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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161262/the-value-of-confirmatory-testing-in-early-infant-hiv-diagnosis-programmes-in-south-africa-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#1
Lorna Dunning, Jordan A Francke, Divya Mallampati, Rachel L MacLean, Martina Penazzato, Taige Hou, Landon Myer, Elaine J Abrams, Rochelle P Walensky, Valériane Leroy, Kenneth A Freedberg, Andrea Ciaranello
BACKGROUND: The specificity of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) used for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV infection is <100%, leading some HIV-uninfected infants to be incorrectly identified as HIV-infected. The World Health Organization recommends that infants undergo a second NAAT to confirm any positive test result, but implementation is limited. Our objective was to determine the impact and cost-effectiveness of confirmatory HIV testing for EID programmes in South Africa...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160655/quality-of-life-and-adherence-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#2
Patrizia Burra, Alberto Ferrarese, Giuseppe Feltrin
The assessment of Quality of Life (QoL) after transplantation represents an ancillary tool to evaluate the efficacy of solid organ transplantation, in addition to graft and patient survival rates and complication. The global assessment of QoL after transplantation usually confirms the improvement when compared to pre-transplant setting. However, whereas significant improvement in physical activity has been widely reported, several studies have demonstrated that social domain and cognitive function do not reach the level of general population after surgery...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160457/medicine-dispensing-service-in-primary-health-care-of-sus
#3
Silvana Nair Leite, Noemia Liege Maria da Cunha Bernardo, Juliana Álvares, Augusto Afonso Guerra, Ediná Alves Costa, Francisco de Assis Acurcio, Ione Aquemi Guibu, Karen Sarmento Costa, Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski, Orlando Mario Soeiro, Luciano Soares
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the medicine dispensing services in the primary health care network in Brazil and in its different regions, aiming to promote the access and rational use of medicines. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, quantitative study with data obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), 2015. Observation visits were carried out in 1,175 dispensing units, and interviews were held with 1,139 professionals responsible for the dispensation of medicines in the dispensing units and 495 municipal coordinators of pharmaceutical services...
November 13, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159481/effects-of-multi-component-mixtures-from-sewage-treatment-plant-effluent-on-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-under-fully-realistic-condition
#4
Pham Thai Giang, Burkina Viktoriia, Sakalli Sidika, Schmidt-Posthaus Heike, Martin Krøyer Rasmussen, Randak Tomas, Grabic Roman, Grabicova Katerina, Fedorova Ganna, Koba Olga, Golovko Oksana, Turek Jan, Cerveny Daniel, Kolarova Jitka, Zlabek Vladimir
This study characterized changes in biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) upon exposure to effluent water discharged from a sewage treatment plant (STP) under real conditions. Fish were exposed to contamination in Cezarka pond, which receives all of its water input from the STP in the town of Vodnany, Czech Republic. Five sampling events were performed at day 0, 30, 90, 180, and 360 starting in April 2015. In total, 62 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were detected in the polar organic chemical integrative sampler...
November 20, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159414/hepatitis-b-vaccination-screening-and-linkage-to-care-best-practice-advice-from-the-american-college-of-physicians-and-the-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention
#5
Winston E Abara, Amir Qaseem, Sarah Schillie, Brian J McMahon, Aaron M Harris
Background: Vaccination, screening, and linkage to care can reduce the burden of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, recommendations vary among organizations, and their implementation has been suboptimal. The American College of Physicians' High Value Care Task Force and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed this article to present best practice statements for hepatitis B vaccination, screening, and linkage to care. Methods: A narrative literature review of clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, randomized trials, and intervention studies on hepatitis B vaccination, screening, and linkage to care published between January 2005 and June 2017 was conducted...
November 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158844/quantitative-imaging-for-targeted-radionuclide-therapy-dosimetry-technical-review
#6
REVIEW
Tiantian Li, Edwin C I Ao, Bieke Lambert, Boudewijn Brans, Stefaan Vandenberghe, Greta S P Mok
Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) is a promising technique for cancer therapy. However, in order to deliver the required dose to the tumor, minimize potential toxicity in normal organs, as well as monitor therapeutic effects, it is important to assess the individualized internal dosimetry based on patient-specific data. Advanced imaging techniques, especially radionuclide imaging, can be used to determine the spatial distribution of administered tracers for calculating the organ-absorbed dose. While planar scintigraphy is still the mainstream imaging method, SPECT, PET and bremsstrahlung imaging have promising properties to improve accuracy in quantification...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157301/family-support-discrimination-and-quality-of-life-among-art-treated-hiv-infected-patients-a-two-year-study-in-china
#7
Jun-Fang Xu, Zhong-Qiang Ming, Yu-Qian Zhang, Pei-Cheng Wang, Jun Jing, Feng Cheng
BACKGROUND: By September 2016, approximately 653,865 people in China were living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and 492,725 people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). PLWHA frequently experience discrimination in all domains of their personal and social lives. The World Health Organization includes discrimination in its list of social determinants of health factors that have been linked to poor physical and psychological health. This paper identifies the family support enjoyed and discrimination faced by people infected with HIV and examines the effect they have on patients' quality of life (QOL) as they undergo ART in China...
