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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933531/using-baseline-transcriptional-connectomes-in-rat-to-identify-genetic-pathways-associated-with-predisposition-to-complex-traits
#1
Laura Saba, Paula Hoffman, Boris Tabakoff
Although rat is a critical model organism in preclinical medications development, its use in systems genetics studies remains sparse. The PhenoGen database and website contain detailed information on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the rat brain, liver, heart, and brown adipose transcriptome. This database has been generated using the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred panel and is being expanded to a hybrid rat diversity panel that includes many common inbred strains as well. By using such a panel, the PhenoGen project has created a renewable and cumulative resource for the rat genomics community...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933308/tailored-transgene-expression-to-specific-cell-types-in-the-central-nervous-system-after-peripheral-injection-with-aav9
#2
Jonathan Dashkoff, Eli P Lerner, Nhi Truong, Jacob A Klickstein, Zhanyun Fan, Dakai Mu, Casey A Maguire, Bradley T Hyman, Eloise Hudry
The capacity of certain adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to cross the blood-brain barrier after intravenous delivery offers a unique opportunity for noninvasive brain delivery. However, without a well-tailored system, the use of a peripheral route injection may lead to undesirable transgene expression in nontarget cells or organs. To refine this approach, the present study characterizes the transduction profiles of new self-complementary AAV9 (scAAV9) expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) either under an astrocyte (glial fibrillary acidic (GFA) protein) or neuronal (Synapsin (Syn)) promoter, after intravenous injection of adult mice (2 × 10(13) vg/kg)...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932978/gender-specific-re-organization-of-resting-state-networks-in-older-age
#3
Aimée Goldstone, Stephen D Mayhew, Izabela Przezdzik, Rebecca S Wilson, Joanne R Hale, Andrew P Bagshaw
Advancing age is commonly associated with changes in both brain structure and function. Recently, the suggestion that alterations in brain connectivity may drive disruption in cognitive abilities with age has been investigated. However, the interaction between the effects of age and gender on the re-organization of resting-state networks is not fully understood. This study sought to investigate the effect of both age and gender on intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) and the extent to which resting-state network (RSN) node definition may alter with older age...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932958/the-shark-alar-hypothalamus-molecular-characterization-of-prosomeric-subdivisions-and-evolutionary-trends
#4
Gabriel N Santos-Durán, Susana Ferreiro-Galve, Arnaud Menuet, Idoia Quintana-Urzainqui, Sylvie Mazan, Isabel Rodríguez-Moldes, Eva Candal
The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932950/amyloid-precursor-proteins-are-dynamically-trafficked-and-processed-during-neuronal-development
#5
Jenna M Ramaker, Robert S Cargill, Tracy L Swanson, Hanil Quirindongo, Marlène Cassar, Doris Kretzschmar, Philip F Copenhaver
Proteolytic processing of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) produces beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide fragments that accumulate in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but APP may also regulate multiple aspects of neuronal development, albeit via mechanisms that are not well understood. APP is a member of a family of transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by all higher organisms, including two mammalian orthologs (APLP1 and APLP2) that have complicated investigations into the specific activities of APP. By comparison, insects express only a single APP-related protein (APP-Like, or APPL) that contains the same protein interaction domains identified in APP...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932197/crucial-role-of-carotid-ultrasound-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-hyperacute-aortic-dissection-complicated-by-cerebral-infarction-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Eglė Sukockienė, Kristina Laučkaitė, Antanas Jankauskas, Dalia Mickevičienė, Giedrė Jurkevičienė, Antanas Vaitkus, Edgaras Stankevičius, Kęstutis Petrikonis, Daiva Rastenytė
Aortic dissection is a life-threatening rare condition that may virtually present by any organ system dysfunction, the nervous system included. Acute cerebral infarction among multiple other neurological and non-neurological presentations is part of this acute aortic syndrome. Rapid and correct diagnosis is of extreme importance keeping in mind the possibility of thrombolytic treatment if a patient with a suspected ischemic stroke arrives to the Emergency Department within a 4.5-h window after symptom onset...
