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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677475/molecular-and-functional-neuroscience-in-immunity
#1
Valentin A Pavlov, Sangeeta S Chavan, Kevin J Tracey
The nervous system regulates immunity and inflammation. The molecular detection of pathogen fragments, cytokines, and other immune molecules by sensory neurons generates immunoregulatory responses through efferent autonomic neuron signaling. The functional organization of this neural control is based on principles of reflex regulation. Reflexes involving the vagus nerve and other nerves have been therapeutically explored in models of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, and recently in clinical settings...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677069/evolution-of-deceased-organ-donation-activity-vs-efficiency-over-a-15-year-period-an-international-comparison
#2
Julius Weiss, Andreas Elmer, Beatriz Mahíllo, Beatriz Domínguez-Gil, Danica Avsec, Alessandro Nanni Costa, Bernadette J J M Haase-Kromwijk, Karim Laouabdia, Franz F Immer
BACKGROUND: The donation rate (DR) per million population is not ideal for an efficiency comparison of national deceased organ donation programs. The DR does not account for variabilities in the potential for deceased donation which mainly depends on fatalities from causes leading to brain death. In this study, the donation activity was put into relation to the mortality from selected causes. Based on that metric, this study assesses the efficiency of different donation programs. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 2001-2015 deceased organ donation and mortality registry data...
April 19, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676623/nicotine-downregulates-the-compensatory-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-angiotensin-type-2-receptor-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#3
Xinping Yue, Tyler M Basting, Thomas W Flanagan, Jiaxi Xu, Thomas D Lobell, Nicholas W Gilpin, Jason D Gardner, Eric Lazartigues
RATIONALE: Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. The importance of the renin-angiotensin system in the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease is well established. Angiotensin-II, by means of its type 1 receptor (angiotensin type 1 receptor, AT1 R), promotes increased sympathetic activity, salt and water reabsorption, vasoconstriction, inflammation, and aldosterone and vasopressin release, contributing to tissue fibrosis, endothelium dysfunction, and hypertension...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675862/hemodialysis-a-model-for-extreme-physiology-in-a-vulnerable-patient-population
#4
REVIEW
Jeroen P Kooman, Krassimir Katzarski, Frank M van der Sande, Karel M Leunissen, Peter Kotanko
Hemodialysis (HD) is a lifesaving treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease, which is very efficient in the correction of abnormalities of the internal environment. However, this efficiency also induces significant hemodynamic, thermal, and respiratory stressors. These have parallels with the extreme physiologic demands which are normally mainly experienced by healthy subjects under adverse environmental conditions, with the difference that they must be endured by a vulnerable patient population. Hemodynamic stress induced by ultrafiltration leads to a decline in circulating blood volume, which may result in intradialytic hypotension (IDH) and changes in tissue perfusion, which may have long-term consequences for the function of vital organs such as the brain and the heart...
April 19, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675706/audiomotor-integration-of-angry-and-happy-prosodies
#5
Sélim Yahia Coll, Sascha Frühholz, Didier Grandjean
Different parts of our brain code the perceptual features and actions related to an object, causing a binding problem: how does the brain discriminate the information of a particular event from the features of other events? Hommel (1998) suggested the event file concept: an episodic memory trace binding perceptual and motor information pertaining to an object. By adapting Hommel's paradigm to emotional faces in a previous study (Coll & Grandjean, 2016), we demonstrated that emotion could take part in an event file with motor responses...
April 19, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675303/measuring-water-contents-in-animal-organ-tissues-using-terahertz-spectroscopic-imaging
#6
Kyumin Lee, Kiyong Jeoung, Sang Hoon Kim, Young-Bin Ji, Hyeyoung Son, Yuna Choi, Young-Min Huh, Jin-Suck Suh, Seung Jae Oh
We investigated the water contents in several organ tissues such as the liver, spleen, kidney, and brain tissue of rats using the terahertz spectroscopic imaging technique. The water contents of the tissues were determined by using a simple equation containing the absorption coefficients of fresh and lyophilized tissues and water. We compared the measured water contents with the difference in mass of tissues before and after lyophilization. All results showed a good match except for the kidney, which has several Bowman's capsules...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674604/does-ischemia-free-liver-procurement-under-normothermic-perfusion-benefit-the-outcome-of-liver-transplantation
#7
Qiang Zhao, Shanzhou Huang, Dongping Wang, Zhiheng Zhang, Linwei Wu, Lu Yang, Yi Ma, Fei Ji, Yunhua Tang, Linhe Wang, Zebin Zhu, Yanling Zhu, Wei Xiong, Maogen Chen, Ming Han, Jian Zhou, Anbin Hu, Guodong Wang, Xingyuan Jiao, Xiaofeng Zhu, Weiqiang Ju, Zhiyong Guo, Xiaoshun He
BACKGROUND In contrast to conventional static cold preservation, normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) provides a beneficial alternative preservation of donor livers. However, the liver still suffered cold ischemic injury before attaching to the perfusion device. MATERIAL AND METHODS To prevent cold ischemic injury during procurement, we describe a novel procedure called ischemia-free liver procurement (IFLP) under NMP. Two liver grafts were procured from brain death donor under NMP and underwent 2-hour ex vivo NMP followed by 3 and 6 hours of static cold preservation...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674123/effects-of-dietary-toxic-cyanobacteria-and-ammonia-exposure-on-immune-function-of-blunt-snout-bream-megalabrama-amblycephala
#8
Hu Xia, Ting Song, Li Wang, Liangsen Jiang, Qiting Zhou, Weimin Wang, Liangguo Liu, Pinhong Yang, Xuezhen Zhang
Cyanobacterial blooms caused by water eutrophication have become a worldwide problem. During the degradation of toxic cyanobacterial blooms, elevated ammonia and microcystins concentrations co-occur and exert toxicity on fish. Up to now, the combined effect of microcystins and ammonia on fish immunotoxicity has not been reported. The present study investigated immune responses of blunt snout bream (Megalabrama amblycephala) to dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure. Megalobrama amblycephala were exposed to solutions with different concentrations of NH3 -N (0, 0...
