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Organic personality

J Willem L Tideman, Margaretha C C Snabel, Milly S Tedja, Gwyneth A van Rijn, King T Wong, Robert W A M Kuijpers, Johannes R Vingerling, Albert Hofman, Gabriëlle H S Buitendijk, Jan E E Keunen, Camiel J F Boon, Annette J M Geerards, Gregorius P M Luyten, Virginie J M Verhoeven, Caroline C W Klaver
Importance: Myopia (ie, nearsightedness) is becoming the most common eye disorder to cause blindness in younger persons in many parts of the world. Visual impairment due to myopia is associated with structural changes of the retina and the globe because of elongation of the eye axis. How axial length-a sum of the anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and vitreous chamber depth-and myopia relate to the development of visual impairment over time is unknown. Objectives: To evaluate the association between axial length, spherical equivalent, and the risk of visual impairment and to make projections of visual impairment for regions with high prevalence rates...
October 20, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
Shawneequa L Callier, Rachel Abudu, Maxwell J Mehlman, Mendel E Singer, Duncan Neuhauser, Charlisse Caga-Anan, Georgia L Wiesner
PURPOSE: This review identifies the prominent topics in the literature pertaining to the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) raised by research investigating personalized genomic medicine (PGM). METHODS: The abstracts of 953 articles extracted from scholarly databases and published during a 5-year period (2008-2012) were reviewed. A total of 299 articles met our research criteria and were organized thematically to assess the representation of ELSI issues for stakeholders, health specialties, journals, and empirical studies...
November 2016: Bioethics
Anagha Loharikar, Laure Dumolard, Susan Chu, Terri Hyde, Tracey Goodman, Carsten Mantel
Since the global Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was launched in 1974, vaccination against six diseases (tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and measles) has prevented millions of deaths and disabilities (1). Significant advances have been made in the development and introduction of vaccines, and licensed vaccines are now available to prevent 25 diseases (2,3). Historically, new vaccines only became available in low-income and middle-income countries decades after being introduced in high-income countries...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Alice Wang, Colleen Hardy, Anangu Rajasingham, Andrea Martinsen, Lindsay Templin, Stanislaus Kamwaga, Kiwe Sebunya, Brenda Jhuthi, Michael Habtu, Stephen Kiberiti, Khalid Massa, Rob Quick, Jane Mulungu, Rachel Eidex, Thomas Handzel
Since August 2015, the Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MoHCDGEC) of Tanzania has been leading the response to a widespread cholera outbreak. As of June 9, 2016, cholera had affected 23 of 25 regions in Tanzania, with 21,750 cumulative cases and 341 deaths reported (Ally Nyanga, MoHCDGEC Emergency Operations Center, personal communication, June 2016). Approximately one fourth of all cases occurred in the Dar es Salaam region on the east coast. Regions surrounding Lake Victoria, in the north, also reported high case counts, including Mwanza with 9% (Ally Nyanga, MoHCDGEC Emergency Operations Center, personal communication, June 2016)...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Pradeep Jayashantha, Newell W Johnson
Sri Lanka's Veddas/Vanniya-laeto, are a small Indigenous group today with little information on their oral health status. This report is to provide an overview on oral health status of Veddas. Oral health status was recorded by the principal investigator after obtaining consent, using World Health Organization criteria, at an initial screening point before sending the person for any necessary treatment. Total participants were 194: 78% were males>35 years. Mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 0.9 and 3% had pockets <3...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
J Wu, A Platero Luengo, M A Gil, K Suzuki, C Cuello, M Morales Valencia, I Parrilla, C A Martinez, A Nohalez, J Roca, E A Martinez, J C Izpisua Belmonte
More than eighteen years have passed since the first derivation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), but their clinical use is still met with several challenges, such as ethical concerns regarding the need of human embryos, tissue rejection after transplantation and tumour formation. The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) enables the access to patient-derived pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and opens the door for personalized medicine as tissues/organs can potentially be generated from the same genetic background as the patient recipients, thus avoiding immune rejections or complication of immunosuppression strategies...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Souleymane Sawadogo, Boniface Makumbi, Anne Purfield, Christophine Ndjavera, Gram Mutandi, Andrew Maher, Francina Kaindjee-Tjituka, Jonathan E Kaplan, Benjamin J Park, David W Lowrance
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis is common and associated with high mortality among HIV infected persons. The World Health Organization recommends that routine Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening in ART-naïve adults with a CD4+ count <100 cells/μL followed by pre-emptive antifungal therapy for CrAg-positive patients be considered where CrAg prevalence is ≥3%. The prevalence of CrAg among HIV adults in Namibia is unknown. We estimated CrAg prevalence among HIV-infected adults receiving care in Namibia for the purpose of informing routine screening strategies...