November 19, 2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932184/intrapancreatic-splenule-in-a-pancreas-allograft-case-report
#7
K Yadav, O K Serrano, R Kandaswamy
A 16-year-old white man was involved in a motor vehicle collision and suffered head, chest, and abdominal trauma. Despite initial resuscitative efforts, he progressed to brain death and was designated to be an organ donor by his family. He had no earlier medical or surgical history and no high-risk behaviors. Blood work revealed normal creatinine, liver function tests, lipase, and amylase. Viral serologies were negative except for cytomegalovirus IgG and Epstein-Barr virus nucleic acid. Imaging revealed a right kidney contusion, a manubrial fracture, and fractures of right first rib and bilateral scapulae...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932147/case-report-demonstrating-the-safe-and-effective-means-of-expanding-the-donor-pool-with-livers-recovered-from-brain-dead-donors-after-ethylene-glycol-toxicity
#8
M H Fujii, J Gierlach, S Alami, C Ericksen, R Kashyap, M S Orloff, C E Marroquin
The growing disparity between organ supply and demand has become the greatest hurdle facing transplant professionals and life-saving transplants. Because the organ shortage has become the rate-limiting step to effective transplants, it is critical for the transplant community to identify viable mechanisms to expand the donor pool and use every available allograft. Although using kidneys from deceased donors whose demise was secondary to ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity requires great deliberation and precise timing as described by Barbas et al [5], using hepatic allografts in this setting involves far less risk...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932094/non-heart-beating-donor-kidney-transplantation-survival-is-similar-to-donation-after-brain-death-comparative-study-with-controls-in-a-regional-program
#9
M A Gentil, P Castro de la Nuez, C Gonzalez-Corvillo, M C de Gracia, M Cabello, M A Mazuecos, A Rodriguez-Benot, L Ballesteros, A Osuna, M Alonso
Non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) are an increasing source of organs for kidney transplantation (KT) compared with donation after brain death (DBD), but the results in each regional transplantation program require local analysis. We compared 164 KT from NHBD (83 Maastrich type II A-B [T2] and 81 type III [T3]) with 328 DBD controls. NHBD kidneys were implanted with less cold ischemia, mean time on renal replacement therapy for NHBD recipients before transplantation was less too, and a higher proportion of thymoglobulin was also used...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932093/midterm-results-of-renal-transplantation-from-controlled-cardiac-death-donors-are-similar-to-those-from-brain-death-donors
#10
O Lafuente, B Sánchez-Sobrino, M Pérez, P López-Sánchez, D Janeiro, E Rubio, A Huerta, M Marques, M R Llópez-Carratala, J J Rubio, J Portolés
BACKGROUND: The systematic use of grafts from controlled donors after cardiac death (cDCD) started in our country in 2012 and expanded with the strategic support of National Transplant Organization. We present our experience in kidney transplantation with organs from cDCD donors with a mean follow-up of 3 years. METHODS: Observational prospective study of all transplants performed in our center in 2012-2013 followed to 2016. The immunosuppression protocols were triple therapy for low-risk recipients from a standard brain death donor (DBD), adding basiliximab or thymoglobulin induction for extended-criteria donor or high-risk recipient, respectively, and thymoglobulin induction plus triple therapy for all cDCD recipients...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931564/taking-care-of-relationships-in-the-intensive-care-unit-positive-impact-on-family-consent-for-organ-donation
#11
M G Bocci, C D'Alò, R Barelli, S Inguscio, A Prestifilippo, S Di Paolo, S Lochi, M Fanfarillo, D L Grieco, R Maviglia, A Caricato, G Mistraletti, S Pulitanò, M Antonelli, C Sandroni
BACKGROUND: Organ donation refusal from relatives of potential donors with brain death significantly reduces organ availability. The need for organ donation has increased over time, but the shortage of available donors is the major limiting factor in transplantation. We analyzed the impact of a new systematic communication approach between medical staff and patients' relatives on the rate of consent to organ donation. METHODS: The study was conducted as a single-center, non-randomized, controlled, before-and-after study at an 18-bed intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital...
December 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931322/interstrain-differences-in-co2-induced-pulmonary-hemorrhage-in-mice
#12
Suhrim Fisher, Winona L Burgess, Kenneth D Hines, Gary L Mason, James R Owiny
Carbon dioxide is the most commonly used gas for euthanasia of rodents. The current AVMA Guidelines recommend slowly filling the container with CO2 (SF) and now indicate that the practice of placing conscious animals in containers prefilled with CO2 (PF) is unacceptable. An investigator noted pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) in BALB/c mice euthanized by SF that was not observed after PF. Here we evaluated whether the air-displacement rate (SF compared with PF) influenced the development of PH or nasal hemorrhage (NH) in 2 commonly used mouse strains...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930915/anatomical-dysconnectivity-in-bipolar-disorder-compared-with-schizophrenia-a-selective-review-of-structural-network-analyses-using-diffusion-mri
#13
REVIEW
Stefani O'Donoghue, Laurena Holleran, Dara M Cannon, Colm McDonald
BACKGROUND: The dysconnectivity hypothesis suggests that psychotic illnesses arise not from regionally specific focal pathophysiology, but rather from impaired neuroanatomical integration across networks of brain regions. Decreased white matter organization has been hypothesized to be a feature of psychotic illnesses in general, which is supported by meta-analyses of DTI studies in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although many diffusion MRI studies investigate bipolar disorder and schizophrenia alone, relatively few studies directly compare structural features in these psychotic illnesses...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930904/computations-underlying-social-hierarchy-learning-distinct-neural-mechanisms-for-updating-and-representing-self-relevant-information
#14
Dharshan Kumaran, Andrea Banino, Charles Blundell, Demis Hassabis, Peter Dayan
Knowledge about social hierarchies organizes human behavior, yet we understand little about the underlying computations. Here we show that a Bayesian inference scheme, which tracks the power of individuals, better captures behavioral and neural data compared with a reinforcement learning model inspired by rating systems used in games such as chess. We provide evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) selectively mediates the updating of knowledge about one's own hierarchy, as opposed to that of another individual, a process that underpinned successful performance and involved functional interactions with the amygdala and hippocampus...