November 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157155/work-environment-and-occupational-risk-assessment-for-small-animal-portuguese-veterinary-activities
#8
Angela C Macedo, Vânia T Mota, João M Tavares, Osvaldo L Machado, Francisco X Malcata, Marinela P Cristo, Olga N Mayan
The professional work of small animal veterinary staff encompasses a wide diversity of demanding tasks. This has prompted a number of studies covering physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic or psychological hazards, as well as their health effects upon veterinary workers. However, such results were obtained from self-reported surveys (via paper or online). This study reports the identification of potential hazards and provides a risk assessment of 15 veterinary clinics based on data from walk-through surveys, interviews with workers, and quantification of indoor air quality parameters including concentration of volatile organic compounds (total, isoflurane and glutaraldehyde)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157038/applying-u-s-national-guidelines-for-ototoxicity-monitoring-in-adult-patients-perspectives-on-patient-populations-service-gaps-barriers-and-solutions
#9
Dawn Konrad-Martin, Gayla L Poling, Angela C Garinis, Candice E Ortiz, Jennifer Hopper, Keri O'Connell Bennett, Marilyn F Dille
OBJECTIVES: To promote establishment of effective ototoxicity monitoring programs (OMPs), this report reviews the U.S. national audiology guidelines in relation to "real world" OMP application. Background is provided on the mechanisms, risks and clinical presentation of hearing loss associated with major classes of ototoxic medications. DESIGN: This is a non-systematic review using PubMed, national and international agency websites, personal communications between ototoxicity experts, and results of unpublished research...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156792/liquid-biopsy-in-colon-cancer-comparison-of-different-circulating-dna-extraction-systems-following-absolute-quantification-of-kras-mutations-using-intplex-allele-specific-pcr
#10
Vera Kloten, Nadine Rüchel, Nadina Ortiz Brüchle, Janina Gasthaus, Nils Freudenmacher, Florian Steib, Jolein Mijnes, Julian Eschenbruch, Marcel Binnebösel, Ruth Knüchel, Edgar Dahl
Non-invasive molecular analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising application in personalized cancer management, although there is still much to learn about the biological characteristics of ctDNA. The present study compared absolute amounts of KRAS mutated ctDNA and total circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (n=50) from various stages and healthy controls (n=8) by Intplex allele-specific and digital droplet PCR. In addition, the impact of two prominent extraction techniques (silica-based membrane vs...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156273/contribution-of-sun-exposure-to-the-vitamin-d-dose-received-by-various-groups-of-the-spanish-population
#11
Maria-Antonia Serrano
Although the harmful effects of excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation are well known, the recommended dose of UV radiation is beneficial for the synthesis of vitamin D by the skin, in addition to being useful in the treatment of various illnesses and mental problems. Numerous studies have shown that vitamin D performs important functions in the human organism, such as absorbing calcium and phosphorous and contributing to the immune system, among others. Several studies have found that a high percentage of various groups of the Spanish population suffer from vitamin D deficiency, and since very few natural foods contain vitamin D, it was considered important to determine whether groups such as schoolchildren, outdoor workers and athletes, receive enough solar radiation to produce adequate levels of vitamin D in their daily activities...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156255/competitive-adsorption-of-ppcp-and-humic-substances-by-carbon-nanotube-membranes-effects-of-coagulation-and-ppcp-properties
#12
Yifei Wang, Qing Yang, Junqing Dong, Haiou Huang
Natural organic matter (NOM) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) are known to compete for adsorption sites on carbon nanotubes (CNT), resulting in decreasing PPCP adsorption onto CNT. In this study, four types of PPCP, as such acetaminophen (AAP), caffeine (CAF), triclosan (TCS), and carbendazim (CBD) were used to investigate the effects of PPCP properties and NOM coagulation on the competitive adsorption of PPCP and NOM. Coagulation preferentially removed HS from a natural surface water, thereby increasing adsorption of AAP, CAF, TCS and CBD by 19%, 13%, 17% and 11%, respectively...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154302/don-t-abandon-hope-all-ye-who-enter-here-the-protective-role-of-formal-mentoring-and-learning-processes-on-burnout-in-correctional-officers
#13
M L Farnese, B Barbieri, B Bellò, P T Bartone
BACKGROUND: Within a Job Demands-Resources Model framework, formal mentoring can be conceived as a job resource expressing the organization's support for new members, which may prevent their being at risk for burnout. OBJECTIVE: This research aims at understanding the protective role of formal mentoring on burnout, through the effect of increasing learning personal resources. Specifically, we hypothesized that formal mentoring enhances newcomers' learning about job and social domains related to the new work context, thus leading to lower burnout...
