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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333108/the-biology-of-pichia-membranifaciens-killer-toxins
#1
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Javier Ruiz, Alejandro Alonso, Domingo Marquina, Antonio Santos
The killer phenomenon is defined as the ability of some yeast to secrete toxins that are lethal to other sensitive yeasts and filamentous fungi. Since the discovery of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of secreting killer toxins, much information has been gained regarding killer toxins and this fact has substantially contributed knowledge on fundamental aspects of cell biology and yeast genetics. The killer phenomenon has been studied in Pichia membranifaciens for several years, during which two toxins have been described...
March 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329820/hepatocellular-toxicity-of-imidazole-and-triazole-antimycotic-agents
#2
Patrizia Haegler, Lorenz Joerin, Stephan Krähenbühl, Jamal Bouitbir
Hepatotoxicity has been described for all antimycotic azoles currently marketed. A possible mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction has been postulated for ketoconazole, but not for the other azoles. The aim of the current investigations was to study the toxicity of different azoles in human cell models and to find out mechanisms of their toxicity. In HepG2 cells, posaconazole and ketoconazole were cytotoxic starting at 20 and 50 µM and decreased the cellular ATP content starting at 5 and 10 µM, respectively...
January 27, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326846/stonebrood-and-chalkbrood-in-apis-mellifera-causing-fungi-in-vitro-sensitivity-to-some-essential-oils
#3
Simona Nardoni, Carlo D'Ascenzi, Guido Rocchigiani, Roberto Amerigo Papini, Luisa Pistelli, Giovanni Formato, Basma Najar, Francesca Mancianti
Aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antimycotic activity of 17 chemically defined essential oils (EOs) both alone and as a mixture, against agents responsible for stonebrood caused by Aspergillus flavus, and chalkbrood caused by Ascosphaera apis in European honeybees. Cinnamomum zeylanicum yielded the lowest MIC value against A. flavus, but was not effective against A. apis, while Litsea cubeba and Pelargonium graveolens appeared to be effective against all checked fungi. Aspergillus niger showed the lower sensitivity...
March 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282366/comparing-azole-plasma-trough-levels-in-lung-transplant-recipients-percentage-of-therapeutic-levels-and-intrapatient-variability
#4
Daniela Stelzer, Alexandra Weber, Franziska Ihle, Sandhya Matthes, Felix Ceelen, Gregor Zimmermann, Nikolaus Kneidinger, Rene Schramm, Hauke Winter, Michael Zoller, Michael Vogeser, Juergen Behr, Claus Neurohr
BACKGROUND: This study compared therapeutic azole plasma trough levels (APL) of the azole antimycotics itraconazole (ITR), voriconazole (VOR), and posaconazole (POS) in lung transplant recipients and analyzed the influencing factors. In addition, intrapatient variability for each azole was determined. METHODS: From July 2012 to July 2015, 806 APL of ITR, VOR, posaconazole liquid (POS-Liq), and posaconazole tablets (POS-Tab) were measured in 173 patients of the Munich Lung Transplantation Program...
April 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281228/development-of-a-risk-score-for-qtc-prolongation-the-risq-path-study
#5
Eline Vandael, Bert Vandenberk, Joris Vandenberghe, Isabel Spriet, Rik Willems, Veerle Foulon
Background More than 170 drugs are linked with QTc-prolongation, which in extreme cases can lead to Torsade de Pointes. Monitoring of this potential side effect is an important challenge in clinical practice. Objective To investigate the risk of QTc-prolongation in hospital patients who started a QTc-prolonging drug, and to develop a risk score to identify patients at high/low risk for QTc-prolongation. Setting University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium. Method All patients starting with haloperidol or a QTc-prolonging antibiotic/antimycotic were eligible for this observational study...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281037/pathogenic-dermatophytes-survive-in-nail-lesions-during-oral-terbinafine-treatment-for-tinea-unguium
#6
Tomoyuki Iwanaga, Tsuyoshi Ushigami, Kazushi Anzawa, Takashi Mochizuki
Tinea unguium caused by dermatophyte species are usually treated with oral antimycotic, terbinafine (TBF). To understand the mechanisms of improvement and recalcitrance of tinea unguium by oral TBF treatment, a method of quantifying dermatophyte viability in the nail was developed, and the viability of dermatophytes was analyzed in toenail lesions of 14 patients with KOH-positive tinea unguium treated with oral TBF 125 mg/day for up to 16 weeks. Mycological tests, including KOH examination and fungal culture, and targeted quantitative real-time PCR for internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, including rRNA, were demonstrated at the initial visit and after 8 and 16 weeks of treatment...