2016: PloS One
Sa Liu, Yulong Chen, Shiping Xie, Qianlei Xu, Jianshe Chen, Changhai Wang, Zhao Wang, Suna Ma, Xingwei Wu, Ning Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applied in the clinic as a complementary and alternative therapy has helped improve immunity and reduce side effects and symptomatic treatment in patients with HIV/AIDS. However, the mechanisms of TCM syndromes are not clear. Transcriptomics enables the study of such TCM syndromes. DESIGN: This study compared the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of healthy persons and patients with HIV/AIDS who had two common TCM syndromes, qi-yin deficiency and dampness-heat retention, to find the difference in HIV/AIDS with TCM syndromes...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Lisa Pompeii, Annette Byrd, George L Delclos, Sadie H Conway
Organizations are required to adhere to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134) if they have workers that wear a respirator on the job. They must also have an employee "suitably trained" to administer their program. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and its National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory have worked to champion the occupational health nurse in this role by collaborating with the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses to develop free, online respiratory protection training and resources (RPP Webkit)...
October 10, 2016: Workplace Health & Safety
Mario Cherubino, Paolo Battaglia, Mario Turri-Zenoni, Federico Tamborini, Marco Giudice, Davide Sallam, Martina Corno, Giacomo Pietrobon, Luigi Valdatta, Paolo Castelnuovo
The nose is a functionally complex organ implicated in breathing, olfaction, and phonation, with a critical role also in the aesthetic appearance of a person. This latter aspect should be carefully considered whenever a total or subtotal rhinectomy is performed for resection of locally advanced nasal cancer. To reconstruct large nasal defects, several techniques were described, including the use of cartilaginous grafts, bony grafts, local flaps, and free flaps. In cases of extensive full-thickness resections, free flaps probably represent the most adequate option...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Frederic Denis, Isabelle Millot, Nicolas Abello, Maud Carpentier, Audrey Peteuil, Agnès Soudry-Faure
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects 1 % of the world's population, including 600,000 people in France. Persons with schizophrenia (PWS) have excess mortality (their life expectancy is reduced by 20 %) and excess morbidity. In addition, such persons may have a large number of missing or decayed teeth. Dental caries and periodontal measurement indexes are often twice as high as the level found in the general population. Poor oral health can also affect quality of life and oral health is inseparable from general health...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Emily S Finn, R Todd Constable
Functional brain connectivity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a popular technique for investigating neural organization in both healthy subjects and patients with mental illness. Despite a rapidly growing body of literature, however, functional connectivity research has yet to deliver biomarkers that can aid psychiatric diagnosis or prognosis at the single-subject level. One impediment to developing such practical tools has been uncertainty regarding the ratio of intra- to interindividual variability in functional connectivity; in other words, how much variance is state- versus trait-related...
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Hans Lehrach
Every human is unique. We differ in our genomes, environment, behavior, disease history, and past and current medical treatment-a complex catalog of differences that often leads to variations in the way each of us responds to a particular therapy. We argue here that true personalization of drug therapies will rely on "virtual patient" models based on a detailed characterization of the individual patient by molecular, imaging, and sensor techniques. The models will be based, wherever possible, on the molecular mechanisms of disease processes and drug action but can also expand to hybrid models including statistics/machine learning/artificial intelligence-based elements trained on available data to address therapeutic areas or therapies for which insufficient information on mechanisms is available...
