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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243894/indications-for-and-outcomes-of-liver-transplantation-in-patients-with-alcohol-associated-liver-disease-aud
#1
Paulina K Phillips, Matthew W Caldis, Alexander D Hristov, Alexander S Lee, Michael R Lucey
The manufacture and consumption of alcohol are ubiquitous and as old as time. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is defined as a problematic pattern of alcohol use leading to clinically significant impairment. The physical injuries that result from excessive alcohol consumption are varied including end-organ damage to liver (alcohol-associated liver disease or ALD), pancreas, brain and heart, and systemic consequences including several forms of cancer. Liver transplantation (LT) remains the treatment of last resort for life-threatening liver disease...
December 14, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243871/expression-of-six3-and-otx-in-solenogastres-mollusca-supports-an-ancestral-role-in-bilaterian-anterior-posterior-axis-patterning
#2
Emanuel Redl, Maik Scherholz, Tim Wollesen, Christiane Todt, Andreas Wanninger
The homeodomain transcription factors six3 and otx are involved in patterning the anterior body and parts of the central nervous system (CNS) in bilaterians. Their similar expression patterns have been used as an argument for homology of heads, brains, segmentation, and ciliated larvae. We investigated the developmental expression of six3 and otx in the aplacophoran mollusk Wirenia argentea. Six3 is expressed in subepithelial cells delimiting the apical organ of the solenogaster pericalymma larva. Otx is expressed in cells of the prototroch and adjacent regions as well as in posterior extensions of the prototrochal expression domain...
December 15, 2017: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243440/-tissue-distribution-of-araloside-a-in-rats
#3
Dong-Yan Guo, Bing-Tao Zhai, Yang Lv, Ya-Jun Shi, Yu Fan, Lu Wang, Mei Wang
Araloside A is one of the main active ingredients of Aralia taibaiensis. In this study, HPLC-MS/MS analysis method of araloside A in the main organs of SD rats was established. At the same time, the content of araloside A in the main organs (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain) after oral administration with araloside A (50 mg•kg⁻¹) were determined to explore the tissue distribution characteristics of araloside A in vivo. The results showed that the methodological study of araloside A in the main organs of SD rats met the requirements, araloside A distributed in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain tissues reached peak at 1 h or 2 h after oral administration with 50 mg•kg-1...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242796/bilateral-femoral-neck-fractures-in-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-treated-by-hip-arthroplasties-the-first-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Witchuree Wejjakul, Swist Chatmaitri, Thongek Wattanarojanaporn, Anuwat Pongkunakorn, Chupong Ittiwut, Vorasuk Shotelersuk
Introduction: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disease caused by mutations of the CYP27A1 gene and deficiency of the sterol-27-hydroxylase enzyme in bile acid biosynthesis. It is characterized by the accumulation of cholestanol and bile alcohols in plasma, the formation of xanthomatous lesions in various tissues, and organ degeneration. This disorder is also associated with osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture. To date, only two CTX patients with femoral neck fractures have been reported...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242199/organ-specific-lymphatic-vasculature-from-development-to-pathophysiology
#5
REVIEW
Tatiana V Petrova, Gou Young Koh
Recent discoveries of novel functions and diverse origins of lymphatic vessels have drastically changed our view of lymphatic vasculature. Traditionally regarded as passive conduits for fluid and immune cells, lymphatic vessels now emerge as active, tissue-specific players in major physiological and pathophysiological processes. Lymphatic vessels show remarkable plasticity and heterogeneity, reflecting their functional specialization to control the tissue microenvironment. Moreover, alternative developmental origins of lymphatic endothelial cells in some organs may contribute to the diversity of their functions in adult tissues...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242091/association-between-microcephaly-zika-virus-infection-and-other-risk-factors-in-brazil-final-report-of-a-case-control-study
#6
Thalia Velho Barreto de Araújo, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes, Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho, Wayner Vieira Souza, Ulisses Ramos Montarroyos, Ana Paula Lopes de Melo, Sandra Valongueiro, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque, Cynthia Braga, Sinval Pinto Brandão Filho, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Enrique Vazquez, Danielle di Cavalcanti Souza Cruz, Claudio Maierovitch Pessanha Henriques, Luciana Caroline Albuquerque Bezerra, Priscila Mayrelle da Silva Castanha, Rafael Dhalia, Ernesto Torres Azevedo Marques-Júnior, Celina Maria Turchi Martelli, Laura Cunha Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: A Zika virus epidemic emerged in northeast Brazil in 2015 and was followed by a striking increase in congenital microcephaly cases, triggering a declaration of an international public health emergency. This is the final report of the first case-control study evaluating the potential causes of microcephaly: congenital Zika virus infection, vaccines, and larvicides. The published preliminary report suggested a strong association between microcephaly and congenital Zika virus infection...