March 9, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267083/toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-like-reaction-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-children
#7
Maura Faraci, Stefano Giardino, Edoardo Lanino, Giuseppe Morreale, Emilia Ghibaudo, Monica Francesia Berta, Marco Risso, Elio Castagnola, Mimmo Ripaldi, Andrea Moscatelli, Giovanni Ghigliotti
This study report clinical course, etiology, management, and long-term outcome of children who developed toxic epidermal necrolysis-like reaction (TEN-LR) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We retrospectively collected children with TEN-LR occurring after allo-HSCT performed in 2 pediatric bone marrow units between 2005 and 2014. We identified 6 cases of TEN-LR of 322 patients (1.8%). Possible triggers of TEN included antibiotics, antiepileptics, antimycotics, and Mycoplasma infection...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263103/study-on-the-glutathione-metabolism-of-the-filamentous-fungus-aspergillus-nidulans
#8
Fruzsina Bakti, Anita Király, Erzsébet Orosz, Márton Miskei, Tamás Emri, Éva Leiter, István Pócsi
Yeast protein sequence-based homology search for glutathione (GSH) metabolic enzymes and GSH transporters demonstrated that Aspergillus nidulans has a robust GSH uptake and metabolic system with several paralogous genes. In wet laboratory experiments, two key genes of GSH metabolism, gcsA, and glrA, encoding γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteine synthetase and glutathione reductase, respectively, were deleted. The gene gcsA was essential, and the ΔgcsA mutant required GSH supplementation at considerably higher concentration than the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gsh1 mutant (8-10 mmol l(-1) vs...
March 6, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229205/-spectrum-of-pathogens-in-postoperative-complications-of-visceral-surgery-the-problem-of-multidrug-resistance
#9
A Kramer, J Pochhammer, P Walger, U Seifert, M Ruhnke, J C Harnoss
In general surgery the etiology of surgical site infections has not significantly changed over the last 30 years. Gram-positive bacteria, e.g. coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. as well as Gram-negative bacteria, e.g. Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are the most common findings. Although in general surgery 10% of the S. aureus causing postoperative wound infections were methicillin resistant (MRSA), no cases of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative (MRGN) bacteria were reported...
February 22, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148854/preparation-of-slice-cultures-from-rodent-hippocampus
#10
Christine E Gee, Iris Ohmert, J Simon Wiegert, Thomas G Oertner
This protocol describes the preparation of hippocampal slice cultures from rat or mouse pups using sterile conditions that do not require the use of antibiotics or antimycotics. Combining very good optical and electrophysiological accessibility with a lifetime approaching that of the intact animal, many fundamental questions about synaptic plasticity and long-term dynamics of network connectivity can be addressed with this preparation.
February 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116455/-dermatophyte-current-situation
#11
REVIEW
P Mayser
Currently, a mycid is defined as hyperergic reaction that develops from a remote localized infection and in which no fungus is detectable. Criteria for a mycid caused by a dermatophyte (dermatophytid) are (1) proven dermatophytosis elsewhere, (2) no evidence for fungal elements in the lesions of the -id reaction, (3) initially often worsening of the lesions under therapy with highly potent systemic antimycotics, and (4) clearing after the dermatophytosis has been treated sufficiently. The most common dermatophytid is a symmetrical dyshidrotic mycid of the hands in connection with an often highly inflammatory mycotic infection of the feet especially by Trichophyton mentagrophytes...
January 23, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086796/prophylaxis-of-post-erc-infectious-complications-in-patients-with-biliary-obstruction-by-adding-antimicrobial-agents-into-erc-contrast-media-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#12
Hella Wobser, Agnetha Gunesch, Frank Klebl
BACKGROUND: Patients with biliary obstruction are at high risk to develop septic complications after endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). We evaluated the benefits of local application of antimicrobial agents into ERC contrast media in preventing post-ERC infectious complications in a high-risk study population. METHODS: Patients undergoing ERC at our tertiary referral center were retrospectively included. Addition of vancomycin, gentamicin and fluconazol into ERC contrast media was evaluated in a case-control design...
January 13, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053148/inhibition-of-dermatophytes-by-photodynamic-treatment-with-curcumin
#13
Jochen Brasch, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Vera Beck-Jendroschek, Martin Huber
Treatment of dermatophytoses with currently available antimycotic agents is often tedious and sometimes unsatisfactory. A search for better therapeutic methods-ideally with an immediate fungicidal effect-has, among others, lead to photodynamic procedures as a promising alternative, and recently curcumin was found to be a suitable agent for this application. In this study the effect of photodynamic treatment with curcumin on dermatophytes was tested in vitro Wells of microtiter plates were filled with conidia of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton terrestre, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum in buffer...
January 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045862/comparing-azole-plasma-trough-levels-in-lung-transplant-recipients-percentage-of-therapeutic-levels-and-intra-patient-variability
#14
Daniela Stelzer, Alexandra Weber, Franziska Ihle, Sandhya Matthes, Felix Ceelen, Gregor Zimmermann, Nikolaus Kneidinger, Rene Schramm, Hauke Winter, Michael Zoller, Michael Vogeser, Juergen Behr, Claus Neurohr
BACKGROUND: This study compared therapeutic azole plasma trough levels (APL) of the azole antimycotics itraconazole (ITR), voriconazole (VOR), and posaconazole (POS) in lung transplant recipients and analyzed the influencing factors. In addition, intra-patient variability for each azole was determined. METHODS: From July 2012 to July 2015, 806 APL of ITR, VOR, POS liquid (POS-Liq), and POS tablets (POS-Tab) were measured in 173 patients of the Munich Lung Transplantation (LTx) Program...
