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Alexandra Kodadová, Zuzana Vitková, Jarmila Oremusová, Petra Herdová, Anton Ťažký, Peter Mikuš
This work was aimed at a progressive formulation of drugs into chitosan hydrogels. It was taken into consideration that a therapeutic effect of the drugs could be enhanced by a combination of natural compounds with chemical (synthetic) drugs. In this work, sage essential oil (SEO) bicyclic monoterpenes with antiflogistic, antiseptic, and antimycotic properties were combined with terbinafine (TB) having a strong antimycotic activity. Detail optimization of the hydrogel-drugs composition (SEO monoterpenes, TB, chitosan, and polysorbate 80 concentrations), based on permeation experiment and UV absorption/GC-MS analysis of permeated species (eucalyptol, camphor, borneol, thujone, TB) in dialysates, was made...
October 22, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Cristiane I Cerceau, Luiz C A Barbosa, Elson S Alvarenga, Antonio G Ferreira, Sérgio S Thomasi
α-Bisabolol is a natural terpene produced by Eremanthus erythropappus and is widely used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals due to its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antimycotic properties. Due to these applications, a control of composition and authenticity of commercial oils rich in this terpene is required, resulting in a demand for new methodologies for quality control. In this work a rapid and efficient method for quantification of α-bisabolol in the essential oil of E. erythropappus (candeia) using (1)H NMR was developed, validated and compared to gas chromatography (GC) method...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Huy X Ngo, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova, Keith D Green
Fungal infections directly affect millions of people each year. In addition to the invasive fungal infections of humans, the plants and animals that comprise our primary food source are also susceptible to diseases caused by these eukaryotic microbes. The need for antifungals, not only for our medical needs, but also for use in agriculture and livestock causes a high demand for novel antimycotics. Herein, we provide an overview of the most commonly used antifungals in medicine and agriculture. We also present a summary of the recent progress (from 2010-2016) in the discovery/development of new agents against fungal strains of medical/agricultural relevance, as well as information related to their biological activity, their mode(s) of action, and their mechanism(s) of resistance...
July 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Petra Füredi, Zsófia Edit Pápay, Kristóf Kovács, Borbála Dalmadi Kiss, Krisztina Ludányi, István Antal, Imre Klebovich
The number of topical fungal infections is growing, mostly owing to immunosuppressive therapy. Several topical fungal infections, such as eye mycoses, can be treated by local administration of antimycotic drugs. One major group of the antifungal agents is triazole, such as voriconazole (VCZ), which is used as the first line treatment of aspergillosis. A disadvantage of VCZ is its low water solubility making the drug difficult to administer in a liquid preparation. The lipid-based nanoparticles (LNP) have attracted increasing attention due to their advantageous properties...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
J Anand, N Rai
The present investigation aims at evaluating synergistic herbal based composition of purified catechins with fluconazole, amphotericin B and copper sulphate against Candida albicans (MTCC 3017) and Candida glabrata (MTCC 3019). The catechins were isolated from green tea leaves of Assam, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand regions of India. The synergistic activity of combinations against Candida species was assessed following microdilution checkerboard technique and time kill assay. The inhibitory action of most significant combination on treated Candida cells was assessed by scanning electron microscopy...
October 12, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Armando Antillón, Alexander H de Vries, Marcel Espinosa-Caballero, José Marcos Falcón-González, David Flores Romero, Javier González-Damián, Fabiola Eloísa Jiménez-Montejo, Angel León-Buitimea, Manuel López-Ortiz, Ricardo Magaña, Siewert J Marrink, Rosmarbel Morales-Nava, Xavier Periole, Jorge Reyes-Esparza, Josué Rodríguez Lozada, Tania Minerva Santiago-Angelino, María Cristina Vargas González, Ignacio Regla, Mauricio Carrillo-Tripp, Mario Fernández-Zertuche, Lourdes Rodríguez-Fragoso, Iván Ortega-Blake
Amphotericin B is the most potent antimycotic known to date. However due to its large collateral toxicity, its use, although long standing, had been limited. Many attempts have been made to produce derivatives with reduced collateral damage. The molecular mechanism of polyene has also been closely studied for this purpose and understanding it would contribute to the development of safe derivatives. Our study examined polyene action, including chemical synthesis, electrophysiology, pharmacology, toxicology and molecular dynamics...