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Takele Kefyalew, Zelalem Kebede, Dawit Getachew, David Mukanga, Tessema Awano, Agonafer Tekalegne, Esey Batisso, Wasihun Edossa, Emebet Mekonnen, James Tibenderana, Ebenezer Sheshi Baba, Constance Shumba, Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Prudence Hamade
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
Rocío Rojí, Antonio Noguera-Tejedor, Fernando Pikabea-Díaz, José Miguel Carrasco, Carlos Centeno
CONTEXT: A mandatory course in palliative care (PC) is organized for all final-year medical students at the University of Navarre. It consists of 24 lectures, 4 workshops, and 1 scheduled five hour clinical PC service experience at two different sites. In the 48 hours after the visit and related to the clinical experience, each student has to complete a 500-word reflective writing (RW) piece. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how a brief PC clinical experience helps equip the medical student...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Tomonori Sugiura, Hiroyuki Takase, Shunsuke Murai, Sumiyo Yamashiya, Nobuyuki Ohte, Yasuaki Dohi
OBJECTIVE: The heart is one of the target organs of hypertension. Cardiac muscle responds to an increase in afterload by developing hypertrophy. In the process of developing hypertension, the heart is exposed to a transiently, but frequent, increase in afterload. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that left ventricular hypertrophy assessed by electrocardiography (ECG) predicts future development of hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: Normotensive subjects who visited our hospital for a physical check-up (n = 5770; age, 52...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jing Zhang, Lei Sun, Yu Liu, Hongyi Wang, Ningling Sun, Jia Yu, Yao He, Sijin Yan, Puhong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a mobile device based electronical data capture (mEDC) system applied in one randomized clinical trial (RCT). DESIGN AND METHOD: The mEDC, an android smartphone-based application, was developed to support real-time data capture, project management and quality control in a multicenter randomized double-blinded parallel controlled pharmaceutical trial. Four user interfaces are shown in Figure 1. The RCT is to evaluate the efficacy of telmisartan (40mg) and hydrochlorothiazide (25mg) monotherapy in high sodium intake patients with mild to moderate hypertension in 14 hospitals, including one baseline survey and three follow-ups...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Francesco Cappuccio
The evidence. Salt (i.e. sodium chloride) is causally related to blood pressure (BP). The higher the salt intake, the higher the BP, an effect seen since birth. A small and sustained reduction in salt intake causes a fall in BP. The evidence from controlled studies, small and large, short and long, all agree on the following: (1) salt intake is one of the major determinants of BP in populations and individuals; (2) a reduction in salt intake causes a dose-dependent reduction in BP - the lower the salt the lower the BP; (3) the effect is seen in both sexes, in people of all ages and ethnic groups, and with all starting BPs...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hongye Zhang, Qing Wang, Yu Guo, Dongfeng Li, Buqiang Zhang, Yuehong Dong, Xiuxian Huang, Yongjuan Liu, JInguo Zhao, Weiwei Li, Hans R Brunner, Lisheng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the long-term (3 years) consumption of enriched potassium salt (KCL/NaCL = 1:1 by weight) on all causes mortality and target organ damage in Chinese living in nursing houses. DESIGN AND METHOD: The study was designed as a single blind prospective intervention. Participants were living in 22 nursing houses in northern China. The nursing houses were randomized into 2 groups: normal salt (control group) and enriched potassium salt (intervention group)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Karen Duis, Anja Coors
Due to the widespread use and durability of synthetic polymers, plastic debris occurs in the environment worldwide. In the present work, information on sources and fate of microplastic particles in the aquatic and terrestrial environment, and on their uptake and effects, mainly in aquatic organisms, is reviewed. Microplastics in the environment originate from a variety of sources. Quantitative information on the relevance of these sources is generally lacking, but first estimates indicate that abrasion and fragmentation of larger plastic items and materials containing synthetic polymers are likely to be most relevant...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
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