December 29, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040409/antifungal-effects-of-phytocompounds-on-candida-species-alone-and-in-combination-with-fluconazole
#15
REVIEW
Mengjiao Lu, Tao Li, Jianjian Wan, Xiuyun Li, Lei Yuan, Shujuan Sun
Invasive fungal infections caused by Candida spp. remain the most predominant nosocomial fungal infections. Owing to the increased use of antifungal agents, resistance of Candida spp. to antimycotics has emerged frequently, especially to fluconazole (FLC). To cope with this issue, new efforts have been dedicated to discovering novel antimycotics or new agents that can enhance the susceptibility of Candida spp. to existing antimycotics. The secondary metabolites of plants represent a large library of compounds that are important sources for new drugs or compounds suitable for further modification...
February 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915307/diversity-and-antifungal-drug-susceptibility-of-cryptococcus-isolates-in-thailand
#16
Navaporn Worasilchai, Marut Tangwattanachuleeporn, Kornvalee Meesilpavikkai, Claudia Folba, Mourine Kangogo, Uwe Groß, Michael Weig, Oliver Bader, Ariya Chindamporn
Yeasts of the Cryptococcus species complex are the causative agent of cryptococcosis, especially in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals. Cerebral or disseminated cryptococcosis has a very high mortality rate worldwide, including in Thailand. Additionally, an increasing rate of antifungal drug resistant cryptococcal isolates has been reported in several neighboring countries, complicating therapeutic approaches. To understand the situation of this infection in Thailand, we retrospectively investigated the molecular epidemiology and antifungal drug resistance in a collection of 74 clinical, 52 environmental and two veterinary isolates using the URA5-RFLP for typing and the EUCAST guideline for susceptibility testing...
December 3, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901310/topical-antimycotics-for-oral-candidiasis-in-warfarin-users
#17
Maja Hellfritzsch, Anton Pottegård, Andreas James Thestrup Pedersen, Alaa Burghle, Fatima Mouaanaki, Jesper Hallas, Erik Lerkevang Grove, Per Damkier
Treatment for oral candidiasis in warfarin users may be complicated by drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between warfarin and topically applied antimycotics. However, current knowledge of these putative DDIs is merely based on case series. We therefore performed a cohort cross-over study with the objective to evaluate the potential DDIs between warfarin and miconazole oral gel or nystatin oral solution. The cohort consisted of individuals using warfarin in the period of 1998-2012 (n ≈ 7400). We collected data on cohort members' measurements of the international normalized ratio (INR) from a clinical database, and obtained information on their use of topically applied miconazole and nystatin from a regional prescription register...
April 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871726/identification-and-determination-of-chlorinated-azoles-in-sludge-using-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-and-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry-platforms
#18
G Castro, M Roca, I Rodríguez, M Ramil, R Cela
Four antimycotic drugs (tioconazole, TCZ; sertaconazole, STZ; fenticonazole, FTZ and itraconazole, ITZ) and the fungicide imazalil (IMZ) are determined in sludge from sewage treatment plants (STPs) following a bottom-up analytical strategy. First, sludge extracts, obtained under different sample preparation conditions, were analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC) quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS). A non-target search strategy, combined with the use of the chlorine mass filter, permitted to detect several chlorinated pollutants including the above referred azoles, which either had not been previously reported (TCZ, STZ, FTZ and ITZ), or scarcely investigated (IMZ), in this environmental compartment...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870529/infections-and-exposure-to-anti-infective-agents-and-the-risk-of-severe-mental-disorders-a-nationwide-study
#19
O Köhler, L Petersen, O Mors, P B Mortensen, R H Yolken, C Gasse, M E Benros
OBJECTIVE: Severe infections are associated with increased risks of mental disorders; however, this is the first large-scale study investigating whether infections treated with anti-infective agents in the primary care setting increase the risks of schizophrenia and affective disorders. METHOD: We identified all individuals born in Denmark 1985-2002 (N = 1 015 447) and studied the association between infections treated with anti-infective agents and the subsequent risk of schizophrenia and affective disorders during 1995-2013...
February 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825527/sensing-metabolites-for-the-monitoring-of-tissue-engineered-construct-cellularity-in-perfusion-bioreactors
#20
Aaron D Simmons, Cortes Williams, Antoine Degoix, Vassilios I Sikavitsas
As the field of tissue engineering progresses ever-further toward realizing clinical implementation of tissue-engineered constructs for wound regeneration, perhaps the most significant hurdle remains the establishment of non-destructive means for real-time in vitro assessment. In order to address this barrier, the study presented herein established the viability of the development of correlations between metabolic rates (specifically oxygen uptake, glucose consumption, and lactate production) and the cellularity of tissue-engineered cultures comprised of rat mesenchymal stem cells dynamically seeded on 85% porous nonwoven spunbonded poly(l-lactic acid) fiber mesh scaffolds...
April 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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