2016: PloS One
Nessma A El-Zawawy, Sameh S Ali
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of pyocyanin pigment as a novel compound active against tyrosinase with its depigmentation efficiency for combating Trichophyton rubrum which could be a major causative agent of tinea corporis. METHODS: Fifty swabs of fungal tinea corporis infections were collected and identified. Five MDRPA isolates were tested for their levels of pyocyanin production. The purified extracted pyocyanin was characterized by UV spectrum and FT-IR analysis...
September 23, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Malgorzata Kucinska, Hanna Piotrowska-Kempisty, Natalia Lisiak, Mariusz Kaczmarek, Hanna Dams-Kozlowska, Walter H Granig, Martina Höferl, Walter Jäger, Martin Zehl, Marek Murias, Thomas Erker
Previously, it has been reported that molecules built on the benzanilide and thiobenzanilide scaffold are the promising groups of compounds with several biological activities including antifungal, antimycotic, antibacterial, spasmolytic, and anticancer ones. In this study the mechanism of action of one selected thiobenzanilide derivative N,N'-(1,2-phenylene)bis3,4,5-trifluorobenzothioamide (63T) with strongest cytotoxic activity has been investigated for the first time in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and normal lung derived fibroblast (CCD39Lu) in a cell culture model...
December 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
H Hof
BACKGROUND: Yeasts are found in urine specimens relatively often, especially in the elderly and patients under treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics, i. e. especially in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In some cases, the number of pathogens is very high, i. e. >10(5)/ml. The clinical relevance of detecting Candida in urine is difficult to assess. In the German S3 guidelines it is apodictically stated that an ascending infection of the urinary tract by yeasts does not occur but this may undoubtedly happen in certain instances in patients at risk, for example in the elderly, in diabetic persons and in the case of foreign bodies in the urinary tract...
September 2, 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Babita Kumari, Karthikeyan Kesavan
Clotrimazole (CTZ) is a broad spectrum antimycotic agent known to be very effective locally for the treatment of fungal skin infections. The aim of this study was to study the effect of chitosan-coated microemulsion (CME) for topical delivery of CTZ and also evaluate its in-vitro antifungal efficacy, Ex-vivo permeation and retention ability on the skin surface. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were developed using clove oil as oil phase, Tween 80 and propylene glycol as surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively and distilled water as aqueous phase...
August 30, 2016: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
José Schneider, Noemí Eiró, Román Pérez-Fernández, Anxo Martínez-Ordóñez, Francisco Vizoso
Our research team has recently isolated and characterized a new stromal stem cell line (hUCESCs) obtained from cytological smears, as routinely performed for cervical cancer screening. We have, furthermore, described that both hUCESCs directly, as well as the secretome contained in the conditioned medium used for growing them (hUCESCs-CM) have potent antitumoral, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, antimycotic and re-epitheliasation-enhancing properties. The scientific explanation our team proposes for these pleiotropic effects are directly related to the site of origin of hUCESCs, the human cervical transition zone, which has unique features that biologically justify the different actions of hUCESCs and hUCESCs-CM...
September 2016: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
Arjuna N B Ellepola, L P Samaranayake, Z U Khan
OBJECTIVE: Candida albicans is the primary causative agent of oral candidosis, and one of its key virulent attributes is considered to be its ability to produce extracellular phospholipases that facilitate cellular invasion. Oral candidosis can be treated with polyenes, and azoles, and the more recently introduced echinocandins. However, once administered, the intraoral concentration of these drugs tend to be sub-therapeutic and rather transient due to factors such as the diluent effect of saliva and cleansing effect of the oral musculature...
October 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
S Karsai, M Jäger, A Oesterhelt, C Weiss, S W Schneider, M Jünger, C Raulin
BACKGROUND: The role of the short-pulsed 1064-nm-Nd:YAG laser in treating onychomycosis has been the subject of controversial discussion ever since it received FDA approval in 2010. Research to date provides no valid conclusions supporting its use from an evidence-based perspective. OBJECTIVE: In this prospective randomized controlled pilot study, we analysed the effect of the short-pulsed 1064-nm-Nd:YAG laser on the rate of mycological remission and clinical improvement after excluding relevant confounders with regard to our previous studies...