April 16, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673824/pre-and-postoperative-headache-in-patients-with-intracranial-tumors
#9
Bodil Karoline Ravn Munkvold, Lisa Millgård Sagberg, Asgeir Store Jakola, Ole Solheim
OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine prevalence of headache in patients with histopathologically verified intracranial tumors scheduled for surgery, and assess change in headache 1 and 6 months after surgical resection. Possible tumor and patient related predictors for preoperative headache and early postoperative symptom relief were also explored. METHODS: The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) has developed a quality of life questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) with a brain cancer specific module, QLQ-BN20, containing 20 questions rating symptoms the past week on an ordinal scale ranging from 1-4...
April 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673485/functional-brain-networks-are-dominated-by-stable-group-and-individual-factors-not-cognitive-or-daily-variation
#10
Caterina Gratton, Timothy O Laumann, Ashley N Nielsen, Deanna J Greene, Evan M Gordon, Adrian W Gilmore, Steven M Nelson, Rebecca S Coalson, Abraham Z Snyder, Bradley L Schlaggar, Nico U F Dosenbach, Steven E Petersen
The organization of human brain networks can be measured by capturing correlated brain activity with fMRI. There is considerable interest in understanding how brain networks vary across individuals or neuropsychiatric populations or are altered during the performance of specific behaviors. However, the plausibility and validity of such measurements is dependent on the extent to which functional networks are stable over time or are state dependent. We analyzed data from nine high-quality, highly sampled individuals to parse the magnitude and anatomical distribution of network variability across subjects, sessions, and tasks...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673128/synthesis-analytical-characterization-and-monoamine-transporter-activity-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-4-methylphenmetrazine-4-mpm-with-differentiation-from-its-ortho-and-meta-positional-isomers
#11
Gavin McLaughlin, Michael H Baumann, Pierce V Kavanagh, Noreen Morris, John D Power, Geraldine Dowling, Brendan Twamley, John O'Brien, Gary Hessman, Folker Westphal, Donna Walther, Simon D Brandt
The availability of new psychoactive substances on the recreational drug market continues to create challenges for scientists in the forensic, clinical and toxicology fields. Phenmetrazine (3-methyl-2-phenylmorpholine) and an array of its analogs form a class of psychostimulants that are well documented in the patent and scientific literature. The present study reports on two phenmetrazine analogs that have been encountered on the NPS drug market following the introduction of 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM), namely 4-methylphenmetrazine (4-MPM) and 3-methylphenmetrazine (3-MPM)...
April 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672517/white-matter-alterations-in-the-internal-capsule-and-psychomotor-impairment-in-melancholic-depression
#12
Matthew P Hyett, Alistair Perry, Michael Breakspear, Wei Wen, Gordon B Parker
Emerging evidence suggests that structural brain abnormalities may play a role in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression. We set out to test whether diffusion-derived estimates of white matter structure were disrupted in melancholia in regions underpinning psychomotor function. We hypothesized that those with melancholia (and evidencing impaired psychomotor function) would show disrupted white matter organization in internal capsule subdivisions. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data were acquired from 22 melancholic depressed, 23 non-melancholic depressed, and 29 healthy control participants...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672286/activated-%C3%AE-7nachr-improves-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-intestinal-injury-induced-by-cardiopulmonary-bypass-in-rats-inhibition-of-the-proinflammatory-response-through-the-th17-immune-response
#13
Keyan Chen, YingJie Sun, Wanwei Dong, Tiezheng Zhang, Nan Zhou, Weiwei Yu, Yugang Diao, Shanbin Guo, Yue Tian
Backgrund/Aims: To investigate the effects of activated α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and intestinal injury induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and its relationship with the Th17 response in order to provide a theoretical basis for organ protection and targeted drug therapy during the perioperative period. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rat models of CPB were established. Rat intestinal and brain injuries were observed after CPB using hematoxylin and eosin staining...