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930330/simultaneous-dimension-reduction-and-adjustment-for-confounding-variation
#15
Zhixiang Lin, Can Yang, Ying Zhu, John Duchi, Yao Fu, Yong Wang, Bai Jiang, Mahdi Zamanighomi, Xuming Xu, Mingfeng Li, Nenad Sestan, Hongyu Zhao, Wing Hung Wong
Dimension reduction methods are commonly applied to high-throughput biological datasets. However, the results can be hindered by confounding factors, either biological or technical in origin. In this study, we extend principal component analysis (PCA) to propose AC-PCA for simultaneous dimension reduction and adjustment for confounding (AC) variation. We show that AC-PCA can adjust for (i) variations across individual donors present in a human brain exon array dataset and (ii) variations of different species in a model organism ENCODE RNA sequencing dataset...
December 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929458/in-vivo-biosensor-tracks-non-apoptotic-caspase-activity-in-drosophila
#16
Ho Lam Tang, Ho Man Tang, Ming Chiu Fung, J Marie Hardwick
Caspases are the key mediators of apoptotic cell death via their proteolytic activity. When caspases are activated in cells to levels detectable by available technologies, apoptosis is generally assumed to occur shortly thereafter. Caspases can cleave many functional and structural components to cause rapid and complete cell destruction within a few minutes. However, accumulating evidence indicates that in normal healthy cells the same caspases have other functions, presumably at lower enzymatic levels. Studies of non-apoptotic caspase activity have been hampered by difficulties with detecting low levels of caspase activity and with tracking ultimate cell fate in vivo...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929168/a-computational-study-of-self-assembled-hexapeptide-inhibitors-against-amyloid-%C3%AE-a%C3%AE-aggregation
#17
Yuan Qiao, Mingzhen Zhang, Ya'nan Liang, Jie Zheng, Guizhao Liang
The fibrillation and deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in human brains are pathologically linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Development of different inhibitors (peptides, organic molecules, and nanoparticles) to prevent Aβ aggregation becomes a promising therapeutic strategy for AD treatment. We recently propose a "like-interacts-like" design principle to computationally design/screen and experimentally validate a new set of hexapeptide inhibitors with completely different sequences from the Aβ sequence...
December 8, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929102/functional-connectivity-changes-resemble-patterns-of-ptdp-43-pathology-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Ines Schulthess, Martin Gorges, Hans-Peter Müller, Dorothée Lulé, Kelly Del Tredici, Albert C Ludolph, Jan Kassubek
'Resting-state' fMRI allows investigation of alterations in functional brain organization that are associated with an underlying pathological process. We determine whether abnormal connectivity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a priori-defined intrinsic functional connectivity networks, according to a neuropathological staging scheme and its DTI-based tract correlates, permits recognition of a sequential involvement of functional networks. 'Resting-state' fMRI data from 135 ALS patients and 56 matched healthy controls were investigated for the motor network (corresponding to neuropathological stage 1), brainstem (stage 2), ventral attention (stage 3), default mode/hippocampal network (stage 4), and primary visual network (as the control network) in a cross-sectional analysis and longitudinally in a subgroup of 27 patients after 6 months...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927958/coding-of-event-nodes-and-narrative-context-in-the-hippocampus
#19
Branka Milivojevic, Meryl Varadinov, Alejandro Vicente Grabovetsky, Silvy H P Collin, Christian F Doeller
: Narratives may provide a general context, unrestricted by space and time, which can be used to organize episodic memories into networks of related events. However, it is not clear how narrative contexts are represented in the brain. Here we test the novel hypothesis that the formation of narrative-based contextual representations in humans relies on the same hippocampal mechanisms that enable formation of spatiotemporal contexts in rodents. Participants watched a movie consisting of two interleaved narratives while we monitored their brain activity using fMRI...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927699/mosaic-organization-of-body-pattern-control-in-the-optic-lobe-of-squids
#20
Tsung-Han Liu, Chuan-Chin Chiao
: Cephalopods in nature undergo highly dynamic skin coloration changes that allow rapid camouflage and intra-species communication. The optic lobe is thought to play a key role in controlling the expansion of the chromatophores that generate these diverse body patterns. However, the functional organization of the optic lobe and neural control of the various body patterns by the optic lobe are largely unknown. We applied electrical stimulation within the optic lobe to investigate the neural basis of body patterning in the oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana Most areas in the optic lobe mediated predominately ipsilateral expansion of chromatophores present on the mantle but not on the head and arms; furthermore, the expanded areas after electrical stimulation were positively correlated with an increase in stimulating voltage and stimulation depth...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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