August 13, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Mari Fihlman, Tuija Hemmilä, Nora M Hagelberg, Kristiina Kuusniemi, Janne T Backman, Jouko Laitila, Kari Laine, Pertti J Neuvonen, Klaus T Olkkola, Teijo I Saari
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine possible effects of voriconazole and posaconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects of sublingual buprenorphine. METHODS: We used a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study design with 12 healthy male volunteers. Subjects were given a dose of 0.4 mg (0.6 mg during placebo phase) sublingual buprenorphine after a 5-day oral pretreatment with either (i) placebo, (ii) voriconazole 400 mg twice daily on the first day and 200 mg twice daily thereafter or (iii) posaconazole 400 mg twice daily...
November 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Jacqueline Saunders, Kayla Maki, Renee Koski, S Eric Nybo
Fungal diseases of the nail bed (onychomycosis) and epidermis are recurrent illnesses in the elderly and immunocompromised patients, which have few efficacious treatment options. Current treatment options for onychomycosis are limited to topical agents, laser treatment, and oral antifungals. Previous generations of topical agents were not efficacious, owing to poor penetration of the nail bed. Oral antifungal drugs, such as itraconazole, terbinafine, and fluconazole, not only give better response rates but also inhibit a host of CYP450 enzymes...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Ulrich Siler, Susana Romao, Emilio Tejera, Oleksandr Pastukhov, Elena Kuzmenko, Rocio G Valencia, Virginia Meda Spaccamela, Bernd H Belohradsky, Oliver Speer, Markus Schmugge, Elisabeth Kohne, Manfred Hoenig, Joachim Freihorst, Ansgar S Schulz, Janine Reichenbach
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzymatic disorder of red blood cells in human subjects, causing hemolytic anemia linked to impaired nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) production and imbalanced redox homeostasis in erythrocytes. Because G6PD is expressed by a variety of hematologic and nonhematologic cells, a broader clinical phenotype could be postulated in G6PD-deficient patients. We describe 3 brothers with severe G6PD deficiency and susceptibility to bacterial infection...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
P Mayser
Based on the technical information that oral terbinafine must be used with caution in patients with pre-existing psoriasis or lupus erythematosus, the literature was summarized. Terbinafine belongs to the drugs able to induce subcutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE)-with a relatively high risk. The clinical picture of terbinafine-induced SCLE may be highly variable and can also include erythema exsudativum multiforme-like or bullous lesions. Thus, differentiation of terbinafine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis may be difficult...
September 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
P Mayser
Treating eczema with fungal and/or bacterial superinfections or superficial mycoses are a common problem in daily practice. A fungal superinfection as a consequence of a diminished skin barrier might complicate the course of eczema. In addition, in an inflammatory superficial mycotic infection a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction may result in healing of the lesion, but might also be responsible for irreversible damage of epidermal structures. An example is permanent hair loss by scarring alopecia in the context of inflammatory tinea capitis...
September 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Martin Kaltdorf, Mugdha Srivastava, Shishir K Gupta, Chunguang Liang, Jasmin Binder, Anna-Maria Dietl, Zohar Meir, Hubertus Haas, Nir Osherov, Sven Krappmann, Thomas Dandekar
New antimycotic drugs are challenging to find, as potential target proteins may have close human orthologs. We here focus on identifying metabolic targets that are critical for fungal growth and have minimal similarity to targets among human proteins. We compare and combine here: (I) direct metabolic network modeling using elementary mode analysis and flux estimates approximations using expression data, (II) targeting metabolic genes by transcriptome analysis of condition-specific highly expressed enzymes, and (III) analysis of enzyme structure, enzyme interconnectedness ("hubs"), and identification of pathogen-specific enzymes using orthology relations...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Maddalena Chermetz, Margherita Gobbo, Katia Rupel, Giulia Ottaviani, Giancarlo Tirelli, Rossana Bussani, Roberto Luzzati, Roberto Di Lenarda, Matteo Biasotto
Mucormycosis and aspergillosis are two opportunistic fungal infections, which can evolve into life-threatening complications. They generally affect patients with relevant risk factors such as immunocompromisation or long-term use of antibiotics or corticosteroids. Treatment usually combines medical and surgical approaches, often including extended necrosectomies, although the prognosis of generalized fungal infections is very poor. In this paper, we present the case of a 17-year-old girl affected by combined aspergillosis and mucormycosis, following treatment of a recurrent glioma...
October 2016: Mycopathologia
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