December 11, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241697/opening-the-black-box-of-endocrine-disruption-of-brain-development-lessons-from-the-characterization-of-bisphenol-a
#7
REVIEW
Dinushan Nesan, Laronna C Sewell, Deborah M Kurrasch
Bisphenol A (BPA) is among the best-studied endocrine disrupting chemicals, known to act via multiple steroid hormone receptors to mediate a myriad of cellular effects. Pre-, peri-, and postnatal BPA exposure have been linked to a variety of altered behaviors in multiple model organisms, ranging from zebrafish to frogs to mammalian models. Given that BPA can cross the human placental barrier and has been found in the serum of human fetuses during gestation, BPA has been postulated to adversely affect ongoing neurodevelopment, ultimately leading to behavioral disorders later in life...
December 11, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241598/organ-donation-after-controlled-cardiac-death-under-maastricht-category-iii-ethical-implications-and-end-of-life-care
#8
M Isabel González-Méndez, Luís López-Rodríguez
The decrease in potential donation after brain death has resulted in a need to evaluate alternative sources. Donation after cardiac death is a good option. The objectives of this article were to describe the Maastricht type iii controlled organ donation characteristics and to determine end-of-life care and the role of nurses in the donation process. In this type of donation, cardiocirculatory arrest is predictable after the limitation of life sustaining treatments. These are patients for whom there are no effective therapy options and, in the context of an organised and planned practice involving all the professionals involved in the care of the patient, the decision is made, in consultation with the family, to withdraw life support measures...
December 11, 2017: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240780/filamina-and-formin2-regulate-skeletal-muscular-and-intestinal-formation-through-mesenchymal-progenitor-proliferation
#9
Gewei Lian, Sneha Kanaujia, Timothy Wong, Volney Sheen
The effects of actin dependent molecular mechanisms in coordinating cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation during embryogenesis are not well-understood. We have previously shown that actin-binding Filamin A (FlnA) and actin-nucleating Formin 2 (Fmn2) influence the development of the brain causing microcephaly in mice. In this study, we broaden this phenotype to explore the effects of these two proteins in the development of extra-CNS organ systems, including the gut, muscle, and skeleton. We observed defects in rib and sternum midline closure leading to thoracoabdominal schisis in FlnA+Fmn2 knockout mice, reminiscent of the pentalogy of Cantrell syndrome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240248/sperm-binding-to-porcine-oviductal-cells-is-mediated-by-srcr-domains-contained-in-dmbt1
#10
María Lorena Roldán, Juan Manuel Teijeiro, Jimena Ruiz Álvarez, Patricia Estela Marini
The oviduct is an organ in which a subpopulation of sperm is stored in a reservoir, preserving its fertilizing potential. In porcine, two oviductal proteins have been identified in relation to sperm binding, Annexin A2 and Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumour 1 (DMBT1). DMBT1 is a multifunctional, multidomain glycoprotein and the characteristics of all of its domains, as well as its carbohydrates, make them candidates for sperm binding. In this work, we challenge sperm for binding to pig oviductal cells on primary culture, after treatment with antibodies specific for the different domains present in DMBT1...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239832/magnetic-resonance-elastography-for-examining-developmental-changes-in-the-mechanical-properties-of-the-brain
#11
REVIEW
Curtis L Johnson, Eva H Telzer
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a quantitative imaging technique for noninvasively characterizing tissue mechanical properties, and has recently emerged as a valuable tool for neuroimaging. The measured mechanical properties reflect the microstructural composition and organization of neural tissue, and have shown significant effects in many neurological conditions and normal, healthy aging, and evidence has emerged supporting novel relationships between mechanical structure and cognitive function. The sensitivity of MRE to brain structure, function, and health make it an ideal technique for studying the developing brain; however, brain MRE studies on children and adolescents have only just begun...
September 1, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238844/cardiomyokines-from-the-heart
#12
REVIEW
Ayano Chiba, Haruko Watanabe-Takano, Takahiro Miyazaki, Naoki Mochizuki
The heart is regarded as an endocrine organ as well as a pump for circulation, since atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were discovered in cardiomyocytes to be secreted as hormones. Both ANP and BNP bind to their receptors expressed on remote organs, such as kidneys and blood vessels; therefore, the heart controls the circulation by pumping blood and by secreting endocrine peptides. Cardiomyocytes secrete other peptides besides natriuretic peptides. Although most of such cardiomyocyte-derived peptides act on the heart in autocrine/paracrine fashions, several peptides target remote organs...