2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154103/lung-cancer-messages-on-twitter-content%C3%A2-analysis-and-evaluation
#14
Jeannette Sutton, Sarah C Vos, Michele K Olson, Chelsea Woods, Elisia Cohen, C Ben Gibson, Nolan Edward Phillips, Jamie L Studts, Jan M Eberth, Carter T Butts
PURPOSE: The aim of this project was to describe and evaluate the levels of lung cancer communication across the cancer prevention and control continuum for content posted to Twitter during a 10-day period (September 30 to October 9) in 2016. METHODS: Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to identify relationships between tweet characteristics in lung cancer communication on Twitter and user-level data. Overall, 3,000 tweets published between September 30 and October 9 were assessed by a team of three coders...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153619/the-use-of-stool-specimens-reveals-helicobacter-pylori-strain-diversity-in-a-cohort-of-adolescents-and-their-family-members-in-a-developed-country
#15
Brendan Dolan, Lucy Burkitt-Gray, Stephen Shovelin, Billy Bourke, Brendan Drumm, Marion Rowland, Marguerite Clyne
Helicobacter pylori infection occurs within families but the transmission route is unknown. The use of stool specimens to genotype strains facilitates inclusion of complete families in transmission studies. Therefore, we aimed to use DNA from stools to analyze strain diversity in H. pylori infected families. We genotyped H. pylori strains using specific biprobe qPCR analysis of glmM, recA and hspA. Concentration of H. pylori organisms before DNA isolation enhanced subsequent DNA amplification. We isolated H...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153452/diagnostics-of-tuberculosis-and-differentiation-of-nonspecific-tuberculin-reactions-in-animals
#16
Sovetzhan Z Basybekov, Marat B Bazarbayev, Bolat A Yespembetov, Assiya Mussaeva, Serik G Kanatbayev, Kanapya M Romashev, Aigul K Dossanova, Tokseiit A Yelekeyev, Elmira K Akmatova, Nazym S Syrym
Tuberculosis is a serious disease of humans and animals, caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium genus. This leads to complications in the life of the sick person, and subsequently to death. The cattle, who have been diagnosed with this bacterium, are usually sent to the slaughter, with the result that their livestock is reduced. Mycobacteriosis is also a disease, after determining which cattle are most often sent to slaughter. Such a reduction in livestock numbers has a negative effect on the economy. Of the 300 samples from the animals, 25 cultures of atypical bacteria responding to tuberculin were isolated...
October 25, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153381/prenatal-tvocs-exposure-negatively-influences-postnatal-neurobehavioral-development
#17
Moonhee Chang, Dongheon Lee, Hyesook Park, Mina Ha, Yun-Chul Hong, Yangho Kim, Boong-Nyun Kim, Yeni Kim, Youn-Hee Lim, Eun-Hee Ha
Prenatal exposure to volatile organic compounds may restrict fetal development and adversely influence infants' life. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between prenatal exposure to total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and postnatal neurobehavioral development. A subsample of 383 pregnant participants was chosen from the prospective birth cohort study of Mother and Children's Environmental Health Study; MOCEH (N=1,751) from three regions of the Republic of Korea (Seoul, Cheon-an, and Ulsan). Participants were enrolled during their first trimester with informed consent...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152226/an-overview-of-the-cutaneous-porphyrias
#18
REVIEW
Robert Dawe
This is an overview of the cutaneous porphyrias. It is a narrative review based on the published literature and my personal experience; it is not based on a formal systematic search of the literature. The cutaneous porphyrias are a diverse group of conditions due to inherited or acquired enzyme defects in the porphyrin-haem biosynthetic pathway. All the cutaneous porphyrias can have (either as a consequence of the porphyria or as part of the cause of the porphyria) involvement of other organs as well as the skin...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151676/jim-hyde-and-the-endor-connection-a-personal-account
#19
Klaus Möbius, Wolfgang Lubitz, Anton Savitsky
In this minireview, we report on our year-long EPR work, such as electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), pulse electron double resonance (PELDOR) and ELDOR-detected NMR (EDNMR) at X-band and W-band microwave frequencies and magnetic fields. This report is dedicated to James S. Hyde and honors his pioneering contributions to the measurement of spin interactions in large (bio)molecules. From these interactions, detailed information is revealed on structure and dynamics of macromolecules embedded in liquid-solution or solid-state environments...
2017: Applied Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151269/how-to-practice-person-centred-care-a-conceptual-framework
#20
REVIEW
Maria J Santana, Kimberly Manalili, Rachel J Jolley, Sandra Zelinsky, Hude Quan, Mingshan Lu
BACKGROUND: Globally, health-care systems and organizations are looking to improve health system performance through the implementation of a person-centred care (PCC) model. While numerous conceptual frameworks for PCC exist, a gap remains in practical guidance on PCC implementation. METHODS: Based on a narrative review of the PCC literature, a generic conceptual framework was developed in collaboration with a patient partner, which synthesizes evidence, recommendations and best practice from existing frameworks and implementation case studies...
November 19, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
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