April 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671418/the-role-of-k-atp-channels-in-cerebral-ischemic-stroke-and-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Vivian Szeto, Nai-Hong Chen, Hong-Shuo Sun, Zhong-Ping Feng
ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP ) channels are ubiquitously expressed on the plasma membrane of cells in multiple organs, including the heart, pancreas and brain. KATP channels play important roles in controlling and regulating cellular functions in response to metabolic state, which are inhibited by ATP and activated by Mg-ADP, allowing the cell to couple cellular metabolic state (ATP/ADP ratio) to electrical activity of the cell membrane. KATP channels mediate insulin secretion in pancreatic islet beta cells, and controlling vascular tone...
April 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671295/monitoring-the-injured-brain
#15
Anna T Mazzeo, Deepak K Gupta
Traumatic brain injury can be defined as the most complex disease in the most complex organ. When an acute brain injury occurs, several pathophysiological cascades are triggered, leading to further exacerbation of the primary damage. A number of events potentially occurring after TBI can compromise the availability or utilization of energy substrates in the brain, ultimately leading to brain energy crisis. The frequent occurrence of secondary insults in the acute phase after TBI, such as intracranial hypertension, hypotension, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hyperthermia, seizures, can then increase cerebral damage, and adversely affect outcome...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671035/-prognostic-relevance-of-tissue-oxygen-saturation-in-patients-in-the-early-stage-of-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome
#16
D Huster, F Härtel, S Nuding, J Schroeder, Y Zhang, K Werdan, H Ebelt
BACKGROUND: Patients in circulatory shock exhibit insufficient peripheral perfusion to ensure adequate oxygenation of vital organs such as the heart and brain. Early detection of reduced tissue oxygen saturation (St O2 ) could be used for rapid therapeutic intervention and thus improve the prognosis of patients in the early stage of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 patients in the early stage of MODS (APACHE [Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation] II score ≥20) were investigated in a monocentric, prospective, randomized phase II study...
April 18, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670545/effect-of-the-nu-age-diet-on-cognitive-functioning-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Anna Marseglia, Weili Xu, Laura Fratiglioni, Cristina Fabbri, Agnes A M Berendsen, Agata Bialecka-Debek, Amy Jennings, Rachel Gillings, Nathalie Meunier, Elodie Caumon, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Barbara Pietruszka, Lisette C P G M De Groot, Aurelia Santoro, Claudio Franceschi
Background: Findings from animal and epidemiological research support the potential neuroprotective benefits from healthy diets. However, to establish diet-neuroprotective causal relations, evidence from dietary intervention studies is needed. NU-AGE is the first multicenter intervention assessing whether a diet targeting health in aging can counteract the age-related physiological changes in different organs, including the brain. In this study, we specifically investigated the effects of NU-AGE's dietary intervention on age-related cognitive decline...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669275/zika-virus-can-strongly-infect-and-disrupt-secondary-organizers-in-the-ventricular-zone-of-the-embryonic-chicken-brain
#18
Ankita Thawani, Devika Sirohi, Richard J Kuhn, Donna M Fekete
Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with severe neurodevelopmental impairments in human fetuses, including microencephaly. Previous reports examining neural progenitor tropism of ZIKV in organoid and animal models did not address whether the virus infects all neural progenitors uniformly. To explore this, ZIKV was injected into the neural tube of 2-day-old chicken embryos, resulting in nonuniform periventricular infection 3 days later. Recurrent foci of intense infection were present at specific signaling centers that influence neuroepithelial patterning at a distance through secretion of morphogens...
April 17, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668825/cryptococcal-pathogenic-mechanisms-a-dangerous-trip-from-the-environment-to-the-brain
#19
Shannon K Esher, Oscar Zaragoza, James Andrew Alspaugh
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that causes serious infections, most commonly of the central nervous system (CNS). C. neoformans is mainly found in the environment and acquired by inhalation. It could be metaphorically imagined that cryptococcal disease is a "journey" for the microorganism that starts in the environment, where this yeast loads its suitcase with virulence traits. C. neoformans first encounters the infected mammalian host in the lungs, a site in which it must choose the right elements from its "virulence suitcase" to survive the pulmonary immune response...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667636/-the-distribution-of-2-dimethylamino-ethyl-1-hydroxycyclopentyl-phenyl-acetate-in-the-organism-of-the-warm-blooded-animals-after-its-intra-gastric-administration
#20
V K Shormanov, M F Pravdyuk, V Yu Kuzovlev, N V Shabunina
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the distribution of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)(phenyl)acetate in the organism of the warm-blooded animals after its intra-gastric administration. The methods applied in the study included thin layer chromatography in silicagel, aci-nitroprosalt staining reaction, UV-spectrophotometry,, and GC-mass spectrometry. The identification and the quantitation of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-(1-hydroxycyclopentyl)(phenyl)acetate in the organs and blood of the warm-blooded animals were carried out within 20, 150, and 360 min after a single intra-gastric administration of 1300 ml of this poisonous substance...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
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