela Mathes, Katrin Böckmann, Christine Bleeker, Julia Vek, Christian F Poets, Erwin Schleicher, Axel R Franz
BACKGROUND: Docosahexaenoic (C22:6) and arachidonic (C20:4) acids are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) essential to neonatal development, being present in the glycerophospholipids of all organs, particularly the brain. In plasma, LC-PUFAs are mainly present in lipoprotein lipids, which are neutral lipids (triglycerides and cholesterol esters) and glycerophospholipids, like choline containing phosphatidylcholine (PC). PURPOSE: To guide future supplementation strategies of C22:6 and C20:4 in combination with choline, we determined the distribution of C20:4 and C22:6 between PC and neutral lipid...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
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