December 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238350/differentiation-and-transmigration-of-cd4-t-cells-in-neuroinflammation-and-autoimmunity
#13
REVIEW
Sandip Ashok Sonar, Girdhari Lal
CD4+ T cells play a central role in orchestrating protective immunity and autoimmunity. The activation and differentiation of myelin-reactive CD4+ T cells into effector (Th1 and Th17) and regulatory (Tregs) subsets at the peripheral tissues, and their subsequent transmigration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma are decisive events in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. How the Th1, Th17, and regulatory Tregs transmigrate across the BBB into the CNS and cause CNS inflammation is not clearly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237927/distinct-rab7-related-endosomal-autophagic-lysosomal-dysregulation-observed-in-cortex-and-hippocampus-in-appswe-psen1de9-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Li Ba, Xiao-Hua Chen, Yan-Lin Chen, Qing Nie, Zhi-Jun Li, Feng-Fei Ding, Min Zhang
BACKGROUND: Amyloid-β deposition and accumulation of autophagic vacuoles are pathologic features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dysregulation of the endosomal-autophagic-lysosomal (EAL) pathway, which impairs amyloid precursor protein processing, is one of the earliest changes in AD. However, the precise role of EAL pathway in neurodegeneration remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of EAL pathway in AD and further study the mechanism of EAL dysfunction. METHODS: We used 3-, 7-, and 12-month-old APPswe/PSEN1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice to model different stages of AD with age- and gender-matched wild-type littermates as controls (4-7 mice per group) and detected the changes of EAL markers, endosomal organizers Rab5 and Rab7, autophagosome marker LC3B, and lysosomal proteins Lamp1/2 in cortex and hippocampus by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236919/evidence-of-progenitor-cells-in-the-adult-human-cochlea-sphere-formation-and-identification-of-abcg2
#15
Milene Massucci-Bissoli, Karina Lezirovitz, Jeanne Oiticica, Ricardo Ferreira Bento
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to search for evidence of stem or progenitor cells in the adult human cochlea by testing for sphere formation capacity and the presence of the stem cell marker ABCG2. METHODS: Cochleas removed from patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma resection (n=2) and from brain-dead organ donors (n=4) were dissociated for either flow cytometry analysis for the stem cell marker ABCG2 or a sphere formation assay that is widely used to test the sphere-forming capacity of cells from mouse inner ear tissue...
November 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236813/psychoanalysis-and-neurosciences-fuzzy-outlines-notes-on-the-notion-of-cerebral-plasticity
#16
Maria Jimena Mantilla
"Psychoanalysis versus psychiatry" and "unconscious versus brain" are classic oppositions between different perspectives on the human being and mental suffering. This article draws on certain elements of this discussion and reflects on how new ideas about the brain and biology favor closer interaction between psychoanalysis and the neurosciences. These questions are redefined through the notion of cerebral plasticity, by which the brain is open to interaction with the social environment and the influence of psychoanalytical therapy...
November 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236051/synchrotron-based-pencil-beam-scanning-nozzle-with-an-integrated-mini-ridge-filter-a-dosimetric-study-to-optimize-treatment-delivery
#17
Xianliang Wang, Yupeng Li, Xiaodong Zhang, Heng Li, Koichi Miyazaki, Rintaro Fujimoto, Hiroshi Akiyama, Michael T Gillin, Falk Poenisch, Narayan Sahoo, David Grosshans, Brandon Gunn, Steven Jay Frank, Pei Wang, Jinyi Lang, Qing Hou, Xiaorong Ronald Zhu
A mini-ridge filter is often used to widen the Bragg peak in the longitudinal direction at low energies but not high energies. To facilitate the clinical use of a mini-ridge filter, we performed a planning study for the feasibility of a mini-ridge filter as an integral part of the synchrotron nozzle (IMRF). Dose models with and without IMRF were commissioned in a commercial Treatment planning system (TPS). Dosimetric characteristics in a homogenous water phantom were compared between plans with and without IMRF for a fixed spread-out Bragg peak width of 4 cm with distal ranges varying from 8 to 30 g/cm²...
December 13, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235648/anatomical-map-of-the-cranial-vasculature-and-sensory-ganglia
#18
Laura Taberner, Aitor Bañón, Berta Alsina
There is growing evidence of a direct influence of vasculature on the development of neurons in the brain. The development of the cranial vasculature has been well described in zebrafish but its anatomical relationship with the adjacent developing sensory ganglia has not been addressed. Here, by 3D imaging of fluorescently labelled blood vessels and sensory ganglia, we describe for the first time the spatial organization of the cranial vasculature in relation to the cranial ganglia during zebrafish development...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235019/investigation-of-the-interaction-of-%C3%AE-methylamino-l-alanine-with-eukaryotic-and-prokaryotic-proteins
#19
Brendan J Main, Carly J Italiano, Kenneth J Rodgers
There is a strong body of evidence linking the non-protein amino acid (NPAA) β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) to the development of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. BMAA has been found globally, is produced by a number of organisms including cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates; and has been shown to biomagnify through trophic levels. The role of BMAA in neurodegenerative disease is highlighted by its presence in the brains of a number of neurodegenerative disease patients, where it was found in a protein-bound form...
December 12, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234908/characterization-of-type-iv-antifreeze-gene-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-and-influence-of-cold-and-hot-weather-on-its-expression-and-some-immune-related-genes
#20
Asmma Y Ammar, Abeer F El Nahas, Shawky Mahmoud, Mohamed E Barakat, Asmaa M Hassan
The aim of this work is to study the effect of the thermal stress of ambient temperature during winter and summer on the expression of type IV antifreeze gene (ANF IV) in different tissues of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as well as some immune-related genes. At first, genomic ANF IV gene was characterized from one fish; 124 amino acids were identified with 92.7% similarity with that on the gene bank. Expression of ANF IV and immune-related genes were done twice, once at the end of December (winter sample, temperature 14 °C) and the other at August (summer sample, temperature 36 °C)...
December 12, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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